Bone marrow-derived CMPs and GMPs represent highly functional proangiogenic cells: implications for ischemic cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT: Clinical studies using bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs) have demonstrated modest improvements of function and/or perfusion of ischemic myocardium or skeletal muscle. Because the identities of these PACs and their functional ability to promote neovascularization remain poorly understood, it is possible that a subset of robust PACs exists but is obscured by the heterogeneous nature of this cell population. Herein, we found that common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) preferentially differentiate into PACs compared with megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors, hematopoietic stem cells, and common lymphoid progenitors. In vivo hindlimb ischemia studies and Matrigel plug assays verified the enhanced neovascularization properties uniquely associated with PACs derived from CMPs and GMPs. Taken together, these observations identify CMPs and GMPs as key bone marrow progenitors for optimal PAC function in vitro and in vivo and provide a foundation for novel therapeutic approaches to modulate angiogenesis.
Project description:Emerging evidence demonstrates that proangiogenic cells (PACs) originate from the BM and are capable of being recruited to sites of ischemic injury where they contribute to neovascularization. We previously determined that among hematopoietic progenitor stem cells, common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GMPs) differentiate into PACs and possess robust angiogenic activity under ischemic conditions. Herein, we report that a TGF-?1-responsive Krüppel- like factor, KLF10, is strongly expressed in PACs derived from CMPs and GMPs, ? 60-fold higher than in progenitors lacking PAC markers. KLF10(-/-) mice present with marked defects in PAC differentiation, function, TGF-? responsiveness, and impaired blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia, an effect rescued by wild-type PACs, but not KLF10(-/-) PACs. Overexpression studies revealed that KLF10 could rescue PAC formation from TGF-?1(+/-) CMPs and GMPs. Mechanistically, KLF10 targets the VEGFR2 promoter in PACs which may underlie the observed effects. These findings may be clinically relevant because KLF10 expression was also found to be significantly reduced in PACs from patients with peripheral artery disease. Collectively, these observations identify TGF-?1 signaling and KLF10 as key regulators of functional PACs derived from CMPs and GMPs and may provide a therapeutic target during cardiovascular ischemic states.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a perivascular niche in bone marrow, in which leptin receptor+ (LepR) stromal cells and endothelial cells synthesize factors required for HSC maintenance, including stem cell factor (SCF). An important question is why LepR+ cells are one hundred times more frequent than HSCs. Here, we show that SCF from LepR+ cells is also necessary to maintain many c-kit+-restricted hematopoietic progenitors. Conditional deletion of Scf from LepR+ cells depleted common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs), pre-megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (PreMegEs), and colony-forming units-erythroid (CFU-Es), as well as myeloid and erythroid blood cells. This was not caused by HSC depletion, as many other restricted progenitors were unaffected. Moreover, Scf deletion from endothelial cells depleted HSCs, but not progenitors. Early erythroid progenitors were closely associated with perisinusoidal LepR+ cells. This reveals cellular specialization within the niche: SCF from LepR+ cells is broadly required by HSCs and restricted progenitors while SCF from endothelial cells is required mainly by HSCs.
Project description:Growing evidence suggests that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), precursors of mature immune cells, may play a direct role in immunosurveillance. Early myeloid progenitors are the major components of HSPCs and they often undergo extensive expansion in stress as a result of myeloid-biased hematopoiesis. Yet, the precise function of early myeloid progenitors remains unclear. Here we show that during tumor progression, mouse granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMPs) but not common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) are markedly expanded within the bone marrow and blood of mice. Interestingly, both GMPs and CMPs freshly isolated from either tumor-bearing or naïve animals are capable of inhibiting polyclonal stimuli- and alloantigen-induced T cell proliferation, with tumor host-derived cells having elevated activities. Strikingly, these early myeloid progenitor cells even display much stronger suppressive capacity than the classical myeloid-derived suppressive cells. Analysis of GMPs indicates that they express iNOS and can secrete high levels of NO. Further studies unusing iNOS specific inhibitors reveal that the immunosuppression of GMPs is, to a large extent, NO-dependent. GMPs can also efficiently induce regulatory T cell development. These studies demonstrate that early myeloid progenitors can act as immunosuppressive cells. This finding provides novel insights into the functional diversity and plasticity of early myeloid progenitor cells.
