Tel1ATM and Rad3ATR kinases promote Ccq1-Est1 interaction to maintain telomeres in fission yeast.
ABSTRACT: The evolutionarily conserved shelterin complex has been shown to play both positive and negative roles in telomerase regulation in mammals and fission yeast. Although shelterin prevents the checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR from fully activating DNA damage responses at telomeres in mammalian cells, those kinases also promote telomere maintenance. In fission yeast, cells lacking both Tel1 (ATM ortholog) and Rad3 (ATR ortholog) fail to recruit telomerase to telomeres and survive by circularizing chromosomes. However, the critical telomere substrate(s) of Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) was unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 on Thr93, redundantly mediated by Tel1(ATM) and/or Rad3(ATR), is essential for telomerase association with telomeres. In addition, we show that the telomerase subunit Est1 interacts directly with the phosphorylated Thr93 of Ccq1 to ensure telomere maintenance. The shelterin subunits Taz1, Rap1 and Poz1 (previously established inhibitors of telomerase) were also found to negatively regulate Ccq1 phosphorylation. These findings establish Tel1(ATM)/Rad3(ATR)-dependent Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation as a critical regulator of telomere maintenance in fission yeast.
Project description:Studies in fission yeast have previously identified evolutionarily conserved shelterin and Stn1-Ten1 complexes, and established Rad3(ATR)/Tel1(ATM)-dependent phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 at Thr93 as the critical post-translational modification for telomerase recruitment to telomeres. Furthermore, shelterin subunits Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 have been identified as negative regulators of Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment. However, it remained unclear how telomere maintenance is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle. Thus, we investigated how loss of Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 affects cell cycle regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomere association of telomerase (Trt1(TERT)), DNA polymerases, Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) checkpoint kinase complex, Tel1(ATM) kinase, shelterin subunits (Tpz1, Ccq1 and Poz1) and Stn1. We further investigated how telomere shortening, caused by trt1? or catalytically dead Trt1-D743A, affects cell cycle-regulated telomere association of telomerase and DNA polymerases. These analyses established that fission yeast shelterin maintains telomere length homeostasis by coordinating the differential arrival of leading (Pol?) and lagging (Pol?) strand DNA polymerases at telomeres to modulate Rad3(ATR) association, Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.
Project description:The checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR are redundantly required for maintenance of stable telomeres in diverse organisms, including budding and fission yeasts, Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and mammals. However, the molecular basis for telomere instability in cells lacking ATM and ATR has not yet been elucidated fully in organisms that utilize both the telomere protection complex shelterin and telomerase to maintain telomeres, such as fission yeast and humans. Here, we demonstrate by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays that simultaneous loss of Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) kinases leads to a defect in recruitment of telomerase to telomeres, reduced binding of the shelterin complex subunits Ccq1 and Tpz1, and increased binding of RPA and homologous recombination repair factors to telomeres. Moreover, we show that interaction between Tpz1-Ccq1 and telomerase, thought to be important for telomerase recruitment to telomeres, is disrupted in tel1Delta rad3Delta cells. Thus, Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) are redundantly required for both protection of telomeres against recombination and promotion of telomerase recruitment. Based on our current findings, we propose the existence of a regulatory loop between Tel1(ATM)/Rad3(ATR) kinases and Tpz1-Ccq1 to ensure proper protection and maintenance of telomeres in fission yeast.
Project description:Evolutionarily conserved shelterin complex is essential for telomere maintenance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Elimination of the fission yeast shelterin subunit Ccq1 causes progressive loss of telomeres due to the inability to recruit telomerase, activates the DNA damage checkpoint, and loses heterochromatin at telomere/subtelomere regions due to reduced recruitment of the heterochromatin regulator complex Snf2/histone deacetylase-containing repressor complex (SHREC). The shelterin subunit Tpz1(TPP1) directly interacts with Ccq1 through conserved C-terminal residues in Tpz1(TPP1), and tpz1 mutants that fail to interact with Ccq1 show telomere shortening, checkpoint activation, and loss of heterochromatin. While we have previously concluded that Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction contributes to Ccq1 accumulation and telomerase recruitment based on analysis of tpz1 mutants that fail to interact with Ccq1, another study reported that loss of Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction does not affect accumulation of Ccq1 or telomerase. Furthermore, it remained unclear whether loss of Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction affects SHREC accumulation at telomeres. To resolve these issues, we identified and characterized a series of ccq1 mutations that disrupt Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction. Characterization of these ccq1 mutants established that Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction contributes to optimal binding of the Ccq1-SHREC complex, and is critical for Rad3(ATR)/Tel1(ATM)-dependent Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.
