Functional modulation of human monocytes derived DCs by anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a.
ABSTRACT: Anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a are important modulators for dendritic cell activation and function in mice. In order to verify the significance of these observations in man, we have investigated the functional modulation of human monocytes derived DCs by C3a and C5a. Here we report that engagement of C3aR or C5aR on human monocytes derived DCs (moDCs) enhances the cell activation and their capacity for allostimulation. In addition, we show that intracellular production of cAMP is reduced and PI3K/AKT, ERK and NF-?B signalling is increased following stimulation with C3a or C5a, identifying intracellular signalling pathways that could convert cell surface C3aR and C5aR engagement into changes in moDC functions. Our data provide evidence that human DCs are equipped to react to C3a/C5a and undergo phenotypic change as well as functional modulation. Complement offers a potential route to modulate human DC function and regulate T cell mediated immunity.
Project description:C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins are proinflammatory polypeptides released during complement activation. They exert their biological activities through interaction with two G protein-coupled receptors named C3aR and C5aR, respectively. In the brain, these receptors are expressed on glial cells, and some recent data have suggested that anaphylatoxins could mediate neuroprotection. In this study, we used RT-PCR and ribonuclease protection assays (RPA) to investigate the role of anaphylatoxins on neurotrophin expression by the human glioblastoma cell line T98G and by rat astrocytes. Our data show that for both cell types, anaphylatoxins upregulate expression of NGF mRNA. This response depended on a G protein-coupled pathway since pre-treatment of cells with pertussis toxin (PTX) completely blocked NGF mRNA increases. This effect was anaphylatoxin-specific since pre-incubation with anti-C3a or anti-C5aR antibodies abolished the effects of C3a and C5a, respectively. The regulation of NGF mRNA by anaphylatoxins was not accompanied by translation into protein expression, but there was a significant synergic effect of anaphylatoxins/IL-1b costimulation. Our demonstration of involvement of anaphylatoxins in the NGF release process by astrocytes suggests that C3a and C5a could modulate neuronal survival in the CNS.
Project description:Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading pathogens and helps to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Signalling through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, leads to a wide range of biological events promoting inflammation at the site of complement activation. The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine residue, yielding C3a-desArg and C5a-desArg. Whereas human C3a and C3a-desArg adopt a canonical four-helix bundle fold, the conformation of human C5a-desArg has recently been described as a three-helix bundle. Here, the crystal structures of an antagonist version of human C5a, A8(?71-73), and of murine C5a and C5a-desArg are reported. Whereas A8(?71-73) adopts a three-helix bundle conformation similar to human C5a-desArg, the two murine proteins form a four-helix bundle. A cell-based functional assay reveals that murine C5a-desArg, in contrast to its human counterpart, exerts the same level of activition as murine C5a on its cognate receptor. The role of the different C5a conformations is discussed in relation to the differential activation of C5a receptors across species.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mast cells express receptors for complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a (ie, C3a receptor [C3aR] and C5a receptor [C5aR]), and C3a and C5a are generated during various IgE-dependent immediate hypersensitivity reactions in vivo. However, it is not clear to what extent mast cell expression of C3aR or C5aR influences C3a- or C5a-induced cutaneous responses or IgE-dependent mast cell activation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in vivo.<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to assess whether mouse skin mast cell expression of C3aR or C5aR influences (1) the cells' responsiveness to intradermal injections of C3a or C5a or (2) the extent of IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and PCA in vivo.<h4>Methods</h4>We measured the magnitude of cutaneous responses to intradermal injections of C3a or C5a and the extent of IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and PCA responses in mice containing mast cells that did or did not express C3aR or C5aR.<h4>Results</h4>The majority of the skin swelling induced by means of intradermal injection of C3a or C5a required that mast cells at the site expressed C3aR or C5aR, respectively, and the extent of IgE-dependent degranulation of skin mast cells and IgE-dependent PCA was significantly reduced when mast cells lacked either C3aR or C5aR. IgE-dependent PCA responses associated with local increases in C3a levels occurred in antibody-deficient mice but not in mice deficient in Fc?RI?.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Expression of C3aR and C5aR by skin mast cells contributes importantly to the ability of C3a and C5a to induce skin swelling and can enhance mast cell degranulation and inflammation during IgE-dependent PCA in vivo.