Project description:Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) residing in the epidermis that play a major role in skin immunity. Our earlier studies showed that when skin is inflamed LCs are replaced by bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, while during steady-state conditions LCs are able to self-renew in the skin. Identification of the LC progenitors in bone marrow would represent a critical step toward identifying the factors that regulate LC generation as well as their trafficking to the skin. To determine LC lineage origin, we reconstituted lethally irradiated CD45.2 mice with rigorously purified lymphoid and myeloid progenitors from CD45.1 congenic mice. Twenty-four hours later, we exposed the mice to UV light to deplete resident LCs and induce their replacement by progenitors. Reconstitution with common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), or early thymic progenitors led to LC generation within 2 to 3 weeks. CMPs were at least 20 times more efficient at generating LCs than CLPs. LCs from both lineages were derived almost entirely from fetal liver kinase-2+ (Flk-2+) progenitors, displayed typical dendritic-cell (DC) morphology, and showed long-term persistence in the skin. These results indicate that LCs are derived mainly from myeloid progenitors and are dependent on Flt3-ligand for their development.
Project description:PTPN11, which encodes the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, is mutated in approximately 35% of patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and at a lower incidence in other neoplasms. To model JMML pathogenesis, we generated knockin mice that conditionally express the leukemia-associated mutant Ptpn11(D61Y). Expression of Ptpn11(D61Y) in all hematopoietic cells evokes a fatal myeloproliferative disorder (MPD), featuring leukocytosis, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and factor-independent colony formation by bone marrow (BM) and spleen cells. The Lin(-)Sca1(+)cKit(+) (LSK) compartment is expanded and "right-shifted," accompanied by increased stem cell factor (SCF)-evoked colony formation and Erk and Akt activation. However, repopulating activity is decreased in diseased mice, and mice that do engraft with Ptpn11(D61Y) stem cells fail to develop MPD. Ptpn11(D61Y) common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) produce cytokine-independent colonies in a cell-autonomous manner and demonstrate elevated Erk and Stat5 activation in response to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulation. Ptpn11(D61Y) megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs) yield increased numbers of erythrocyte burst-forming units (BFU-Es), but MEPs and erythrocyte-committed progenitors (EPs) produce fewer erythrocyte colony-forming units (CFU-Es), indicating defective erythroid differentiation. Our studies provide a mouse model for Ptpn11-evoked MPD and show that this disease results from cell-autonomous and distinct lineage-specific effects of mutant Ptpn11 on multiple stages of hematopoiesis.
Project description:Insertional mutagenesis resulting from the integration of retroviral vectors has led to the discovery of many oncogenes associated with leukemia. We investigated the role of HOXC6, identified by proximal provirus integration in a large animal hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy study, for a potential involvement in hematopoietic stem cell activity and hematopoietic cell fate decision. HOXC6 was overexpressed in the murine bone marrow transplantation model and tested in a competitive repopulation assay in comparison to the known hematopoietic stem cell expansion factor, HOXB4. We have identified HOXC6 as a factor that enhances competitive repopulation capacity in vivo and colony formation in vitro. Ectopic HOXC6 expression also induced strong myeloid differentiation and expansion of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors/common myeloid progenitors (GMPs/CMPs) in vivo, resulting in myeloid malignancies with low penetrance (3 of 17 mice), likely in collaboration with Meis1 because of a provirus integration mapped to the 3' region in the malignant clone. We characterized the molecular basis of HOXC6-induced myeloid differentiation and malignant cell transformation with complementary DNA microarray analysis. Overexpression of HOXC6 induced a gene expression signature similar to several acute myeloid leukemia subtypes when compared with normal GMPs/CMPs. These results demonstrate that HOXC6 acts as a regulator in hematopoiesis and is involved in malignant transformation.