Project description:In both fission yeast and humans, the shelterin complex plays central roles in regulation of telomerase recruitment, protection of telomeres against DNA damage response factors, and formation of heterochromatin at telomeres. While shelterin is essential for limiting activation of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATR and ATM at telomeres, these kinases are required for stable maintenance of telomeres. In fission yeast, Rad3ATR and Tel1ATM kinases are redundantly required for telomerase recruitment, since Rad3ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 at Thr93 promotes interaction between Ccq1 and the telomerase subunit Est1. However, it remained unclear how protein-protein interactions within the shelterin complex (consisting of Taz1, Rap1, Poz1, Tpz1, Pot1 and Ccq1) contribute to the regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment. In this study, we identify domains and amino acid residues that are critical for mediating Tpz1-Ccq1 and Tpz1-Poz1 interaction within the fission yeast shelterin complex. Using separation of function Tpz1 mutants that maintain Tpz1-Pot1 interaction but specifically disrupt either Tpz1-Ccq1 or Tpz1-Poz1 interaction, we then establish that Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction promotes Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation, telomerase recruitment, checkpoint inhibition and telomeric heterochromatin formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Tpz1-Poz1 interaction promotes telomere association of Poz1, and loss of Poz1 from telomeres leads to increases in Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment, and telomeric heterochromatin formation defect. In addition, our studies establish that Tpz1-Poz1 and Tpz1-Ccq1 interactions redundantly fulfill the essential telomere protection function of the shelterin complex, since simultaneous loss of both interactions caused immediate loss of cell viability for the majority of cells and generation of survivors with circular chromosomes. Based on these findings, we suggest that the negative regulatory function of Tpz1-Poz1 interaction works upstream of Rad3ATR kinase, while Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction works downstream of Rad3ATR kinase to facilitate Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.
Project description:Tightly controlled recruitment of telomerase, a low-abundance enzyme, to telomeres is essential for regulated telomere synthesis. Recent studies in human cells revealed that a patch of amino acids in the shelterin component TPP1, called the TEL-patch, is essential for recruiting telomerase to telomeres. However, how TEL-patch-telomerase interaction integrates into the overall orchestration of telomerase regulation at telomeres is unclear. In fission yeast, Tel1(ATM)/Rad3(ATR)-mediated phosphorylation of shelterin component Ccq1 during late S phase is involved in telomerase recruitment through promoting the binding of Ccq1 to a telomerase accessory protein Est1. Here, we identify the TEL-patch in Tpz1(TPP1), mutations of which lead to decreased telomeric association of telomerase, similar to the phosphorylation-defective Ccq1. Furthermore, we find that telomerase action at telomeres requires formation and resolution of an intermediate state, in which the cell cycle-dependent Ccq1-Est1 interaction is coupled to the TEL-patch-Trt1 interaction, to achieve temporally regulated telomerase elongation of telomeres.
Project description:ATM and ATR are two redundant checkpoint kinases essential for the stable maintenance of telomeres in eukaryotes. Previous studies have established that MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1) and ATRIP (ATR Interacting Protein) interact with ATM and ATR, respectively, and recruit their partner kinases to sites of DNA damage. Here, we investigated how Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) recruitment to telomeres is regulated in fission yeast. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays unexpectedly revealed that the MRN complex could also contribute to the recruitment of Tel1(ATM) to telomeres independently of the previously established Nbs1 C-terminal Tel1(ATM) interaction domain. Recruitment of Tel1(ATM) to telomeres in nbs1-c60Delta cells, which lack the C-terminal 60 amino acid Tel1(ATM) interaction domain of Nbs1, was dependent on Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP), but the kinase domain of Rad3(ATR) was dispensable. Thus, our results establish that the Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) complex contributes to the recruitment of Tel1(ATM) independently of Rad3(ATR) kinase activity, by a mechanism redundant with the Tel1(ATM) interaction domain of Nbs1. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminus of Nbs1 contributes to the recruitment of Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) to telomeres. In response to replication stress, mammalian ATR-ATRIP also contributes to ATM activation by a mechanism that is dependent on the MRN complex but independent of the C-terminal ATM interaction domain of Nbs1. Since telomere protection and DNA damage response mechanisms are very well conserved between fission yeast and mammalian cells, mammalian ATR-ATRIP may also contribute to the recruitment of ATM to telomeres and to sites of DNA damage independently of ATR kinase activity.
