High ACSL5 transcript levels associate with systemic lupus erythematosus and apoptosis in Jurkat T lymphocytes and peripheral blood cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypical autoimmune disease in which increased apoptosis and decreased apoptotic cells removal has been described as most relevant in the pathogenesis. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (ACSLs) have been involved in the immunological dysfunction of mouse models of lupus-like autoimmunity and apoptosis in different in vitro cell systems. The aim of this work was to assess among the ACSL isoforms the involvement of ACSL2, ACSL4 and ACSL5 in SLE pathogenesis. FINDINGS: With this end, we determined the ACSL2, ACSL4 and ACSL5 transcript levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 45 SLE patients and 49 healthy controls by quantitative real time-PCR (q-PCR). We found that patients with SLE had higher ACSL5 transcript levels than healthy controls [median (range), healthy controls?=?16.5 (12.3-18.0) vs. SLE?=?26.5 (17.8-41.7), P?=?3.9×10 E-5] but no differences were found for ACSL2 and ACSL4. In in vitro experiments, ACSL5 mRNA expression was greatly increased when inducing apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and PBMCs by Phorbol-Myristate-Acetate plus Ionomycin (PMA+Io). On the other hand, short interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of ACSL5 decreased induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells up to the control levels as well as decreased mRNA expression of FAS, FASLG and TNF. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that ACSL5 may play a role in the apoptosis that takes place in SLE. Our results point to ACSL5 as a potential novel functional marker of pathogenesis and a possible therapeutic target in SLE.
Project description:The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is associated with autoimmune diseases, but its expression level in the immune cells of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of TIM-3 mRNA is associated with pathogenesis of SLE. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) was used to determine TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 132 patients with SLE and 62 healthy controls. The PBMC surface protein expression of TIMs in PBMCs from 20 SLE patients and 15 healthy controls was assayed by flow cytometry. Only TIM-3 mRNA expression decreased significantly in SLE patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). No significant differences in TIM family protein expression were observed in leukocytes from SLE patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) had a significantly lower expression of TIM-3 mRNA than those without LN (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the expression of TIM-3 mRNA within different classes of LN (P>0.05). Correlation of TIM-3 mRNA expression with serum IgA was highly significant (r=0.425, P=0.004), but was weakly correlated with total serum protein (rs=0.283, P=0.049) and serum albumin (rs=0.297, P=0.047). TIM-3 mRNA expression was weakly correlated with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; rs=-0.272, P=0.032). Our results suggest that below-normal expression of TIM-3 mRNA in PBMC may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE.
Project description:Introduction: P2X7R is an extracellular ATP-gated receptor involved in inflammatory and autoimmune processes mainly acting through NLPR3-inflammasome activation and IL-1? release, also implicated in lymphocyte proliferation and cellular apoptosis. Several observations from animal models and patients' studies highlight a possible link between P2X7R-NLRP3 axis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. The P2X7R-inflammasome axis in addition to the direct production of IL-1? and IL-18, indirectly mediates the release of other cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE, such as IL-6. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of P2X7R and NLRP3-inflammasome in SLE. Methods: Forty-eight SLE patients, 16 with (SLE-S) and 32 without (SLE-NS) history of serositis, and 20 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and therapeutic data were collected. IL-1? and IL-6 plasma levels were evaluated by ELISA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from venous blood by Ficoll gradient sedimentation and employed as follows: (1) evaluation of P2X7R and NLRP3 expression by RT-PCR; (2) determination of P2X7R activity as Benzoyl ATP (BzATP)-induced [Ca2+]i increments using Fura-2-AM fluorescent probe; (3) isolation of monocytes/macrophages and assessment of in vitro IL-1? and IL-6 release following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and BzATP, either separately or in combination. Results: Plasma IL-1? levels were unmodified in SLE respect to HC whereas IL-6 levels were higher in SLE than in HC, resulting significantly increased in SLE-S. Macrophages isolated from SLE patients released lower quantities of IL-1? after stimulation with BzATP, whereas IL-6 release was significantly augmented in SLE-NS respect to both HC and SLE-S after all types of stimulation. The [Ca2+]i increase following BzATP stimulation was significantly lower in PBMCs from SLE patients than in PBMCs from HC. RT-PCR showed significantly reduced P2X7R and significantly augmented NLRP3 expression in PBMCs from SLE patients. Conclusion: Our data indicate reduced P2X7R expression and function in SLE patients compared with HC and, conversely, increased IL-6 signaling. The possible consequences of reduced P2X7R, mainly on cytokines network deregulation and lymphocyte proliferation, will be further investigated as well as the role of IL-6 as a possible therapeutic target especially in lupus serositis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Progranulin (PGRN) is the precursor of granulin (GRN), a soluble cofactor for toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling evoked by oligonucleotide (CpG)-DNA. Because TLR9 signaling plays an important role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we investigated whether PGRN is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. METHODS: We measured concentrations of serum PGRN and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with SLE (n = 68) and in healthy controls (n = 60). We assessed the correlation between the serum PGRN levels and established disease-activity indexes. The sera from the patients with high PGRN titers (>80 ng/ml) at the initial evaluation were reevaluated after the disease was ameliorated by treatment. We also measured the IL-6 concentration secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) incubated with (a) oligonucleotide (CpG-B) in the presence or absence of recombinant human PGRN (rhPGRN); and (b) lupus sera in the presence or absence of a neutralizing anti-PGRN antibody. RESULTS: Serum PGRN levels were significantly higher in SLE patients than healthy controls. Their levels were significantly associated with activity of clinical symptoms. They also significantly correlated with values of clinical parameters, including the SLE Disease Activity Index and anti-double-stranded DNA antibody titers, and inversely with CH50, C3, and C4 levels. Moreover, serum PGRN levels significantly decreased after successful treatment of SLE. The rhPGRN significantly upregulated the production of IL-6 by PBMCs stimulated with CpG-B. Patients' sera stimulated production of IL-6 from PBMCs, which was significantly impaired by neutralization of PGRN. The serum PGRN levels significantly correlated with the serum IL-6 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Serum PGRN could be a useful biomarker for disease activity of SLE. PGRN may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE partly by enhancing the TLR9 signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It is well known that interferon (IFN)-alpha is important to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, several reports have indicated that the number of IFN-alpha producing cells are decreased or that their function is defective in patients with SLE. We studied the function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) under persistent stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 via a TLR9 ligand (CpG ODN2216) or SLE serum. METHODS: The concentrations of IFN-alpha were determined in serum and culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SLE patients and healthy controls after stimulation with CpG ODN2216 or SLE serum. The numbers of circulating pDCs were analyzed by fluoresence-activated cell sorting analysis. pDCs were treated with CpG ODN2216 and SLE serum repeatedly, and levels of produced IFN-alpha were measured. The expression of IFN-alpha signature genes and inhibitory molecules of TLR signaling were examined in PBMCs from SLE patients and healthy control individuals. RESULTS: Although there was no significant difference in serum concentration of IFN-alpha and number of circulating pDCs between SLE patients and healthy control individuals, the IFN-alpha producing capacity of PBMCs was significantly reduced in SLE patients. Interestingly, the degree which TLR9 ligand-induced IFN-alpha production in SLE PBMCs was inversely correlated with the SLE serum-induced production of IFN-alpha in healthy PMBCs. Because repeated stimulation pDCs with TLR9 ligands showed decreased level of IFN-alpha production, continuous TLR9 stimulation may lead to decreased production of IFN-alpha in SLE PBMCs. In addition, PBMCs isolated from SLE patients exhibited higher expression of IFN-alpha signature genes and inhibitory molecules of TLR signaling, indicating that these cells had already undergone IFN-alpha stimulation and had become desensitized to TLR signaling. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the persistent presence of endogenous IFN-alpha inducing factors induces TLR tolerance in pDCs of SLE patients, leading to impaired production of IFN-alpha.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a new member of IL-1 family cytokine, is recently identified as a natural inhibitor of innate immunity. This study aimed to measure the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum levels of IL-37 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to investigate its role in SLE, including its correlation with disease activity, organ disorder and the regulation of inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: The expressions of IL-37 mRNAs in PBMCs and serum IL-37 levels in 66 SLE patients were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SLE patients PBMCs were stimulated with recombinant IL-37, levels of cytokines TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-10 were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS: IL-37 mRNAs and serum protein levels were higher in patients with SLE compared with healthy controls. Patients with active disease showed higher IL-37 mRNAs and serum protein levels compared with those with inactive disease as well as healthy controls. Serum IL-37 levels correlated with SLEDAI and inversely with C3 and C4. Serum IL-37 levels were higher in SLE patients with renal involvement compared with those without renal disease. In vitro, IL-37 inhibited the production of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 in PBMCs of patients with SLE, whereas the production of IL-10 was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: IL-37 associated with SLE disease activity, especially related with SLE renal disease activity. IL-37 is an important cytokine in the control of SLE pathogenesis by suppressing the production of inflammatory cytokines. Thus, IL-37 may provide a novel research target for the pathogenesis and therapy of SLE.