Project description:Background:Classical cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) are associated with impaired angiogenic activities of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs) related to peripheral artery diseases (PADs) and ischemia-induced neovascularization. MicroRNAs (miRs) are key regulators of gene expression, and they are involved in the modulation of PAC function and PAC paracrine activity. However, the effects of CRFs on the modulation of miR expression in PACs are unknown. Aims and Methods:We used a model of hindlimb ischemia and next-generation sequencing to perform a complete profiling of miRs in PACs isolated from the bone marrow of mice subjected to three models of CRFs: aging, smoking (SMK) and hypercholesterolemia (HC). Results:Approximately 570 miRs were detected in PACs in the different CRF models. When excluding miRs with a very low expression level (<100 RPM), 40 to 61 miRs were found to be significantly modulated by aging, SMK, or HC. In each CRF condition, we identified downregulated proangiogenic miRs and upregulated antiangiogenic miRs that could contribute to explain PAC dysfunction. Interestingly, several miRs were similarly downregulated (e.g., miR-542-3p, miR-29) or upregulated (e.g., miR-501, miR-92a) in all CRF conditions. In silico approaches including Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and cluster dendogram analyses identified predictive effects of these miRs on pathways having key roles in the modulation of angiogenesis and PAC function, including vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, extracellular matrix remodeling, PI3K/AKT/MAPK signaling, transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) pathway, p53, and cell cycle progression. Conclusion:This study describes for the first time the effects of CRFs on the modulation of miR profile in PACs related to PAD and ischemia-induced neovascularization. We found that several angiogenesis-modulating miRs are similarly altered in different CRF conditions. Our findings constitute a solid framework for the identification of miRs that could be targeted in PACs in order to improve their angiogenic function and for the future development of novel therapies to improve neovascularization and reduce tissue damage in patients with severe PAD.
Project description:Granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) and monocyte-dendritic cell progenitors (MDPs) produce monocytes during homeostasis and in response to increased demand during infection. Both progenitor populations are thought to derive from common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), and a hierarchical relationship (CMP-GMP-MDP-monocyte) is presumed to underlie monocyte differentiation. Here, however, we demonstrate that mouse MDPs arose from CMPs independently of GMPs, and that GMPs and MDPs produced monocytes via similar but distinct monocyte-committed progenitors. GMPs and MDPs yielded classical (Ly6Chi) monocytes with gene expression signatures that were defined by their origins and impacted their function. GMPs produced a subset of "neutrophil-like" monocytes, whereas MDPs gave rise to a subset of monocytes that yielded monocyte-derived dendritic cells. GMPs and MDPs were also independently mobilized to produce specific combinations of myeloid cell types following the injection of microbial components. Thus, the balance of GMP and MDP differentiation shapes the myeloid cell repertoire during homeostasis and following infection.
Project description:Extracellular nucleotides are emerging as important regulators of inflammation, cell proliferation and differentiation in a variety of tissues, including the hematopoietic system. In this study, the role of ATP was investigated during murine hematopoiesis. ATP was able to reduce the percentage of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), common myeloid progenitors and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), whereas differentiation into megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors was not affected. In addition, in vivo administration of ATP to mice reduced the number of GMPs, but increased the number of Gr-1(+)Mac-1(+) myeloid cells. ATP also induced an increased proliferation rate and reduced Notch expression in HSCs and impaired HSC-mediated bone marrow reconstitution in sublethally irradiated mice. Moreover, the effects elicited by ATP were inhibited by suramin, a P2 receptor antagonist, and BAPTA, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator. We further investigated whether the presence of cytokines might modulate the observed ATP-induced differentiation. Treatment of cells with cytokines (stem cell factor, interleukin-3 and granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulator factor) before ATP stimulation led to reduced ATP-dependent differentiation in long-term bone marrow cultures, thereby restoring the ability of HSCs to reconstitute hematopoiesis. Thus, our data suggest that ATP induces the differentiation of murine HSCs into the myeloid lineage and that this effect can be modulated by cytokines.
Project description:The C-type lectin domain family 12, member A (CLEC12A) receptor has emerged as a leukaemia-associated and cancer stem cell marker in myeloid malignancies. However, a detailed delineation of its expression in normal haematopoiesis is lacking. Here, we have characterized the expression pattern of CLEC12A on the earliest stem- and myeloid progenitor subsets in normal bone marrow. We demonstrate distinct CLEC12A expression in the classically defined myeloid progenitors, where on average 39.1% (95% CI [32.5;45.7]) of the common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) expressed CLEC12A, while for granulocyte-macrophage progenitors and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEPs), the average percentages were 81.0% (95% CI [76.0;85.9]) and 11.9% (95% CI [9.3;14.6]), respectively. In line with the reduced CLEC12A expression on MEPs, functional assessment of purified CLEC12A+/- CMPs and MEPs in the colony-forming unit assay demonstrated CLEC12A+ subsets to favour non-erythroid colony growth. In conclusion, we provide evidence that the earliest CLEC12A+ cell in the haematopoietic tree is the classically defined CMP. Furthermore, we show that CLEC12A-expressing CMPs and MEPs are functionally different than their negative counterparts. Importantly, these data can help determine which cells will be spared during CLEC12A-targeted therapy, and we propose CLEC12A to be included in future studies of myeloid cancer stem cell biology.