Project description:While telomeres must provide mechanisms to prevent DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors from fusing chromosome ends and causing permanent cell cycle arrest, these factors associate with functional telomeres and play critical roles in the maintenance of telomeres. Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast. In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated how 911, Rad17-RFC and another RFC-like complex Ctf18-RFC contribute to telomere maintenance in fission yeast cells lacking Tel1 and carrying a novel hypomorphic allele of rad3 (DBD-rad3), generated by the fusion between the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the fission yeast telomere capping protein Pot1 and Rad3. Our investigations have uncovered a surprising redundancy for Rad9 and Hus1 in allowing Rad1 to contribute to telomere maintenance in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. In addition, we found that Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC carry out redundant telomere maintenance functions in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. Since checkpoint sensor proteins are highly conserved, genetic redundancies uncovered here may be relevant to telomere maintenance and detection of DNA damage in other eukaryotes.
Project description:The yeast homologs of the ATM and ATR DNA damage response kinases play key roles in telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance, but the role of ATM/ATR in the mammalian telomerase pathway has been less clear. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for ATM and ATR in the localization of telomerase to telomeres and telomere elongation in immortal human cells. Stalled replication forks increased telomerase recruitment in an ATR-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased telomerase recruitment was observed upon phosphorylation of the shelterin component TRF1 at an ATM/ATR target site (S367). This phosphorylation leads to loss of TRF1 from telomeres and may therefore increase replication fork stalling. ATM and ATR depletion reduced assembly of the telomerase complex, and ATM was required for telomere elongation in cells expressing POT1?OB, an allele of POT1 that disrupts telomere-length homeostasis. These data establish that human telomerase recruitment and telomere elongation are modulated by DNA-damage-transducing kinases.
Project description:Chromosome ends, known as telomeres, have to be distinguished from DNA breaks that activate DNA damage checkpoint. Two large protein kinases, ataxia-teleangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-Rad3-related (ATR), control not only checkpoint activation but also telomere length. In budding yeast, Mec1 and Tel1 correspond to ATR and ATM, respectively. Here, we show that Cdc13-dependent telomere capping attenuates Mec1 association with DNA ends. The telomeric TG repeat sequence inhibits DNA degradation and decreases Mec1 accumulation at the DNA end. The TG-mediated degradation block requires binding of multiple Cdc13 proteins. The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex and Exo1 contribute to DNA degradation at DNA ends. Although the TG sequence impedes Exo1 association with DNA ends, it allows Mre11 association. Moreover, the TG sequence does not affect Tel1 association with the DNA end. Our results suggest that the Cdc13 telomere cap coordinates Mec1 and Tel1 accumulation rather than simply covering the DNA ends at telomeres.
Project description:Telomere homeostasis is controlled by both telomerase machinery and end protection. Telomere shortening induces DNA damage sensing kinases ATM/ATR for telomerase recruitment. Yet, whether telomere shortening also governs end protection is poorly understood. Here we discover that yeast ATM/ATR controls end protection. Rap1 is phosphorylated by Tel1 and Mec1 kinases at serine 731, and this regulation is stimulated by DNA damage and telomere shortening. Compromised Rap1 phosphorylation hampers the interaction between Rap1 and its interacting partner Rif1, which thereby disturbs the end protection. As expected, reduction of Rap1-Rif1 association impairs telomere length regulation and increases telomere-telomere recombination. These results indicate that ATM/ATR DNA damage checkpoint signal contributes to telomere protection by strengthening the Rap1-Rif1 interaction at short telomeres, and the checkpoint signal oversees both telomerase recruitment and end capping pathways to maintain telomere homeostasis.