Project description:The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a main target for complement activation in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a have been thought to mostly play a role as chemoattractants for macrophages and immune cells; here, we explore whether they trigger RPE alterations. Specifically, we investigated the RPE as a potential immunoregulatory gate, allowing for active changes in the RPE microenvironment in response to complement.In vitro and in vivo analysis of signaling pathways.Individual activities of and interaction between the two anaphylatoxin receptors were tested in cultured RPE cells by fluorescence microscopy, western blot, and immunohistochemistry.Intracellular free calcium, protein phosphorylation, immunostaining of tissues/cells, and multiplex secretion assay.Similar to immune cells, anaphylatoxin exposure resulted in increases in free cytosolic Ca2+, PI3-kinase/Akt activation, FoxP3 and FOXO1 phosphorylation, and cytokine/chemokine secretion. Differential responses were elicited depending on whether C3a and C5a were co-administered or applied consecutively, and response amplitudes in co-administration experiments ranged from additive to driven by C5a (C3a?+?C5a?=?C5a) or being smaller than those elicited by C3a alone (C3a?+?C5a?<?C3a).We suggest that this combination of integrative signaling between C3aR and C5aR helps the RPE to precisely adopt its immune regulatory function. These data further contribute to our understanding of AMD pathophysiology.
Project description:Costimulatory signals are critical to T cell activation, but how their effects are mediated remains incompletely characterized. Here, we demonstrate that locally produced C5a and C3a anaphylatoxins interacting with their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), C5aR and C3aR, on APCs and T cells both upstream and downstream of CD28 and CD40L signaling are integrally involved in T cell proliferation and differentiation. Disabling these interactions reduced MHC class II and costimulatory-molecule expression and dramatically diminished T cell responses. Importantly, impaired T cell activation by Cd80-/-Cd86-/- and Cd40-/- APCs was reconstituted by added C5a or C3a. C5aR and C3aR mediated their effects via PI-3 kinase-gamma-dependent AKT phosphorylation, providing a link between GPCR signaling, CD28 costimulation, and T cell survival. These local paracrine and autocrine interactions thus operate constitutively in naive T cells to maintain viability, and their amplification by cognate APC partners thus is critical to T cell costimulation.
Project description:Although induction of CD8 T-cell responses to transplants requires CD4-cell help, how this help is transmitted remains incompletely characterized. In vitro, cognate interactions between CD4 T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) induce C3a and C5a production. CD8(+) T cells lacking C3a receptor (C3aR) and C5a receptor (C5aR) proliferate weakly to allogeneic DCs despite CD4 help, indicating that CD4-cell help is mediated, in part, through DC-derived C3a/C5a acting on CD8(+) T cell-expressed C3aR/C5aR. In support of this concept, augmenting DC C5a/C3a production bypasses the requirement for CD4- and CD40-dependent help to wild-type CD8(+) T cells. CD4-deficient recipients of allogeneic heart transplants prime weak CD8 responses and do not acutely reject their grafts. In contrast, CD4-deficient chimeric mice possessing decay accelerating factor deficient (Daf1(-/-)) bone marrow, in which DC C3a/C5a production is potentiated, acutely reject transplants through a CD8 cell-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, hearts transplanted into CD40(-/-) mice prime weak CD8-cell responses and survive indefinitely, but hearts transplanted into Daf1(-/-)CD40(-/-) recipients undergo CD8 cell-dependent rejection. Together, the data indicate that heightened production and activation of immune cell-derived complement bypasses the need for CD40/CD154 interactions and implicate antigen-presenting cell-produced C5a and C3a as molecular bridges linking CD4 help to CD8(+) T cells.
