MiR-365: a mechanosensitive microRNA stimulates chondrocyte differentiation through targeting histone deacetylase 4.
ABSTRACT: Mechanical stress plays an essential role in tissue development and remodeling. In this study, we determined the role of microRNA in chondrocyte mechanotransduction. Using microarray, we identified miR-365 as a mechanoresponsive microRNA in parallel to mechanical induction of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in primary chicken chondrocytes cultured in 3-dimensional collagen scaffoldings under cyclic loading (1 Hz, 5% elongation). Interestingly, expression of miR-365 is elevated in the prehypertrophic zone of the growth plate, coinciding with the Ihh expression region in vivo. MiR-365 significantly stimulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. MiR-365 increases expression of Ihh and the hypertrophic marker type X collagen, whereas anti-miR-365 inhibits the expression of these genes. We identified histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), an inhibitor of chondrocyte hypertrophy, as a target of miR-365. MiR-365 inhibits both endogenous HDAC4 protein levels as well as the activity of a reporter gene bearing the 3'-untranslated region of HDAC4 mRNA. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous miR-365 relieves the repression of HDAC4. Mutation of the miR-365 binding site in HDAC4 mRNA abolishes miR-365-mediated repression of the reporter gene activity. Overexpression of HDAC4 reverses miR-365 stimulation of chondrocyte differentiation markers including Ihh, Col X, and Runx2. Moreover, inhibition of miR-365 abolishes mechanical stimulation of chondrocyte differentiation. Taken together, miR-365 is the first identified mechanically responsive microRNA that regulates chondrocyte differentiation via directly targeting HDAC4.
Project description:In the growth plate, the interplay between parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling tightly regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during longitudinal bone growth. We found that PTHrP increases the expression of Zfp521, a zinc finger transcriptional coregulator, in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Mice with chondrocyte-targeted deletion of Zfp521 resembled PTHrP(-/-) and chondrocyte-specific PTHR1(-/-) mice, with decreased chondrocyte proliferation, early hypertrophic transition, and reduced growth plate thickness. Deleting Zfp521 increased expression of Runx2 and Runx2 target genes, and decreased Cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 expression while increasing Caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Zfp521 associated with Runx2 in chondrocytes, antagonizing its activity via an HDAC4-dependent mechanism. PTHrP failed to upregulate Cyclin D1 and to antagonize Runx2, Ihh, and collagen X expression when Zfp521 was absent. Thus, Zfp521 is an important PTHrP target gene that regulates growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.
Project description:The differentiation of mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes and chondrocyte proliferation and maturation are fundamental steps in skeletal development. Runx2 is essential for osteoblast differentiation and is involved in chondrocyte maturation. Although chondrocyte maturation is delayed in Runx2-deficient (Runx2(-/-)) mice, terminal differentiation of chondrocytes does occur, indicating that additional factors are involved in chondrocyte maturation. We investigated the involvement of Runx3 in chondrocyte differentiation by generating Runx2-and-Runx3-deficient (Runx2(-/-)3(-/-)) mice. We found that chondrocyte differentiation was inhibited depending on the dosages of Runx2 and Runx3, and Runx2(-/-)3(-/-) mice showed a complete absence of chondrocyte maturation. Further, the length of the limbs was reduced depending on the dosages of Runx2 and Runx3, due to reduced and disorganized chondrocyte proliferation and reduced cell size in the diaphyses. Runx2(-/-)3(-/-) mice did not express Ihh, which regulates chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. Adenoviral introduction of Runx2 in Runx2(-/-) chondrocyte cultures strongly induced Ihh expression. Moreover, Runx2 directly bound to the promoter region of the Ihh gene and strongly induced expression of the reporter gene driven by the Ihh promoter. These findings demonstrate that Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation and that Runx2 regulates limb growth by organizing chondrocyte maturation and proliferation through the induction of Ihh expression.
