Live attenuated Shigella dysenteriae type 1 vaccine strains overexpressing shiga toxin B subunit.
ABSTRACT: Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (S. dysenteriae 1) is unique among the Shigella species and serotypes in the expression of Shiga toxin which contributes to more severe disease sequelae and the ability to cause explosive outbreaks and pandemics. S. dysenteriae 1 shares characteristics with other Shigella species, including the capability of causing clinical illness with a very low inoculum (10 to 100 CFU) and resistance to multiple antibiotics, underscoring the need for efficacious vaccines and therapeutics. Following the demonstration of the successful attenuating capacity of deletion mutations in the guaBA operon in S. flexneri 2a vaccine strains in clinical studies, we developed a series of S. dysenteriae 1 vaccine candidates containing the fundamental attenuating mutation in guaBA. All strains are devoid of Shiga toxin activity by specific deletion of the gene encoding the StxA subunit, which encodes enzymatic activity. The StxB subunit was overexpressed in several derivatives by either plasmid-based constructs or chromosomal manipulation to include a strong promoter. All strains are attenuated for growth in vitro in the HeLa cell assay and for plaque formation and were safe in the Serény test and immunogenic in the guinea pigs. Each strain induced robust serum and mucosal anti-S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responses and protected against wild-type challenge. Two strains engineered to overexpress StxB induced high titers of Shiga toxin neutralizing antibodies. These candidates demonstrate the potential for a live attenuated vaccine to protect against disease caused by S. dysenteriae 1 and potentially to protect against the toxic effects of other Shiga toxin 1-expressing pathogens.
Project description:Shiga and the Shiga-like toxins are related protein toxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae and certain strains of Escherichia coli. These toxins are composed of two non-covalently attached, modular parts: the A moiety (StxA) containing the enzymatically active A1 fragment, and the non-toxic, pentameric binding moiety (StxB). Stx binds specifically to the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) at the surface of target cells and is then internalized by endocytosis. Subsequently, in toxin-sensitive cells, the Stx/Gb3 complex is transported in a retrograde manner via the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum, where the enzymatically active part of Stx is translocated to the cytosol, enabling it to irreversibly inhibit protein synthesis via modification of ribosomal 28S RNA. Whereas Gb3 shows a relatively restricted expression in normal human tissues, it has been reported to be highly expressed in many types of cancers. This review gives a brief introduction to Stx and its intracellular transport. Furthermore, after a description of Gb3 and the methods that are currently used to detect its cellular expression, we provide an updated overview of the published reports on Gb3 overexpression in human cancers. Finally, we discuss the possibility of utilizing Stx or StxB coupled to therapeutic compounds or contrast agents in targeted cancer therapy and imaging.
Project description:A Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding temperate bacteriophage of Shigella sonnei strain CB7888 was investigated for its morphology, DNA similarity, host range, and lysogenization in Shigella and Escherichia coli strains. Phage 7888 formed plaques on a broad spectrum of Shigella strains belonging to different species and serotypes, including Stx-producing Shigella dysenteriae type 1. With E. coli, only strains with rough lipopolysaccharide were sensitive to this phage. The phage integrated into the genome of nontoxigenic S. sonnei and laboratory E. coli K-12 strains, which became Stx positive upon lysogenization. Moreover, phage 7888 is capable of transducing chromosomal genes in E. coli K-12. The relationships of phage 7888 with the E. coli Stx1-producing phage H-19B and the E. coli Stx2-producing phage 933W were investigated by DNA cross-hybridization of phage genomes and by nucleotide sequencing of an 8,053-bp DNA region of the phage 7888 genome flanking the stx genes. By these methods, a high similarity was found between phages 7888 and 933W. Much less similarity was found between phages H-19B and 7888. As in the other Stx phages, a regulatory region involved in Q-dependent expression is found upstream of stxA and stxB (stx gene) in phage 7888. The morphology of phage 7888 was similar to that of phage 933W, which shows a hexagonal head and a short tail. Our findings demonstrate that stx genes are naturally transferable and are expressed in strains of S. sonnei, which points to the continuous evolution of human-pathogenic Shigella by horizontal gene transfer.