Project description:The complement anaphylatoxins C3a, C5a, and desarginated C5a (C5a(desArg)) play critical roles in the induction of inflammation and the modulation of innate and acquired immune responses after binding to their G protein-coupled receptors, C3a receptor and C5a receptor (C5aR). The role of C5a(desArg) in inducing cell activation has been often neglected, because the affinity of C5a(desArg) for C5aR has been reported to be much lower than that of C5a. We have used a novel label-free cellular assay to reassess the potential of C5a(desArg) to induce activation of transfected and primary immune cells. Our results indicate that physiological levels of C5a(desArg) induce significant levels of cell activation that are even higher than those achieved by stimulating cells with analogous concentrations of C5a. Such activation was strictly dependent on C5aR, because it was completely abrogated by PMX-53, a C5aR antagonist. Pharmacological inhibition of specific G proteins located downstream of C5aR indicated differential involvement of G(?) proteins upon C5aR engagement by C5a or C5a(desArg). Further, mass spectrometric characterization of plasma-derived C5a and C5a(desArg) provided important insight into the posttranslational modification pattern of these anaphylatoxins, which includes glycosylation at Asn(64) and partial cysteinylation at Cys(27). Although the context-specific physiological contribution of C5a(desArg) has to be further explored, our data suggest that C5a(desArg) acts as a key molecule in the triggering of local inflammation as well as the maintenance of blood surveillance and homeostatic status.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that complement provides costimulatory signals for murine T cells but whether complement impacts human T cells remains unclear. We observed production of complement activation products C3a and C5a during in vitro cultures of human T cells responding to allogeneic dendritic cells (DC). Both partners expressed the receptors for C3a (C3aR) and C5a (C5aR) and C3aR- and C5aR-antagonists inhibited T cell proliferation. Recombinant C3a/C5a promoted CD4(+) T cell expansion, bypassed the inhibitory effects of CTLA4-Ig, and induced AKT phosphorylation, the latter biochemically linking C3aR/C5aR to known T cell signaling pathways. Lowering DC C3a/C5a production by siRNA knockdown of DC C3 reduced T cell alloresponses. Conversely downregulating DC expression of the complement regulatory protein decay-accelerating factor increased immune cell C3a/C5a and augmented T cell proliferation, identifying antigen presenting cells as the dominant complement source. Pharmacological C5aR blockade reduced graft versus host disease (GVHD) scores, prolonged survival, and inhibited T cell responses in NOD scid ?c(null) mouse recipients of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, verifying that the mechanisms apply in vivo. Together our findings unequivocally document that immune cell-derived complement impacts human T cell immunity and provide the foundation for future studies targeting C3aR/C5aR as treatments of GVHD and organ transplant rejection in humans.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The activation of complement during platelet activation is incompletely understood.<h4>Objectives</h4>We sought to explore the formation of C5b-9 and anaphylatoxins binding to collagen-activated platelets.<h4>Methods</h4>C5b-9, anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a and C5a, and anaphylatoxin receptors C3aR1 and C5aR were measured by flow cytometry and/or confocal microscopy. Platelet microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry, and their C5b-9 content was determined by western blot analyses. In all experiments, sodium citrate was used for blood anticoagulation.<h4>Results</h4>C5b-9 rapidly formed on the platelet surface following activation with collagen, TRAP, ADP or A23187, but was surprisingly restricted to a subset of platelets (1 to 15%) independently of P-selectin or phosphatidylserine exposure. Following collagen activation, C5b-9-positive platelets in thrombi were found associated with collagen fibres. C5b-9 formation was obliterated by Mg(2+)-EGTA and significantly reduced by the thrombin inhibitor hirudin (-37%, p<0.05), but was unaffected by chondroitinase, compstatin, SCH79797 (PAR-1 inhibitor), or in the PRP of a MBL-deficient donor. Compstatin and Mg(2+)-EGTA, but not hirudin, SCH79797 or chondroitinase, inhibited the formation of collagen-induced microparticles (-71% and -44%, respectively, p<0.04). These microparticles contained greater amounts of C5b-9 compared with the other agonists. Platelet activation by collagen or convulxin resulted in the strong binding of anaphylatoxins and the exposure of receptors C3aR1 and C5aR (CD88) on their surface.<h4>Conclusions</h4>C5b-9 formation on collagen-activated platelets is i) partially controlled by thrombin, ii) restricted to a subset of platelets, and iii) can occur without P-selectin expression or phosphatidylserine exposure. Activated platelets bind anaphylatoxins on their surface and express C3a and C5a receptors, which may contribute to the localization of inflammatory processes during thrombosis.
Project description:Signaling through the G protein-coupled receptors for the complement fragments C3a and C5a (C3aR and C5aR, respectively) by dendritic cells and CD4(+) cells provides costimulatory and survival signals to effector T cells. Here we found that when signals from C3aR and C5aR were not transduced into CD4(+) cells, signaling via the kinases PI(3)K?, Akt and mTOR ceased, activation of the kinase PKA increased, autoinductive signaling by transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) initiated and CD4(+) T cells became Foxp3(+) induced regulatory T cells (iT(reg) cells). Endogenous TGF-?1 suppressed signaling through C3aR and C5aR by preventing the production of C3a and C5a and upregulating C5L2, an alternative receptor for C5a. The absence of signaling via C3aR and C5aR resulted in lower expression of costimulatory molecules and interleukin 6 (IL-6) and more production of IL-10. The resulting iT(reg) cells exerted robust suppression, had enhanced stability and suppressed ongoing autoimmune disease. Antagonism of C3aR and C5aR can also induce functional human iT(reg) cells.