Project description:Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis. However, the expression profiles and clinical significance of circRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain unclear. In the present study, the expression profile of circRNAs in PBMCs from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) was detected by using microarray analysis and verified by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A total of 1,603 circRNAs were identified to be significantly aberrantly expressed in PBMCs from patients with SLE. Validation assays in 30 SLE patients and 20 HCs demonstrated that the levels of hsa_circ_0044235 and hsa_circ_0068367 were significantly decreased in the patients with SLE. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that hsa_circ_0044235 and hsa_circ_0068367 were significant for SLE diagnosis. Furthermore, the diagnostic potential of hsa_circ_0044235 and hsa_circ_0068367 for SLE was validated in an independent validation set with 45 patients with SLE, 38 HCs and 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the level of hsa_circ_0044235 in the PBMCs from patients with SLE were identified to be significantly increased in new?onset SLE patients and in patients who were determined to be positive for anti?double?stranded DNA and anti?ribosomal protein P antibodies. Additionally, the level of a microRNA (miRNA) target of hsa_circ_0044235, hsa?miRNA?892a, was identified to be significantly increased in the PBMCs from patients with SLE. The present study suggested that the dysregulation of circRNAs may serve a role in SLE pathogenesis, and that the levels of hsa_circ_0044235 and hsa_circ_0068367 in PBMC have potential as biomarkers for SLE diagnosis.
Project description:Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has revealed a crucial role for type I interferon (IFN) in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, it is unclear how particular leucocyte subsets contribute to the overall type I IFN signature of PBMCs and whole blood samples.Furthermore, a detailed analysis describing the differences in the IFN signature in autoimmune diseases from that observed after viral infection has not been performed to date. Therefore, in this study, the transcriptional responses in peripheral T helper cells (CD4(+)) and monocyte subsets (CD16(-) inflammatory and CD16(+) resident monocytes) isolated from patients with SLE, healthy donors (ND) immunised with the yellow fever vaccine YFV-17Dand untreated controls were compared by global gene expression profiling.It was striking that all of the transcripts that were regulated in response to viral exposure were also found to be differentially regulated in SLE, albeit with markedly lower fold-change values. In addition to this common IFN signature, a pathogenic IFN-associated gene signature was detected in the CD4(+) T cells and monocytes from the lupus patients. IL-10, IL-9 and IL-15-mediated JAK/STAT signalling was shown to be involved in the pathological amplification of IFN responses observed in SLE. Type I IFN signatures identified were successfully applied for the monitoring of interferon responses in PBMCs of an independent cohort of SLE patients and virus-infected individuals. Moreover, these cell-type specific gene signatures allowed a correct classification of PBMCs independent from their heterogenic cellular composition. In conclusion, our data show for the first time that monocytes and CD4 cells are sensitive biosensors to monitor type I interferon response signatures in autoimmunity and viral infection and how these transriptional responses are modulated in a cell- and disease-specific manner.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells is potentiated by fatty acids (FA). The initial step in the metabolism of intracellular FA is the conversion to acyl-CoA by long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (Acsls). Because the predominantly expressed Acsl isoforms in INS 832/13 cells are Acsl4 and -5, we characterized the role of these Acsls in beta-cell function by using siRNA to knock down Acsl4 or Acsl5. Compared with control cells, an 80% suppression of Acsl4 decreased GSIS and FA-potentiated GSIS by 32 and 54%, respectively. Knockdown of Acsl5 did not alter GSIS. Acsl4 knockdown did not alter FA oxidation or long chain acyl-CoA levels. With Acsl4 knockdown, incubation with 17 mm glucose increased media epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and reduced cell membrane levels of EETs. Further, exogenous EETs reduced GSIS in INS 832/13 cells, and in Acsl4 knockdown cells, an EET receptor antagonist partially rescued GSIS. These results strongly suggest that Acsl4 activates EETs to form EET-CoAs that are incorporated into glycerophospholipids, thereby sequestering EETs. Exposing INS 832/13 cells to arachidonate or linoleate reduced Acsl4 mRNA and protein expression and reduced GSIS. These data indicate that Acsl4 modulates GSIS by regulating the levels of unesterified EETs and that arachidonate controls the expression of its activator Acsl4.
