New species of Homidia (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from eastern China with description of the first instar larvae.
ABSTRACT: Morphology of the first instar larvae of Collembola has considerably taxonomical and phylogenetic significance. We describe the first instar larvae for the first time in Homidia. External morphology of first instar larvae and adults of Homidia jordanai sp. n. is described based on observations under light and scanning electron microscopes. Most organs of adults bear considerably more setae than the first instar larvae; in addition, first instar larval Homidia lack labial seta R, seta on tenaculum, mucronal spine, and dental spines. The new species is characterized by weakly pigmented body, long antennae subequal to body in length, 1+1 inner macrochaetae on Abd. III, few inner macrochaetae on posterior Abd. IV, and spiny and short seta pi on dental base. Differences between new species and other two similar ones, taxonomical significance of the first instar larvae and the position of Homidia are also discussed.
Project description:Dicranocentrus liuae sp. n. is described from the northern subtropical region of China. The new species is most similar to D. wangi Ma & Chen, 2007, but differs from it in the relatively shorter Ant. V, the 1+1 central macrochaetae on Abd. III, the number of chaetae on tenaculum, and the absence of dental spines. The systematic position of Dicranocentrus is also discussed. Present evidence, particularly S-chaetotaxy, indicates that the genus is closer to Heteromurus than to the unscaled species of Orchesella and Orchesellides.
Project description:A new species, Dicranocentrus hainanicus Ren & Zhang, sp. n., is described from Hainan Province, China. Complete tergal chaetotaxy including microchaetae is illustrated and discussed. It is characterized by having the dental spines arranged in 2-3 rows, two inner teeth on unguis, 5, 2, 2 central macrochaetae on Abd. I-III, two inner S-chaetae on Abd. V displaced anteriorly, and the additional microchaetae associated with the S-chaeta acc.p6 on Th. II-Abd. II. It is most similar to D. chenae Ma, Chen & Soto-Adames but differs from the latter in the number and arrangement of dental spines and the absence of macrochaeta Pa1 on dorsal head. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided.
Project description:Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Nanjing, China. Sinella quinseta sp. n. from Purple Mountain possesses unique 5+5 central macrochaetae on Abd. II, and can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Sinella qixiaensis sp. n. from Qixia Mountain is characterized by the paddle-like S-chaetae of Ant. III organ and the smooth straight chaetae on the manubrium and base of dens; it differs from two closely related species by the smooth manubrial chaetae, the labial chaetae, the Ant. III organ, and the macrochaetae on Abd. II. Sinella fuyanensis Chen & Christiansen and Sinella quinocula Chen & Christiansen were also newly recorded from Nanjing.
Project description:Kuschelina bergi (Harold, 1881) is being studied to be evaluated as a natural enemy of Phyla nodiflora var. minor (Hook.) N. O'Leary & Múlgura (Verbenaceae), an invasive weed in Australia. Eggs, and 1(st) and 3(rd) instar larvae are described and illustrated for the first time. The following characters distinguish Kuschelina bergi: presence of two medial setae in prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, absence of tubercle on sternum I and eight setae in abdominal segment IX. The 3(rd) instar larvae of Kuschelina bergi resemble Kuschelina gibbitarsa (Say) larvae: the body shape and details of mouthparts are similar, but the morphology of the mandible is different, as is the tarsungulus which has a single seta. Differences between Kuschelina bergi and other known larvae of Oedionychina are discussed. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observation are also presented and discussed.
Project description:Color patterns often function as camouflage to protect insects from predators. In most swallowtail butterflies, younger larvae mimic bird droppings but change their pattern to mimic their host plants during their final molt. This pattern change is determined during the early fourth instar by juvenile hormone (JH-sensitive period), but it remains unclear how the prepatterning process is controlled. Using <i>Papilio xuthus</i> larvae, we performed transcriptome comparisons to identify three camouflage pattern-associated homeobox genes [<i>clawless</i>, <i>abdominal-A</i>, and <i>Abdominal-B</i> (<i>Abd-B</i>)] that are up-regulated during the JH-sensitive period in a region-specific manner. Electroporation-mediated knockdown of each gene at the third instar caused loss or change of original fifth instar patterns, but not the fourth instar mimetic pattern, and knockdown of <i>Abd-B</i> after the JH-sensitive period had no effect on fifth instar patterns. These results indicate the role of these genes during the JH-sensitive period and in the control of the prepatterning gene network.
