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The Arf family GTPase Arl4A complexes with ELMO proteins to promote actin cytoskeleton remodeling and reveals a versatile Ras-binding domain in the ELMO proteins family.

ABSTRACT: The prototypical DOCK protein, DOCK180, is an evolutionarily conserved Rac regulator and is indispensable during processes such as cell migration and myoblast fusion. The biological activity of DOCK180 is tightly linked to its binding partner ELMO. We previously reported that autoinhibited ELMO proteins regulate signaling from this pathway. One mechanism to activate the ELMO-DOCK180 complex appears to be the recruitment of this complex to the membrane via the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of ELMO. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel ELMO-interacting proteins to further define the molecular events capable of controlling ELMO recruitment to the membrane. To do so, we performed two independent interaction screens: one specifically interrogated an active GTPase library while the other probed a brain cDNA library. Both methods converged on Arl4A, an Arf-related GTPase, as a specific ELMO interactor. Biochemically, Arl4A is constitutively GTP-loaded, and our binding assays confirm that both wild-type and constitutively active forms of the GTPase associate with ELMO. Mechanistically, we report that Arl4A binds the ELMO RBD and acts as a membrane localization signal for ELMO. In addition, we report that membrane targeting of ELMO via Arl4A promotes cytoskeletal reorganization including membrane ruffling and stress fiber disassembly via an ELMO-DOCK1800-Rac signaling pathway. We conclude that ELMO is capable of interacting with GTPases from Rho and Arf families, leading to the conclusion that ELMO contains a versatile RBD. Furthermore, via binding of an Arf family GTPase, the ELMO-DOCK180 is uniquely positioned at the membrane to activate Rac signaling and remodel the actin cytoskeleton.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3234722 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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