Identification of the first PAR1 deletion encompassing upstream SHOX enhancers in a family with idiopathic short stature.
ABSTRACT: Short stature homeobox-containing gene, MIM 312865 (SHOX) is located within the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes. Mutations in SHOX or its downstream transcriptional regulatory elements represent the underlying molecular defect in ~60% of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and ~5-15% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) patients. Recently, three novel enhancer elements have been identified upstream of SHOX but to date, no PAR1 deletions upstream of SHOX have been observed that only encompass these enhancers in LWD or ISS patients. We set out to search for genetic alterations of the upstream SHOX regulatory elements in 63 LWD and 100 ISS patients with no known alteration in SHOX or the downstream enhancer regions using a specifically designed MLPA assay, which covers the PAR1 upstream of SHOX. An upstream SHOX deletion was identified in an ISS proband and her affected father. The deletion was confirmed and delimited by array-CGH, to extend ~286 kb. The deletion included two of the upstream SHOX enhancers without affecting SHOX. The 13.3-year-old proband had proportionate short stature with normal GH and IGF-I levels. In conclusion, we have identified the first PAR1 deletion encompassing only the upstream SHOX transcription regulatory elements in a family with ISS. The loss of these elements may result in SHOX haploinsufficiency because of decreased SHOX transcription. Therefore, this upstream region should be included in the routine analysis of PAR1 in patients with LWD, LMD and ISS.
Project description:Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a pseudoautosomal dominant disorder characterized by disproportionate short stature and a characteristic curving of the radius, known as the "Madelung deformity." SHOX mutations resulting in SHOX haploinsufficiency have been found in LWD and in a variable proportion of patients with idiopathic short stature (ISS), whereas homozygous loss of SHOX results in the more severe Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD). Defects in SHOX have been identified in approximately 60% of LWD cases, whereas, in the remaining approximately 40%, the molecular basis is unknown. This suggests either genetic heterogeneity or the presence of mutations in unanalyzed regions of SHOX, such as the upstream, intragenic, or downstream regulatory sequences. Therefore, the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of 80 patients with LWD, in whom SHOX deletions and mutations had been excluded, was screened for deletions by use of a new panel of microsatellite markers. We identified 12 patients with LWD who presented with a novel class of PAR1 deletions that did not include SHOX. The deletions were of variable size and mapped at least approximately 30-530 kb downstream of SHOX. In our cohort, this type of deletion accounted for 15% of cases. In all cases, the deletions cosegregated with the phenotype. No apparent phenotypic differences were observed between patients with SHOX deletions and those with this new class of PAR1 deletions. Thus, we present here the identification of a second PAR1 region implicated in the etiopathogenesis of LWD. Our findings suggest the presence of distal regulatory elements of SHOX transcription in PAR1 or, alternatively, the existence of an additional locus apparently involved in the control of skeletal development. Deletion analysis of this newly identified region should be included in the mutation screening of patients with LWD, LMD, and ISS.
Project description:Léri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature and distinct bone anomalies. SHOX gene mutations and deletions of regulatory elements downstream of SHOX resulting in haploinsufficiency have been found in patients with LWD. SHOX encodes a homeodomain transcription factor and is known to be expressed in the developing limb. We have now analyzed the regulatory significance of the region upstream of the SHOX gene. By comparative genomic analyses, we identified several conserved non-coding elements, which subsequently were tested in an in ovo enhancer assay in both chicken limb bud and cornea, where SHOX is also expressed. In this assay, we found three enhancers to be active in the developing chicken limb, but none were functional in the developing cornea. A screening of 60 LWD patients with an intact SHOX coding and downstream region did not yield any deletion of the upstream enhancer region. Thus, we speculate that SHOX upstream deletions occur at a lower frequency because of the structural organization of this genomic region and/or that SHOX upstream deletions may cause a phenotype that differs from the one observed in LWD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: SHOX alterations have been reported in 67% of patients affected by Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), with a larger prevalence of gene deletions than point mutations. It has been recently demonstrated that these deletions can involve the SHOX enhancer region, rather that the coding region, with variable phenotype of the affected patients.Here, we report a SHOX gene analysis carried out by MLPA in 14 LWD patients from 4 families with variable phenotype. CASE PRESENTATION: All patients presented a SHOX enhancer deletion. In particular, a patient with a severe bilateral Madelung deformity without short stature showed a homozygous alteration identical to the recently described 47.5 kb PAR1 deletion. Moreover, we identified, for the first time, in three related patients with a severe bilateral Madelung deformity, a smaller deletion than the 47.5 kb PAR1 deletion encompassing the same enhancer region (ECR1/CNE7). CONCLUSIONS: Data reported in this study provide new information about the spectrum of phenotypic alterations showed by LWD patients with different deletions of the SHOX enhancer region.
