Complete genome sequence of the gliding freshwater bacterium Fluviicola taffensis type strain (RW262).
ABSTRACT: Fluviicola taffensis O'Sullivan et al. 2005 belongs to the monotypic genus Fluviicola within the family Cryomorphaceae. The species is of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location in the genome-sequenced fraction of the tree of life. Strain RW262(T) forms a monophyletic lineage with uncultivated bacteria represented in freshwater 16S rRNA gene libraries. A similar phylogenetic differentiation occurs between freshwater and marine bacteria in the family Flavobacteriaceae, a sister family to Cryomorphaceae. Most remarkable is the inability of this freshwater bacterium to grow in the presence of Na(+) ions. All other genera in the family Cryomorphaceae are from marine habitats and have an absolute requirement for Na(+) ions or natural sea water. F. taffensis is the first member of the family Cryomorphaceae with a completely sequenced and publicly available genome. The 4,633,577 bp long genome with its 4,082 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Project description:Seaweed is receiving an increasing amount of attention as a "sea vegetable". The microbiota of coastal populations may acquire seaweed associated enzymes through marine food. Several agarases have been found in non-marine environments; however, their origin is unknown. In this study, a hypothetical protein, Aga1, was identified as an agarase from an inland soil agar-degrading bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. SSG-1.Having low similarity to known glycoside hydrolases, Aga1 may be a distant member of the glycoside hydrolase family 86. Aga1 has good pH stability (pH 3-11) and is stable in the presence of various metal ions. Aga1 is an exo-type β-agarase that produces NA 4 (neoagarotetraose) and NA 6 (neoagarohexaose) as its main products. In addition, Aga1 may be a cell-surface-binding protein. The bioinformatic analysis showed aga1 may have been transfered together with its surrounding genes, from marine bacteria to soil bacteria via human microbiota. The use of seaweed as food and the disposal of human faeces or saliva were the most likely reasons for this gene transfer pathway. Notably, the results also indicated that microbes from inland humans may degrade agar and that these microbes may have acquired seaweed associated genes because of increased seaweed in diets.
Project description:In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage.
Project description:The family Cryomorphaceae for many years has been a poorly defined taxonomic group within the order Flavobacteriales, phylum Bacteroidetes. Members of the Cryomorphaceae, apparently consisting of multiple-family level clades, have been mostly but not exclusively detected in saline ecosystems. The problems with the taxonomy of this group have stemmed from inadequate resolution of taxonomic groups using 16S rRNA gene sequences, sparse numbers of cultivated taxa, and limited phenotypic distinctiveness. The Genome Tiaxonomc Database (GTDB), which is based on normalized taxonomic ranks includes Cryomorphaceae as containing the genera Owenweeksia and Schleiferia. This is at odds with the official taxonomy that places these genera in the family Schleiferiaceae. The other Cryomorphaceae affiliated species have even more uncertain taxonomic positions including Cryomorpha ignava. To clarify the taxonomy of Cryomorphaceae, genomes were generated for all type strains of the family Cryomorphaceae lacking such data. The GTDB-toolkit (GTDB-tk) was used to place taxa in the GTDB, which revealed novelty at the family level for some of these type strains. 16S rRNA gene sequences and concatenated protein sequences were used to further evaluate the taxonomy of the order Flavobacteriales. From the data, the GTDB enabled successful clarification of the taxonomy of the family Cryomorphaceae. A number of placeholder families were given Latinized names. It is proposed that the family Cryomorphaceae is emended to include only the species Cryomorpha ignava. The family Schleiferiaceae is emended to account for the expansion of its membership. Luteibaculum oceani represents a new family designated Luteibaculaceae fam. nov. Vicingus serpentipes is the representative of Vicingaceae fam. nov. while Salibacter halophilus represents Salibacteraceae fam. nov.
