Characterization of novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) isoform in human liver.
ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that contributes to the regulation of numerous transcriptional programs including the hepatic response to fasting. Mechanisms at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels allow PGC-1α to support distinct biological pathways. Here we describe a novel human liver-specific PGC-1α transcript that results from alternative promoter usage and is induced by FOXO1 as well as glucocorticoids and cAMP-response element-binding protein signaling but is not present in other mammals. Hepatic tissue levels of novel and wild-type transcripts were similar but were only moderately associated (p < 0.003). Novel mRNA levels were associated with a polymorphism located in its promoter region, whereas wild-type transcript levels were not. Furthermore, hepatic PCK1 mRNA levels exhibited stronger associations with the novel than with the wild-type transcript levels. Except for a deletion of 127 amino acids at the N terminus, the protein, termed L-PGC-1α, is identical to PGC-1α. L-PGC-1α was localized in the nucleus and showed coactivation properties that overlap with those of PGC-1α. Collectively, our data support a role of L-PGC-1α in gluconeogenesis, but functional differences predicted from the altered structure suggest that L-PGC-1α may have arisen to adapt PGC-1α to more complex metabolic pathways in humans.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a key regulator of energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis in multiple highly oxidative tissues, has been implicated in the metabolic derangements of diabetes and obesity. However, relatively less is known regarding its role in neurological functions. Using shotgun lipidomics, we investigated the lipidome of mouse cerebral cortex with generalized deficiency of PGC-1α (PGC-1α(-/-)) versus wild-type (WT) mice under standard diet and chronically calorically restricted conditions. Specific deficiency in sulfatide, a myelin-specific lipid class critically involved in maintaining neurological function, was uncovered in the cortex of PGC-1α(-/-) mice compared with WT mice at all ages examined. Chronic caloric restriction (CR) for 22 months essentially restored the sulfatide reduction in PGC-1α(-/-) mice compared with WT, but sulfatide reduction was not restored in PGC-1α(-/-) with CR for a short term (i.e., 3 months). Mechanistic studies uncovered and differentiated the biochemical mechanisms underpinning the two conditions of altered sulfatide homeostasis. The former is modulated through PGC-1α-MAL pathway, whereas the latter is under the control of LXR/RXR-apoE metabolism pathway. These results suggest a novel mechanistic role of PGC-1α in sulfatide homeostasis, provide new insights into the importance of PGC-1α in neurological functions, and indicate a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of deficient PGC-1α-induced alterations in sulfatide homeostasis.
Project description:Under fasting conditions, activation of several hepatic genes sets the stage for gluconeogenesis in the liver. cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) are essential for this transcriptional induction of gluconeogenic genes. PGC-1α induction is mediated by activation of a CREB/CRTC2 signaling complex, and recent findings have revealed that small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE), a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors, is an insulin-inducible corepressor that decreases PGC-1α expression and abrogates its stimulatory effect on hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism whereby SMILE suppresses PGC-1α expression is unknown. Here, we investigated SMILE's effects on the CREB/CRTC2 signaling pathway and glucose metabolism. We found that SMILE significantly inhibits CREB/CRTC2-induced PGC-1α expression by interacting with and disrupting the CREB/CRTC2 complex. Consequently, SMILE decreased PGC-1α-induced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression. Furthermore, SMILE inhibited CREB/CRTC2-induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) gene expression by directly repressing the expression of these genes and by indirectly inhibiting the expression of PGC-1α via CREB/CRTC2 repression. Indeed, enhanced gluconeogenesis and circulating blood glucose levels in mice injected with an adenovirus construct containing a constitutively active CRTC2 variant (CRTC2-S171A) were significantly reduced by WT SMILE, but not by leucine zipper-mutated SMILE. These results reveal that SMILE represses CREB/CRTC2-induced PGC-1α expression, an insight that may help inform potential therapeutic approaches targeting PGC-1α-mediated regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism.