Project description:The genus Acrocrytus is reported from Chinese mainland for the first time, with description of two new species Acrocyrtus zhujiensis sp. n. and Acrocyrtus finis sp. n. from Zhejiang Province, East China. They can be separated from other species of this genus by colour pattern, unscaled appendages (antennae, legs and ventral tube), interocular chaetae, labial basal chaetae, bothriotrichal complex chaetae on Abd. II-IV, microchaeta a2 on Abd. II, im on Abd. III and C1p on Abd. IV. Illustrations and a table showing main differences with closest Acrocyrtus species are provided.
Project description:Two new blind species of Sinella are described from Guangdong Province, China. Sinella colubra sp. n. possesses minute smooth postlabial chaetae, long mucronal spine, and 4+4(5) lateral mac on Abd. IV, and can be distinguished from two closely related species by the postlabial chaetae and the dorsal macrochaetotaxy. Sinella zhangi sp. n. is also described and can be diagnosed by having minute labial chaeta r and postlabial chaetae X and X4, 5+5 mac on Abd. I, 4+4 central mac on Abd. II, and 4+4 central and 5+5 lateral mac on Abd. IV.
Project description:Two new Coecobrya species, which were newly collected in 2014, are described from China. Coecobryasanmingensis sp. n. from southeast China (Fujian) is the fourth 1+1 eyed species in the genus; it can be distinguished from other three species by the ciliate chaetae X and X2-4 on the ventral side of head, the abundant chaetae on the trochanteral organ, a large outer tooth on the unguiculus, the absence of smooth manubrial chaetae, and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Coecobryaqinae sp. n. from southwest China (Yunnan) is characterized by paddle-like S-chaetae of Ant. III organ, ciliate chaetae X, X2 and X4 posterior to labium, medial macrochaetae on the mesothorax, and 5+5 central and 2+2 lateral macrochaetae on the fourth abdominal segment. An updated key to the Chinese species of Coecobrya is given.
Project description:The larvae of the Malagasy whirligig beetle Dineutus sinuosipennis Laporte, 1840, identified using DNA sequence data, are described and illustrated for the first time, including detailed morphometric and chaetotaxic analyses of selected structures and a description of larval habitat. Larvae of the genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 are diagnosed, and a key to identify the genera of the tribe Dineutini is presented. Larvae of Dineutus exhibit the characters traditionally recognized as autapomorphies of the Gyrinidae: body less sclerotized, egg bursters located on the parietal, one additional sensorial plate on the third antennomere, cardo and lacinia well developed, prementum completely divided, abdominal tracheal gills, and four terminal hooks on the pygopod. They also share with larvae of the other Dineutini genera these putative synapomorphies: numerous minute pore-like additional structures on the ultimate maxillary and labial palpomeres, coxal primary seta CO12 inserted submedially, and trochanteral primary seta TR2 absent. Larvae of Dineutus can be distinguished from those of other known genera of Dineutini by the posterior margin of the lacinia not dentate, tracheal gills plumose, parietal seta PA5 inserted relatively far from setae PA7-9, mandibular pores MNb and MNc inserted relatively far from each other, and tarsal seta TA1 inserted submedially.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the number of instars of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae by comparing their head capsule widths (HCW) published in previous studies, as well as additional laboratory experiments. Larvae of M. alternatus showed repeated molting in the laboratory. Most larvae ceased their development at the 10th instar stage. Frequency distributions of HCW for the first, second, and third instar larvae were clearly separated while those of the fourth through 11th instar larvae largely overlapped between successive instars in our results. The HCW values for the first, second, and third instar larvae directly measured for each instar in our study indicated that they were more precise than those of previous reports based on field-collected HCW which might have missed HCW of the first instar larvae or wrongly determined HCW for some instars. Unlike the reports of four instars of previous studies, M. alternatus larvae passed five instars in the field, which was confirmed by the discovery of five pairs of mandibles in the feeding gallery and pupal chamber. Also, the comparative study for the frequency distributions of HCW revealed that most M. alternatus larvae passed five instars. Consequently, the average sizes of HCW for their first, second, and third instar larvae are newly suggested to be 0.896 ± 0.069, 1.291 ± 0.131, and 1.707 ± 0.165 mm (mean ± SD) .