Project description:SHOX mutations and deletions of the downstream regulatory region have been reported in cases with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD). Recently, a deletion and duplication of upstream enhancers have been described in ISS. Here, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of upstream copy number variations (CNVs) to the pathogenesis of ISS, to validate the enhancer role of the upstream enhancers in human cells, and to characterize the chromatin architecture of the cis-regulatory landscape of SHOX. CNV analysis of three upstream conserved non-coding elements (CNEs), CNE-5, CNE-3 and CNE-2, in 501 ISS referrals with no established molecular diagnosis revealed two deletions and one duplication. Enhancer activity of the upstream CNEs was corroborated by luciferase assays in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. In addition, all three CNEs overlap with reported H3K27ac ChIP-seq marks in human embryonic limb buds. To characterize the chromatin interaction profile of the SHOX region, chromosome conformation capture (4C-seq) was performed in chicken embryo limb buds and in U2OS cells, revealing interactions of the upstream CNEs with the SHOX promoter. Moreover, the 4C-seq interaction maps and H3K27ac marks indicated that the cis-regulatory landscape of SHOX encompasses 1 Mb, suggesting additional cis-regulatory elements controlling SHOX.In conclusion, we showed that upstream CNVs of SHOX are rare in ISS and have incomplete penetrance. Chromatin interaction maps, luciferase assays and H3K27ac marks further support an enhancer function for the upstream CNEs. Finally, we demonstrated that the cis-regulatory landscape of SHOX is larger than previously anticipated potentially harboring novel cis-regulatory elements, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of molecularly unsolved ISS cases.. Overall design: 4C-seq samples forshox gene promoter in different samples: HH28 chicken limbs and human U2OS cells
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To study the SHOX gene and the PAR1 region in individuals with short stature. METHODS: The study involved 56 cases of dyschondrosteosis and 84 cases of idiopathic short stature (ISS). The study was designed to determine the following: the prevalence of SHOX anomalies in ISS; the frequency of Madelung deformity in individuals with SHOX anomalies; and the value of a family history of short stature in deciding whether to test for the SHOX gene. RESULTS: 54 SHOX anomalies were observed, including 42 (68%) in the dyschondrosteosis group and 12 (15%) in the ISS group. The high frequency of SHOX anomalies in the ISS group can be explained by the large proportion of boys in this group, reflecting the difficulty in diagnosing dyschondrosteosis in young boys. Clinical evidence of Madelung deformity in six parents of ISS individuals emphasised the importance of family evaluation. Among the 54 SHOX anomalies, 33 PAR1 deletions were identified encompassing the SHOX gene (62%), one partial intragenic deletion (2%), nine deletions located downstream of the SHOX gene (16%), and 11 point mutations (20%). CONCLUSIONS: These data emphasise the value of using microsatellite markers located within and downstream of the SHOX gene.
Project description:SHOX gene mutations or haploinsufficiency cause a wide range of phenotypes such as Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), Turner syndrome, and disproportionate short stature (DSS). However, this gene has also been found to be mutated in cases of idiopathic short stature (ISS) with a 3-15% frequency. In this study, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was employed to determine the frequency of SHOX gene mutations and their conserved noncoding elements (CNE) in Colombian patients with ISS. Patients were referred from different centers around the county. From a sample of 62 patients, 8.1% deletions and insertions in the intragenic regions and in the CNE were found. This result is similar to others published in other countries. Moreover, an isolated case of CNE 9 duplication and a new intron 6b deletion in another patient, associated with ISS, are described. This is one of the first studies of a Latin American population in which deletions/duplications of the SHOX gene and its CNE are examined in patients with ISS.
Project description:Genetic defects such as copy number variations (CNVs) in non-coding regions containing conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) outside the transcription unit of their target gene, can underlie genetic disease. An example of this is the short stature homeobox (SHOX) gene, regulated by seven CNEs located downstream and upstream of SHOX, with proven enhancer capacity in chicken limbs. CNVs of the downstream CNEs have been reported in many idiopathic short stature (ISS) cases, however, only recently have a few CNVs of the upstream enhancers been identified. Here, we set out to provide insight into: (i) the cis-regulatory role of these upstream CNEs in human cells, (ii) the prevalence of upstream CNVs in ISS, and (iii) the chromatin architecture of the SHOX cis-regulatory landscape in chicken and human cells. Firstly, luciferase assays in human U2OS cells, and 4C-seq both in chicken limb buds and human U2OS cells, demonstrated cis-regulatory enhancer capacities of the upstream CNEs. Secondly, CNVs of these upstream CNEs were found in three of 501 ISS patients. Finally, our 4C-seq interaction map of the SHOX region reveals a cis-regulatory domain spanning more than 1 Mb and harbouring putative new cis-regulatory elements.