Project description:Diabetes risk increases significantly with age and correlates with lower oxidative capacity in muscle. Decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and target gene pathways involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are associated with muscle insulin resistance, but a causative role has not been established. We sought to determine whether a decline in Pgc-1α and oxidative gene expression occurs during aging and potentiates the development of age-associated insulin resistance. Muscle-specific Pgc-1α knockout (MKO) mice and wild-type littermate controls were aged for 2 yr. Genetic signatures of skeletal muscle (microarray and mRNA expression) and metabolic profiles (glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial metabolism, body composition, lipids, and indirect calorimetry) of mice were compared at 3, 12, and 24 mo of age. Microarray and gene set enrichment analysis highlighted decreased function of the electron transport chain as characteristic of both aging muscle and loss of Pgc-1α expression. Despite significant reductions in oxidative gene expression and succinate dehydrogenase activity, young mice lacking Pgc-1α in muscle had lower fasting glucose and insulin. Consistent with loss of oxidative capacity during aging, Pgc-1α and Pgc-1β expression were reduced in aged wild-type mouse muscle. Interestingly, the combination of age and loss of muscle Pgc-1α expression impaired glucose tolerance and led to increased fat mass, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers in white adipose and liver tissues. Therefore, loss of Pgc-1α expression and decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity contribute to worsening glucose tolerance and chronic systemic inflammation associated with aging.
Project description:Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and morbid condition that is distinguishable from typical ischemic renal injury by its paucity of tubular cell death. The mechanisms underlying renal dysfunction in individuals with sepsis-associated AKI are therefore less clear. Here we have shown that endotoxemia reduces oxygen delivery to the kidney, without changing tissue oxygen levels, suggesting reduced oxygen consumption by the kidney cells. Tubular mitochondria were swollen, and their function was impaired. Expression profiling showed that oxidative phosphorylation genes were selectively suppressed during sepsis-associated AKI and reactivated when global function was normalized. PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism, not only followed this pattern but was proportionally suppressed with the degree of renal impairment. Furthermore, tubular cells had reduced PGC-1α expression and oxygen consumption in response to TNF-α; however, excess PGC-1α reversed the latter effect. Both global and tubule-specific PGC-1α-knockout mice had normal basal renal function but suffered persistent injury following endotoxemia. Our results demonstrate what we believe to be a novel mechanism for sepsis-associated AKI and suggest that PGC-1α induction may be necessary for recovery from this disorder, identifying a potential new target for future therapeutic studies.
Project description:Endurance exercise training prevents atherosclerosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) increases myokine secretion from the skeletal muscle, and these myokines have been shown to affect the function of multiple organs. Since endurance exercise training increases PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscles, we investigated whether skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1α overexpression suppresses atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO)/PGC-1α mice, which overexpress PGC-1α in the skeletal muscle of ApoE-KO mice, were sacrificed, and the atherosclerotic plaque area, spontaneous activity, plasma lipid profile, and aortic gene expression were measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed. The atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-KO/PGC-1α mice were 40% smaller than those in ApoE-KO mice, concomitant with the reduction in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA and protein levels in the aorta. Spontaneous activity and plasma lipid profiles were not changed by the overexpression of PGC-1α in the skeletal muscle. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Irisin and β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), PGC-1α-dependent myokines, inhibited the tumor necrosis factor α-induced VCAM-1 gene and protein expression. BAIBA also inhibited TNFα-induced MCP-1 gene expression. These results showed that the skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α suppresses atherosclerosis and that PGC-1α-dependent myokines may be involved in the preventive effects observed.
Project description:Skeletal muscle exhibits a high plasticity and accordingly can quickly adapt to different physiological and pathological stimuli by changing its phenotype largely through diverse epigenetic mechanisms. The nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1) has the ability to mediate gene repression; however, its role in regulating biological programs in skeletal muscle is still poorly understood. We therefore studied the mechanistic and functional aspects of NCoR1 function in this tissue. NCoR1 muscle-specific knockout mice exhibited a 7.2% higher peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)), a 11% reduction in maximal isometric force, and increased ex vivo fatigue resistance during maximal stimulation. Interestingly, global gene expression analysis revealed a high overlap between the effects of NCoR1 deletion and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) overexpression on oxidative metabolism in muscle. Importantly, PPARβ/δ and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) were identified as common targets of NCoR1 and PGC-1α with opposing effects on the transcriptional activity of these nuclear receptors. In fact, the repressive effect of NCoR1 on oxidative phosphorylation gene expression specifically antagonizes PGC-1α-mediated coactivation of ERRα. We therefore delineated the molecular mechanism by which a transcriptional network controlled by corepressor and coactivator proteins determines the metabolic properties of skeletal muscle, thus representing a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases.