Project description:The cells of the immune system originate from the bone marrow, where many of them also mature. This study was undertaken to examine gene expression in the bone marrow of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in order to better understand the aberrant immune response in this disease.Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) from 20 SLE patients (11 with active disease and 9 with inactive disease) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 27 patients (16 with active disease and 11 with inactive disease) were studied; BMMCs and PBMCs from 7 healthy individuals and 3 osteoarthritis patients were studied as controls. Samples were analyzed on genome-scale DNA microarrays, with 21,329 genes represented.We identified 102 genes involved in various biologic processes that were differentially expressed between patient and control BMMCs; 53 of them are genes that are involved in major networks, including cell death, growth, signaling, and proliferation. Comparative analysis revealed 88 genes that were differentially expressed between bone marrow and blood, the majority of which are involved in cell growth and differentiation, cellular movement and morphology, immune response, and other hematopoietic cell functions. Unsupervised clustering of highly expressed genes revealed 2 major SLE patient clusters (active disease and inactive disease) based on gene expression in bone marrow, but not in peripheral blood. The up-regulated genes in the bone marrow of patients with active disease included genes involved in cell death and granulopoiesis.Microarray analysis of the bone marrow differentiated active from inactive SLE and provided further evidence of the role of apoptosis and granulocytes in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The specific function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the mechanism of their involvement in related pathological changes remain to be elucidated, so, in this study, we analyzed the differences in the expression profiles of lncRNAs and their mechanisms of action in SLE using full high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics, etc. methods. METHODS:We used high-throughput sequencing to detect differences in the expression profiles of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs in PBMCs from patients with SLE at the genome-wide level. Next, we predicted target genes of 30 lincRNAs (long intergenic noncoding RNAs) by constructing a coexpression network of differential lincRNAs and mRNAs and identified the role of lincRNAs. Then, we analyzed the coexpression network of 23 optimized lincRNAs and their corresponding 353 miRNAs, evaluated the cis- and trans-effects of these lincRNAs, and performed GO and KEGG analyses of target genes. We also selected 8 lincRNAs and 2 newly discovered lncRNAs for q-PCR validation and lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA analysis. Finally, we also analyzed respectively the relation between lncRNAs and gender bias in SLE patients using RT-qPCR, the relation between Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index score and the "IFN signature" using ELISA, and the relation between the differential expression of lncRNAs and a change in the number of a cell type of PBMCs in SLE patients using RT-qPCR. RESULTS:The profiles of 1087 lncRNAs, 102 miRNAs, and 4101 mRNAs in PBMCs significantly differed between patients with SLE and healthy controls. The coexpression network analysis showed that the network contained 23 lincRNAs and 353 mRNAs. The evaluation of the cis- and trans-effects showed that the 23 lincRNAs acted on 704 target genes. GO and KEGG analyses of the target genes predicted the biological functions of the 23 lincRNAs. q-PCR validation showed 7 lincRNAs and 2 novel lncRNAs were identical to the sequencing results. The ceRNA network contained 7 validated lincRNAs, 15 miRNAs, and 155 mRNAs. In addition, the differential expression of lncRNAs may be gender dependent in SLE patients, SLE patients also exhibit a robust "IFN signature," and PBMCs exhibiting differential expression of lncRNAs may be due to a change in the number of a cell type. CONCLUSION:This work determined specific lncRNAs that play important biological functions in the pathogenesis of lupus and provided a new direction for diagnosis and treatment of disease.