Correction of the abnormal trafficking of primary myelofibrosis CD34+ cells by treatment with chromatin-modifying agents.
ABSTRACT: The abnormal trafficking of CD34+ cells is a unique characteristic of primary myelofibrosis (PMF). We have further studied the behavior of PMF CD34+ cells by examining their homing to the marrow and the spleens of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. Following the infusion of PMF and normal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) CD34+ cells into NOD/SCID mice, reduced numbers of PMF CD34+ cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) compared with mPB were detected in the marrow of these mice, whereas similar numbers of PMF and mPB CD34+ cells and CFU-GM homed to their spleens. The abnormal homing of PMF CD34+ cells was associated with reduced expression of CXCR4, but was not related to the presence of JAK2V617F. The sequential treatment of PMF CD34+ cells with the chromatin-modifying agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azaD) and trichostatin A (TSA), but not treatment with small molecule inhibitors of JAK2, resulted in the generation of increased numbers of CD34+CXCR4+ cells, which was accompanied by enhanced homing of PMF CD34+ cells to the marrow but not the spleens of NOD/SCID mice. Following 5azaD/TSA treatment, JAK2V617F-negative PMF hematopoietic progenitor cells preferentially homed to the marrow but not the spleens of recipient mice. Our data suggest that PMF CD34+ cells are characterized by a reduced ability to home to the marrow but not the spleens of NOD/SCID mice and that this homing defect can be corrected by sequential treatment with chromatin-modifying agents.
Project description:To confirm that neoplastic monocyte-derived collagen- and fibronectin-producing fibrocytes induce bone marrow (BM) fibrosis in primary myelofibrosis (PMF), we injected PMF BM-derived fibrocyte-precursor CD14+/CD34- monocytes into the tail vein of NOD-SCID-? (NSG) mice. PMF BM-derived CD14+/CD34- monocytes engrafted and induced a PMF-like phenotype with splenomegaly, myeloid hyperplasia with clusters of atypical megakaryocytes, persistence of the JAK2V617F mutation, and BM and spleen fibrosis. As control we used normal human BM-derived CD14+/CD34- monocytes. These monocytes also engrafted and gave rise to normal megakaryocytes that, like PMF CD14+/CD34--derived megakaryocytes, expressed HLA-ABC and human CD42b antigens. Using 2 clonogenic assays we confirmed that PMF and normal BM-derived CD14+/CD34- monocytes give rise to megakaryocyte colony-forming cells, suggesting that a subpopulation BM monocytes harbors megakaryocyte progenitor capacity. Taken together, our data suggest that PMF monocytes induce myelofibrosis-like phenotype in immunodeficient mice and that PMF and normal BM-derived CD14+/CD34- monocytes give rise to megakaryocyte progenitor cells.
Project description:Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) can home to the bone marrow (BM) after a simple intravenous injection, but the adhesive mechanisms mediating the initial interactions of human HPCs with the BM endothelium have not been evaluated in vivo. Using fluorescence intravital microscopy and homing assays in NOD/SCID mice, we show that endothelial selectins are necessary for human adult CD34(+) cell homing, since rolling on BM endothelium and retention in the BM compartment are drastically reduced (>90%) in endothelial selectin-deficient NOD/SCID mice. Comparative analyses of CD34(+) cells collected from adults and from cord blood (CB) reveal that neonatal cells display reduced rolling fractions compared with adult CD34(+) cells obtained from peripheral blood or BM, suggesting abnormal selectin ligand function on neonatal progenitors. Flow cytometric and intravital microscopy studies suggest that this defect results from nonfunctional P-selectin ligand on a subset ( approximately 30%) of neonatal CD34(+) cells. Further analyses indicate that P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is expressed in a nonfunctional form among neonatal CD34(+) cells that do not bind P-selectin and that this subset is enriched in primitive CD34(+)CD38(lo/-) progenitors. These results underscore the potential to improve homing of CB CD34(+) cells to the BM by manipulation of selectins and their ligands.