Project description:Anthropogenic sources increase freshwater salinity and produce differences in constituent ions compared with natural waters. Moreover, ions differ in physiological roles and concentrations in intracellular and extracellular fluids. Four freshwater taxa groups are compared, to investigate similarities and differences in ion transport processes and what ion transport mechanisms suggest about the toxicity of these or other ions in freshwater. Although differences exist, many ion transporters are functionally similar and may belong to evolutionarily conserved protein families. For example, the Na+ /H+ -exchanger in teleost fish differs from the H+ /2Na+ (or Ca2+ )-exchanger in crustaceans. In osmoregulation, Na+ and Cl- predominate. Stenohaline freshwater animals hyperregulate until they are no longer able to maintain hypertonic extracellular Na+ and Cl- concentrations with increasing salinity and become isotonic. Toxic effects of K+ are related to ionoregulation and volume regulation. The ionic balance between intracellular and extracellular fluids is maintained by Na+ /K+ -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), but details are lacking on apical K+ transporters. Elevated H+ affects the maintenance of internal Na+ by Na+ /H+ exchange; elevated HCO3- inhibits Cl- uptake. The uptake of Mg2+ occurs by the gills or intestine, but details are lacking on Mg2+ transporters. In unionid gills, SO42- is actively transported, but most epithelia are generally impermeant to SO42- . Transporters of Ca2+ maintain homeostasis of dissolved Ca2+ . More integration of physiology with toxicology is needed to fully understand freshwater ion effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:576-600. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
Project description:All living cells routinely expel Na(+) ions, maintaining lower concentration of Na(+) in the cytoplasm than in the surrounding milieu. In the vast majority of bacteria, as well as in mitochondria and chloroplasts, export of Na(+) occurs at the expense of the proton-motive force. Some bacteria, however, possess primary generators of the transmembrane electrochemical gradient of Na(+) (sodium-motive force). These primary Na(+) pumps have been traditionally seen as adaptations to high external pH or to high temperature. Subsequent studies revealed, however, the mechanisms for primary sodium pumping in a variety of non-extremophiles, such as marine bacteria and certain bacterial pathogens. Further, many alkaliphiles and hyperthermophiles were shown to rely on H(+), not Na(+), as the coupling ion. We review here the recent progress in understanding the role of sodium-motive force, including (i) the conclusion on evolutionary primacy of the sodium-motive force as energy intermediate, (ii) the mechanisms, evolutionary advantages and limitations of switching from Na(+) to H(+) as the coupling ion, and (iii) the possible reasons why certain pathogenic bacteria still rely on the sodium-motive force.
Project description:Alkaliphilic Bacillus species grow at pH values up to approximately 11. Motile alkaliphilic Bacillus use electrochemical gradients of Na(+) (sodium-motive force) to power ion-coupled, flagella-mediated motility as opposed to the electrochemical gradients of H(+) (proton-motive force) used by most neutralophilic bacteria. Membrane-embedded stators of bacterial flagella contain ion channels through which either H(+) or Na(+) flow to energize flagellar rotation. Stators of the major H(+)-coupled type, MotAB, are distinguishable from Na(+)-coupled stators, PomAB of marine bacteria and MotPS of alkaliphilic Bacillus. Dual ion-coupling capacity is found in neutralophilic Bacillus strains with both MotAB and MotPS. There is also a MotAB variant that uses both coupling ions, switching as a function of pH. Chemotaxis of alkaliphilic Bacillus depends upon flagellar motility but also requires a distinct voltage-gated NaChBac-type channel. The two alkaliphile Na(+) channels provide new vistas on the diverse adaptations of sensory responses in bacteria.
Project description:Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) represents a convenient model to study microevolution - adaptation to freshwater environment. While genetic adaptations to freshwater are well-studied, epigenetic adaptations attracted little attention. In this work, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in the adaptation of marine stickleback population to freshwater conditions. DNA methylation profiling was performed in marine and freshwater populations of sticklebacks, as well as in marine sticklebacks placed into freshwater environment and freshwater sticklebacks placed into seawater. For the first time, we demonstrated that genes encoding ion channels kcnd3, cacna1fb, gja3 are differentially methylated between marine and freshwater populations. We also showed that after placing marine stickleback into fresh water, its DNA methylation profile partially converges to the one of a freshwater stickleback. This suggests that immediate epigenetic response to freshwater conditions can be maintained in freshwater population. Interestingly, we observed enhanced epigenetic plasticity in freshwater sticklebacks that may serve as a compensatory regulatory mechanism for the lack of genetic variation in the freshwater population. Some of the regions that were reported previously to be under selection in freshwater populations also show differential methylation. Thus, epigenetic changes might represent a parallel mechanism of adaptation along with genetic selection in freshwater environment. Overall design: The following sample groups were studied: 1) marine sticklebacks kept in marine water, their natural habitat (M@M); 2) freshwater sticklebacks kept in freshwater (F@F); 3) marine sticklebacks incubated in fresh water for 4 days (M@F); 4) freshwater sticklebacks incubated in marine water for 4 days (F@M). In each gruop, 3 individual fish were profiled.