Project description:Background & objectives:: Shiga toxin (Stx) is produced by Shigella dysenteriae, a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacillus that causes shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and Reiter's syndrome. The detection methods for shiga toxin needs to be rapid, accurate, reliable and must be extensively evaluated under field conditions. The aim of this study was to develop rapid, sensitive and specific detection method for Stx. Methods:: Mice and rabbits were immunized with purified recombinant Shiga toxin B (rStxB). Using these antibodies dot ELISA, sandwich ELISA and flow through assay were developed. Results:: The high-titre antibodies specifically reacted with purified rStxB. Dot-ELISA, sandwich ELISA and flow-through assay were developed and standardized that could detect StxB with limit of detection (LOD) of 9.75, 9.7 ng/ml and 0.46 ?g/cassette, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions:: The rStxB was used to produce antibodies to avoid handling of pathogen. The Flow through assay 'developed was specific, rapid and field amenable.
Project description:The two lectins LecA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the B-subunit of Shiga toxin from Shigella dysenteriae (StxB) share the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) as receptor. Counterintuitively, we found that LecA and StxB segregated into different domains after recognizing Gb3 at the plasma membrane of cells. We hypothesized that the orientation of the carbohydrate head group of Gb3 embedded in the lipid bilayer differentially influences LecA and StxB binding. To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted lectin-Gb3 interaction using giant unilamellar vesicles and were indeed able to rebuild LecA and StxB segregation. Both, the Gb3 fatty acyl chain structure and the local membrane environment, modulated Gb3 recognition by LecA and StxB. Specifically, StxB preferred more ordered membranes compared to LecA. Based on our findings, we propose comparing staining patterns of LecA and StxB as an alternative method to assess membrane order in cells. To verify this approach, we re-established that the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells is more ordered than the basolateral plasma membrane. Additionally, we found that StxB recognized Gb3 at the primary cilium and the periciliary membrane, whereas LecA only bound periciliary Gb3. This suggests that the ciliary membrane is of higher order than the surrounding periciliary membrane.
Project description:Shiga toxin (STx) belongs to the AB(5) toxin family and is transiently localized in the periplasm before secretion into the extracellular milieu. While producing outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) containing only A subunit of the toxin (STxA), we created specific STx1B- and STx2B-deficient mutants of E. coli O157:H7. Surprisingly, STxA subunit was absent in the OMVs and periplasm of the STxB-deficient mutants. In parallel, the A subunit of heat-labile toxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was absent in the periplasm of the LT-B-deficient mutant, suggesting that instability of toxin A subunit in the absence of the B subunit is a common phenomenon in the AB(5) bacterial toxins. Moreover, STx2A was barely detectable in the periplasm of E. coli JM109 when stx2A was overexpressed alone, while it was stably present when stxB was co-expressed. Compared with STx2 holotoxin, purified STx2A was degraded rapidly by periplasmic proteases when assessed for in vitro proteolytic susceptibility, suggesting that the B subunit contributes to stability of the toxin A subunit in the periplasm. We propose a novel role for toxin B subunits of AB(5) toxins in protection of the A subunit from proteolysis during holotoxin assembly in the periplasm.
Project description:Shiga toxins (Stx) are cytotoxins involved in severe human intestinal disease. These toxins are commonly found in Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli; however, the toxin genes have been found in other Shigella species. We identified 26 Shigella flexneri serotype 2 strains isolated by public health laboratories in the United States during 2001-2013, which encode the Shiga toxin 1a gene (stx1a). These strains produced and released Stx1a as measured by cytotoxicity and neutralization assays using anti-Stx/Stx1a antiserum. The release of Stx1a into culture supernatants increased ?100-fold after treatment with mitomycin C, suggesting that stx1a is carried by a bacteriophage. Infectious phage were found in culture supernatants and increased ?1,000-fold with mitomycin C. Whole-genome sequencing of several isolates and PCR analyses of all strains confirmed that stx1a was carried by a lambdoid bacteriophage. Furthermore, all patients who reported foreign travel had recently been to Hispañiola, suggesting that emergence of these novel strains is associated with that region.