Project description:Anti-cancer drug resistance is a serious issue for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Although recent studies have shown the mechanism by which CRC cells become drug resistant, novel strategies for overcoming this drug resistance have not yet been developed. To address this problem, we characterized 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-resistant CRC cells after treatment with 5FU, and focused on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) in these cells. In 5FU-resistant CRC cells, the 5FU did not considerably decrease the mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial complex I and IV activities, and only partially decreased the antioxidant enzymatic activity, oxygen consumption ratio, and cell survival. The expression of PGC-1α was remarkably increased in the 5FU-resistant CRC cells compared with the 5FU-sensitive CRC cells. The 5FU-resistant CRC cells displayed enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and antioxidant enzyme activities against 5FU-induced reactive oxygen species, because of the increased expression of PGC-1α. PGC-1α inhibited 5FU-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the 5FU-resistant CRC cells, resulting in the suppression of apoptosis. These findings reveal that PGC-1α plays an important role in drug resistance in 5FU-resistant CRC cells. Moreover, PGC-1α could serve as a novel target in patients with 5FU-resistant CRC.
Project description:Current therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are symptomatic and do not target the underlying Aβ pathology and other important hallmarks including neuronal loss. PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a cofactor for transcription factors including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and it is involved in the regulation of metabolic genes, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis. We previously reported that PGC-1α also regulates the transcription of β-APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1), the main enzyme involved in Aβ generation, and its expression is decreased in AD patients. We aimed to explore the potential therapeutic effect of PGC-1α by generating a lentiviral vector to express human PGC-1α and target it by stereotaxic delivery to hippocampus and cortex of APP23 transgenic mice at the preclinical stage of the disease. Four months after injection, APP23 mice treated with hPGC-1α showed improved spatial and recognition memory concomitant with a significant reduction in Aβ deposition, associated with a decrease in BACE1 expression. hPGC-1α overexpression attenuated the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. This effect was accompanied by a marked preservation of pyramidal neurons in the CA3 area and increased expression of neurotrophic factors. The neuroprotective effects were secondary to a reduction in Aβ pathology and neuroinflammation, because wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were unaffected. These results suggest that the selective induction of PGC-1α gene in specific areas of the brain is effective in targeting AD-related neurodegeneration and holds potential as therapeutic intervention for this disease.
Project description:Age-related impairment of muscle function severely affects the health of an increasing elderly population. While causality and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, exercise is an efficient intervention to blunt these aging effects. We thus investigated the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a potent regulator of mitochondrial function and exercise adaptation, in skeletal muscle during aging. We demonstrate that PGC-1α overexpression improves mitochondrial dynamics and calcium buffering in an estrogen-related receptor α-dependent manner. Moreover, we show that sarcoplasmic reticulum stress is attenuated by PGC-1α. As a result, PGC-1α prevents tubular aggregate formation and cell death pathway activation in old muscle. Similarly, the pro-apoptotic effects of ceramide and thapsigargin were blunted by PGC-1α in muscle cells. Accordingly, mice with muscle-specific gain-of-function and loss-of-function of PGC-1α exhibit a delayed and premature aging phenotype, respectively. Together, our data reveal a key protective effect of PGC-1α on muscle function and overall health span in aging.
Project description:The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) supports visual processing and photoreceptor homeostasis via energetically demanding cellular functions. Here, we describe the consequences of repressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, on RPE epithelial integrity. The sustained silencing of PGC-1α in differentiating human RPE cells affected mitochondria/autophagy function, redox state, and impaired energy sensor activity ultimately inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adult conditional knockout of PGC-1 coactivators in mice resulted in rapid RPE dysfunction and transdifferentiation associated with severe photoreceptor degeneration. RPE anomalies were characteristic of autophagic defect and mesenchymal transition comparable with the ones observed in age-related macular degeneration. These findings demonstrate that PGC-1α is required to maintain the functional and phenotypic status of RPE by supporting the cells' oxidative metabolism and autophagy-mediated repression of EMT.