Project description:Because primary myelofibrosis (PMF) originates at the level of the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), we examined the effects of various therapeutic agents on the in vitro and in vivo behavior of PMF CD34(+) cells. Treatment of PMF CD34(+) cells with chromatin-modifying agents (CMAs) but not hydroxyurea, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitors, or low doses of interferon-? led to the generation of greater numbers of CD34(+) chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)4(+) cells, which were capable of migrating in response to chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)12 and resulted in a reduction in the proportion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) that were JAK2V617F(+). Furthermore, sequential treatment of PMF CD34(+) cells but not normal CD34(+) cells with decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine [5azaD]), followed by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; 5azaD/SAHA), or trichostatin A (5azaD/TSA) resulted in a higher degree of apoptosis. Two to 6 months after the transplantation of CMAs treated JAK2V617F(+) PMF CD34(+) cells into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)/IL-2R?(null) mice, the percentage of JAK2V617F/JAK2(total) in human CD45(+) marrow cells was dramatically reduced. These findings suggest that both PMF HPCs, short-term and long-term SCID repopulating cells (SRCs), are JAK2V617F(+) and that JAK2V617F(+) HPCs and SRCs can be eliminated by sequential treatment with CMAs. Sequential treatment with CMAs, therefore, represents a possible effective means of treating PMF at the level of the malignant SRC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is a well-known strategy employed to facilitate the transplantation outcome. We have previously shown that the prevention of apoptosis by the inhibition of cysteine proteases, caspase and calpain played an important role in the expansion and engraftment of cord blood (CB) derived HSPCs. We hypothesize that these protease inhibitors might have maneuvered the adhesive and migratory properties of the cells rendering them to be retained in the bone marrow for sustained engraftment. The current study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of the homing responses of CB cells during expansion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CB derived CD34(+) cells were expanded using a combination of growth factors with and without Caspase inhibitor -zVADfmk or Calpain 1 inhibitor- zLLYfmk. The cells were analyzed for the expression of homing-related molecules. In vitro adhesive/migratory interactions and actin polymerization dynamics of HSPCs were assessed. In vivo homing assays were carried out in NOD/SCID mice to corroborate these observations. We observed that the presence of zVADfmk or zLLYfmk (inhibitors) caused the functional up regulation of CXCR4, integrins, and adhesion molecules, reflecting in a higher migration and adhesive interactions in vitro. The enhanced actin polymerization and the RhoGTPase protein expression complemented these observations. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed a significantly enhanced homing to the bone marrow of NOD/SCID mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present study reveals another novel aspect of the regulation of caspase and calpain proteases in the biology of HSPCs. The priming of the homing responses of the inhibitor-cultured HSPCs compared to the cytokine-graft suggests that the modulation of these proteases may help in overcoming the major homing defects prevalent in the expansion cultures thereby facilitating the manipulation of cells for transplant procedures.
Project description:Cancer stem cell behavior is thought to be largely determined by intrinsic properties and by regulatory signals provided by the microenvironment. Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by hematopoiesis occurring not only in the marrow but also in extramedullary sites such as the spleen. In order to study the effects of these different microenvironments on primitive malignant hematopoietic cells, we phenotypically and functionally characterized splenic and peripheral blood (PB) MF CD34+ cells from patients with MF. MF spleens contained greater numbers of malignant primitive HPCs than PB. Transplantation of PB MF CD34+ cells into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/IL2R?(null)) mice resulted in a limited degree of donor cell chimerism and a differentiation program skewed toward myeloid lineages. By contrast, transplanted splenic MF CD34+ cells achieved a higher level of chimerism and generated both myeloid and lymphoid cells that contained molecular or cytogenetic abnormalities indicating their malignant nature. Only splenic MF CD34+ cells were able to sustain hematopoiesis for prolonged periods (9 months) and were able to engraft secondary recipients. These data document the existence of MF stem cells (MF-SCs) that reside in the spleens of MF patients and demonstrate that these MF-SCs retain a differentiation program identical to that of normal hematopoietic stem cells.
Project description:Faster engraftment of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) transplants compared to steady-state bone marrow (ssBM) is well documented and clinically relevant. A number of different factors likely contribute to this outcome. In the present study we explored whether independent of cell number there are intrinsic differences in the efficiency of progenitor cell homing to marrow between MPB and ssBM.Mobilization was achieved by continuous infusion of G-CSF alone or in combination with other mobilizing agents. In vivo homing assays, in vitro migration assays, gene expression analysis, and flow cytometry were utilized to compare homing-related in vivo and in vitro properties of MPB and ssBM HPC.Marrow homing of murine MPB HPC, generated by different mobilizing schemes, was reproducibly significantly superior to that of ssBM, in lethally irradiated as well as in nonirradiated hosts. This phenotype was independent of MMP9, selectins, and beta2- and alpha4-integrins. Superior homing was also observed for human MPB HPC transplanted into NOD/SCIDbeta2microglobulin(-/-) recipients. Inhibition of HPC migration abrogated the homing advantage of MPB but did not affect homing of ssBM HPC, whereas enhancement of motility by CD26 inhibition improved marrow homing only of ssBM HPC. Enhanced SDF-1-dependent chemotaxis and low CD26 expression on MPB HPC were identified as potential contributing factors. Significant contributions of the putative alternative SDF-1 receptor, RDC1, were unlikely based on gene expression data.The data suggest increased motility as a converging endpoint of complex changes seen in MPB HPC which is likely responsible for their favorable homing.