Project description:In recent studies, strains of non-dysenteriae 1 Shigella (NDS) expressing Shiga toxin have been reported. In this study, we report a novel stx1a-converting bacteriophage of Shigella sonnei associated with travel to Mexico. Phylogenetic comparison between this and other stx-converting phages suggests that toxigenic NDS strains have arisen through separate horizontal transfer events from toxigenic Escherichia coli.
Project description:Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors. Such increased antigen production and simultaneous attenuation were expected to elicit protective immunity against Shigella strains of heterologous serotypes. Thus, the vaccine potential of this mutant was tested in two guinea pig models of shigellosis. Animals vaccinated in the left eye showed fewer symptoms upon subsequent challenge via the right eye, and even survived subsequent intestinal challenge. In addition, oral vaccination effectively induced production of immunoglobulins without severe side effects, again protecting all animals against subsequent intestinal challenge with S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. sonnei strains. Antibodies against common virulence proteins and the O-antigen of S. flexneri 2a were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Reaction of antibodies with various strains, including enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, suggested that common virulence proteins induced protective immunity against a range of serotypes. Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin.
Project description:We investigated whether eyedrop vaccination using modified outer membrane vesicles (mOMVs) is effective for protecting against hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 infection. Modified OMVs and waaJ-mOMVs were prepared from cultures of MsbB- and Shiga toxin A subunit (STxA)-deficient EHEC O157:H7 bacteria with or without an additional waaJ mutation. BALB/c mice were immunized by eyedrop mOMVs, waaJ-mOMVs, and mOMVs plus polymyxin B (PMB). Mice were boosted at 2 weeks, and challenged peritoneally with wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs) at 4 weeks. As parameters for evaluation of the OMV-mediated immune protection, serum and mucosal immunoglobulins, body weight change and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/Creatinin (Cr) were tested, as well as histopathology of renal tissue. In order to confirm the safety of mOMVs for eyedrop use, body weight and ocular histopathological changes were monitored in mice. Modified OMVs having penta-acylated lipid A moiety did not contain STxA subunit proteins but retained non-toxic Shiga toxin B (STxB) subunit. Removal of the polymeric O-antigen of O157 LPS was confirmed in waaJ-mOMVs. The mice group vaccinated with mOMVs elicited greater humoral and mucosal immune responses than did the waaJ-mOMVs and PBS-treated groups. Eyedrop vaccination of mOMVs plus PMB reduced the level of humoral and mucosal immune responses, suggesting that intact O157 LPS antigen can be a critical component for enhancing the immunogenicity of the mOMVs. After challenge, mice vaccinated with mOMVs were protected from a lethal dose of wtOMVs administered intraperitoneally, conversely mice in the PBS control group were not. Collectively, for the first time, EHEC O157-derived mOMV eyedrop vaccine was experimentally evaluated as an efficient and safe means of vaccine development against EHEC O157:H7 infection-associated HUS.
Project description:Shigella infections account for a considerable burden of acute diarrheal diseases worldwide and remain a major cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. Although, all four species of Shigella (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery, historically only S. dysenteriae type 1 has been recognized as carrying the genes for Shiga toxin (stx). Recent epidemiological data, however, have suggested that the emergence of stx carrying S. flexneri strains may have originated from bacteriophage-mediated inter-species horizontal gene transfer in one specific geographical area, Hispaniola. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed whole genome sequences of stx-encoding phages carried by S. flexneri strains isolated in Haiti and S. flexneri S. boydii and S. dysenteriae strains isolated from international travelers who likely acquired the infection in Haiti or the Dominican Republic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that phage sequences encoded in the Shigella strains from Hispaniola were bacteriophage ?POC-J13 and they were all closely related to a phage isolated from a USA isolate, E. coli 2009C-3133 serotype O119:H4. In addition, despite the low genetic heterogeneity of phages from different Shigella spp. circulating in the Caribbean island between 2001 and 2014, two distinct clusters emerged in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Each cluster possibly originated from phages isolated from S. flexneri 2a, and within each cluster several instances of horizontal phage transfer from S. flexneri 2a to other species were detected. The implications of the emergence of stx-producing non-S. dysenteriae type 1 Shigella species, such as S. flexneri, spans not only the basic science behind horizontal phage spread, but also extends to medical treatment of patients infected with this pathogen.