Project description:Cyanobacteria possess a highly effective CO(2)-concentrating mechanism that elevates CO(2) concentrations around the primary carboxylase, Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase). This CO(2)-concentrating mechanism incorporates light-dependent, active uptake systems for CO(2) and HCO(-)(3). Through mutant studies in a coastal marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7002, we identified bicA as a gene that encodes a class of HCO(-)(3) transporter with relatively low transport affinity, but high flux rate. BicA is widely represented in genomes of oceanic cyanobacteria and belongs to a large family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic transporters presently annotated as sulfate transporters or permeases in many bacteria (SulP family). Further gain-of-function experiments in the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 revealed that bicA expression alone is sufficient to confer a Na(+)-dependent, HCO(3)(-) uptake activity. We identified and characterized three cyanobacterial BicA transporters in this manner, including one from the ecologically important oceanic strain, Synechococcus WH8102. This study presents functional data concerning prokaryotic members of the SulP transporter family and represents a previously uncharacterized transport function for the family. The discovery of BicA has significant implications for understanding the important contribution of oceanic strains of cyanobacteria to global CO(2) sequestration processes.
Project description:In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the changes in taxonomic composition and environmental factors significantly influencing bacterial community structure across an annual cycle in the Estuary of Bilbao as well as its tributaries. In spite of this estuary being small and characterized by a short residence time, the environmental factors most highly correlated with the bacterial community mirrored those reported to govern larger estuaries, specifically salinity and temperature. Additionally, bacterial community changes in the estuary appeared to vary with precipitation. For example, an increase in freshwater bacteria (Comamonadaceae and Sphingobacteriaceae) was observed in high precipitation periods compared to the predominately marine-like bacteria (Rhodobacterales and Oceanospirillales) that were found in low precipitation periods. Notably, we observed a significantly higher relative abundance of Comamonadaceae than previously described in other estuaries. Furthermore, anthropic factors could have an impact on this particular estuary's bacterial community structure. For example, ecosystem changes related to the channelization of the estuary likely induced a low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, high temperature, and high chlorophyll concentration period in the inner euhaline water in summer (samples with salinity >30 ppt). Those samples were characterized by a high abundance of facultative anaerobes. For instance, OTUs classified as Cryomorphaceae and Candidatus Aquiluna rubra were negatively associated with DO concentration, while Oleiphilaceae was positively associated with DO concentration. Additionally, microorganisms related to biological treatment of wastewater (e.g Bdellovibrio and Zoogloea) were detected in the samples immediately downstream of the Bilbao Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). There are several human activities planned in the region surrounding the Estuary of Bilbao (e.g. sediment draining, architectural changes, etc.) which will likely affect this ecosystem. Therefore, the addition of bacterial community profiling and diversity analysis into the estuary's ongoing monitoring program would provide a more comprehensive view of the ecological status of the Estuary of Bilbao.
Project description:Many pathogenic bacteria utilise sialic acids as an energy source or use them as an external coating to evade immune detection. As such, bacteria that colonise sialylated environments deploy specific transporters to mediate import of scavenged sialic acids. Here, we report a substrate-bound 1.95 Å resolution structure and subsequent characterisation of SiaT, a sialic acid transporter from Proteus mirabilis. SiaT is a secondary active transporter of the sodium solute symporter (SSS) family, which use Na+ gradients to drive the uptake of extracellular substrates. SiaT adopts the LeuT-fold and is in an outward-open conformation in complex with the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid and two Na+ ions. One Na+ binds to the conserved Na2 site, while the second Na+ binds to a new position, termed Na3, which is conserved in many SSS family members. Functional and molecular dynamics studies validate the substrate-binding site and demonstrate that both Na+ sites regulate N-acetylneuraminic acid transport.