Project description:<b>Objective: </b><i>SHOX</i> gene mutations constitute one of the genetic causes of short stature. The clinical phenotype includes variable degrees of growth impairment, such as Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD), Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS). The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features and molecular results of <i>SHOX</i> deficiency in a group of Turkish patients who had skeletal findings with and without short stature.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Forty-six patients with ISS, disproportionate short stature or skeletal findings without short stature from 35 different families were included. <i>SHOX</i> gene analysis was performed using Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Three different point mutations (two nonsense, one frameshift) and one whole <i>SHOX</i> gene deletion were detected in 15 patients from four different families. While 4/15 patients had LMD, the remaining patients had clinical features compatible with LWD. Madelung’s deformity, cubitus valgus, muscular hypertrophy and short forearm were the most common phenotypic features, as well as short stature. Additionally, hearing loss was detected in two patients with LMD.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>This study has presented the clinical spectrum and molecular findings of 15 patients with <i>SHOX</i> gene mutations or deletions. <i>SHOX</i> deficiency should be especially considered in patients who have disproportionate short stature or forearm anomalies with or without short stature. Although most of the patients had partial or whole gene deletions, <i>SHOX</i> gene sequencing should be performed in suspected cases. Furthermore, conductive hearing loss may rarely accompany these clinical manifestations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations of SHOX represent the most frequent monogenic cause of short stature and related syndromes. The genetic alterations include point mutations and deletions/duplications spanning both SHOX and its regulatory regions, although microrearrangements are confined to either the downstream or upstream enhancers in many patients. Mutations in the heterozygous state have been identified in up to 60-80% of Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis (LWD; MIM #127300) and approximately 4-5% of Idiopathic Short Stature (ISS; MIM#300582) patients. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations as well as biallelic deletions of SHOX and/or the enhancer regions result in a more severe phenotype, which is known as Langer Mesomelic Dysplasia (LMD; MIM #249700). CASE PRESENTATION:A 17 year old girl, presented with severe short stature, growth hormone deficiency (GHD), precocious puberty, dorsal scoliosis, dysmorphisms and urogenital malformations. She was born with agenesis of the right tibia and fibula, as well as with a supernumerary digit on the left foot. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis detected the presence of two distinct duplications on Xp22.1 flanking the SHOX coding sequence and involving its regulatory regions. An additional duplication of 1.6-2.5 Mb on 15q25.2 that included 13 genes was also identified. The girl was adopted and the parent's DNA was not available to establish the origin of the chromosome imbalances. CONCLUSIONS:The complex phenotype observed in our patient is probably the result of the co-occurrence of rearrangements on chromosomes Xp22.1 and 15q25.2. The duplicated region on 15q25.2 region is likely to contain dosage-sensitive genes responsible for some of the clinical features observed in this patient, whereas the extreme short stature and the skeletal anomalies are likely attributable to the comorbidity of GHD and copy number variants in the SHOX region.
Project description:Skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) plays an important role in the phenotypic heterogeneity of X-linked disorders. However, the role of skewed XCI in XCI-escaping gene SHOX regulation is unclear. Here, we focused on a heterozygous deletion of SHOX gene enhancer with clinical heterogeneity. Using SNP array, we detected that the female proband with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) carried an 857 kb deletion on Xp22.3 (encompassing SHOX enhancer) and a 5,707 kb large-fragment deletion on Xq25q26. XCI analysis revealed that the X-chromosome with the Xq25q26 large-fragment deletion was completely inactivated, which forced the complete activation of the other X-chromosome carrying SHOX enhancer deletion. While the Xp22.3 deletion locates on the escaping XCI region, under the combined action of skewed XCI and escaping XCI, transcription of SHOX gene was mainly from the activated X-chromosome with SHOX enhancer defect, involving in the formation of LWD phenotype. Interestingly, this SHOX enhancer deletion was inherited from her healthy mother, who also demonstrated completely skewed XCI. However, the X-chromosome with SHOX enhancer deletion was inactivated, and the normal X-chromosome was activated. Combing with escaping XCI, her phenotype was almost normal. In summary, this study was a rare report of SHOX gene enhancer deletion in a family with clinical heterogeneity due to skewed inactivation of different X-chromosomes, which can help in the genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of disorders in females with SHOX defect.