Project description:The nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) assay is the current model for assessment of human normal and leukemic stem cells. We explored why 51% of 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients were unable to initiate leukemia in NOD/SCID mice. Increasing the cell dose, using more permissive recipients, and alternative tissue sources did not cause AML engraftment in most previously nonengrafting AML samples. Homing of AML cells to the marrow was the same between engrafters and nonengrafters. FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) and nucleophosmin mutations occurred at a similar frequency in engrafters and nonengrafters. The only variable that was related to engraftment ability was the karyotypically defined risk stratification of individual AML cases. Of interest, follow-up of younger patients with intermediate-risk AML revealed a significant difference in overall survival between NOD/SCID engrafting and nonengrafting AMLs. Hence, the ability of AML to engraft in the NOD/SCID assay seems to be an inherent property of AML cells, independent of homing, conditioning, or cell frequency/source, which is directly related to prognosis. Our results suggest an important difference between leukemic initiating cells between engrafting and nonengrafting AML cases that correlates with treatment response.
Project description:The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor, CXCR4, play a major role in migration, retention, and development of hematopoietic progenitors in the bone marrow. We report the direct involvement of atypical PKC-zeta in SDF-1 signaling in immature human CD34(+)-enriched cells and in leukemic pre-B acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) G2 cells. Chemotaxis, cell polarization, and adhesion of CD34(+) cells to bone marrow stromal cells were found to be PKC-zeta dependent. Overexpression of PKC-zeta in G2 and U937 cells led to increased directional motility to SDF-1. Interestingly, impaired SDF-1-induced migration of the pre-B ALL cell line B1 correlated with reduced PKC-zeta expression. SDF-1 triggered PKC-zeta phosphorylation, translocation to the plasma membrane, and kinase activity. Furthermore we identified PI3K as an activator of PKC-zeta, and Pyk-2 and ERK1/2 as downstream targets of PKC-zeta. SDF-1-induced proliferation and MMP-9 secretion also required PKC-zeta activation. Finally, we showed that in vivo engraftment, but not homing, of human CD34(+)-enriched cells to the bone marrow of NOD/SCID mice was PKC-zeta dependent and that injection of mice with inhibitory PKC-zeta pseudosubstrate peptides resulted in mobilization of murine progenitors. Our results demonstrate a central role for PKC-zeta in SDF-1-dependent regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell motility and development.
Project description:After cord blood (CB) transplantation, early platelet recovery in immune-deficient mice is obtained by expansion of CB CD34(+) cells with thrombopoietin (TPO) as single growth factor. Moreover, improvement of hematopoietic engraftment has been shown by cotransplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). We investigated whether a combination of both approaches would further enhance the outcome of CB transplantation in NOD SCID mice. NOD SCID mice were transplanted with either CB CD34(+) cells, CD34(+) cells with MSC, TPO-expanded CD34(+) cells or TPO-expanded CD34(+) cells with MSC. We analyzed human platelet recovery in the peripheral blood (PB) from day 4 after transplantation onward and human bone marrow (BM) engraftment at week 6. The different transplants were assessed in vitro for their migration capacity and expression of CXCR4. TPO expansion improved the early platelet recovery in the PB of the mice. Cotransplantation of MSC with CD34(+) cells improved BM engraftment and platelet levels in the PB 6 weeks after transplantation. Combining TPO expansion and MSC cotransplantation, however, neither resulted in a more efficient early platelet recovery, nor in a better BM engraftment, nor even very low or absent BM engraftment occurred. In vitro, MSC boosted the migration of CD34(+) cells, suggesting a possible mechanism for the increase in engraftment. Our results show that cotransplantation of MSC with TPO-expanded CD34(+) cells at most combines, but does not increase the separate advantages of these different strategies. A combination of both strategies even adds a risk of non engraftment.
Project description:Direct bone marrow (BM) injection has been proposed as a strategy to bypass homing inefficiencies associated with intravenous (IV) hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. Despite physical delivery into the BM cavity, many donor cells are rapidly redistributed by vascular perfusion, perhaps compromising efficacy. Anchoring donor cells to 3-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids, formed from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) might improve direct BM transplantation. To test this hypothesis, relevant combinations of human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells and BM-derived MSC were transplanted into NOD/SCID gamma (NSG) mice using either IV or intrafemoral (IF) routes. IF transplantation resulted in higher human CD45(+) and CD34(+) cell engraftment within injected femurs relative to distal femurs regardless of cell combination, but did not improve overall CD45(+) engraftment at 8 weeks. Analysis within individual mice revealed that despite engraftment reaching near saturation within the injected femur, engraftment at distal hematopoietic sites including peripheral blood, spleen and non-injected femur, could be poor. Our data suggest that the retention of human HSC within the BM following direct BM injection enhances local chimerism at the expense of systemic chimerism in this xenogeneic model.