Project description:Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is essential for chondrocyte differentiation and endochondral ossification and acts with parathyroid hormone-related peptide in a negative feedback loop to regulate early chondrocyte differentiation and entry to hypertrophic differentiation. Independent of this function, we and others recently reported independent Ihh functions to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy and matrix mineralization in vivo and in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms for these actions and their functional significance are still unknown. We recently discovered that Ihh overexpression in chondrocytes stimulated the expression of late chondrocyte differentiation markers and induced matrix mineralization. Focusing on collagen type X (Col10?1) expression and transcription, we observed that hedgehog downstream transcription factors GLI-Krüppel family members (Gli) 1/2 increased COL10A1 promoter activity and identified a novel Gli1/2 response element in the 250-bp basic promoter. In addition, we found that Ihh induced Runx2 expression in chondrocytes without up-regulating other modulators of chondrocyte maturation such as Mef2c, Foxa2, and Foxa3. Runx2 promoted Col10?1 expression in cooperation with Ihh. Further analyses using promoter assays, immunofluorescence, and binding assays showed the interaction of Gli1/2 in a complex with Runx2/Smads induces chondrocyte differentiation. Finally, we could demonstrate that Ihh promotes in vitro matrix mineralization using similar molecular mechanisms. Our data provide an in vitro mechanism for Ihh signaling to positively regulate Col10?1 transcription. Thus, Ihh signaling could be an important player for not only early chondrocyte differentiation but maturation and calcification of chondrocytes.
Project description:During endochondral bone formation, chondrocyte hypertrophy represents a crucial turning point from chondrocyte differentiation to bone formation. Both parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy. Using multiple mouse genetics models, we demonstrate in vivo that HDAC4 is required for the effects of PTHrP on chondrocyte differentiation. We further show in vivo that PTHrP leads to reduced HDAC4 phosphorylation at the 14-3-3-binding sites and subsequent HDAC4 nuclear translocation. The Hdac4-KO mouse shares a similar but milder phenotype with the Pthrp-KO mouse, indicating the possible existence of other mediators of PTHrP action. We identify HDAC5 as an additional mediator of PTHrP signaling. While the Hdac5-KO mouse has no growth plate phenotype at birth, the KO of Hdac5 in addition to the KO of Hdac4 is required to block fully PTHrP action on chondrocyte differentiation at birth in vivo. Finally, we show that PTHrP suppresses myocyte enhancer factor 2 (Mef2) action that allows runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) mRNA expression needed for chondrocyte hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP inhibits chondrocyte hypertrophy and subsequent bone formation in vivo by allowing HDAC4 and HDAC5 to block the Mef2/Runx2 signaling cascade. These results explain the phenotypes of several genetic abnormalities in humans.
Project description:TGF?s act through canonical and non-canonical pathways, and canonical signals are transduced via Smad2 and Smad3. However, the contribution of canonical vs. non-canonical pathways in cartilage is unknown because the role of Smad2 in chondrogenesis has not been investigated in vivo. Therefore, we analyzed mice in which Smad2 is deleted in cartilage (Smad2CKO), global Smad3-/- mutants, and crosses of these strains. Growth plates at birth from all mutant strains exhibited expanded columnar and hypertrophic zones, linked to increased proliferation in resting chondrocytes. Defects were more severe in Smad2CKO and Smad2CKO;Smad3-/- (Smad2/3) mutant mice than in Smad3-/- mice, demonstrating that Smad2 plays a role in chondrogenesis. Increased levels of Ihh RNA, a key regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, were seen in prehypertrophic chondrocytes in the three mutant strains at birth. In accordance, TGF? treatment decreased Ihh RNA levels in primary chondrocytes from control (Smad2fx/fx) mice, but inhibition was impaired in cells from mutants. Consistent with the skeletal phenotype, the impact on TGF?-mediated inhibition of Ihh RNA expression was more severe in Smad2CKO than in Smad3-/- cells. Putative Smad2/3 binding elements (SBEs) were identified in the proximal Ihh promoter. Mutagenesis demonstrated a role for three of them. ChIP analysis suggested that Smad2 and Smad3 have different affinities for these SBEs, and that the repressors SnoN and Ski were differentially recruited by Smad2 and Smad3, respectively. Furthermore, nuclear localization of the repressor Hdac4 was decreased in growth plates of Smad2CKO and double mutant mice. TGF? induced association of Hdac4 with Smad2, but not with Smad3, on the Ihh promoter. Overall, these studies revealed that Smad2 plays an essential role in the development of the growth plate, that both Smads 2 and 3 inhibit Ihh expression in the neonatal growth plate, and suggested they accomplish this by binding to distinct SBEs, mediating assembly of distinct repressive complexes.
Project description:The adult heart is composed primarily of terminally differentiated, mature cardiomyocytes that express signature genes related to contraction. In response to mechanical or pathological stress, the heart undergoes hypertrophic growth, a process defined as an increase in cardiomyocyte cell size without an increase in cell number. However, the molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy is not fully understood.To identify and characterize microRNAs that regulate cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling.Screening for muscle-expressed microRNAs that are dynamically regulated during muscle differentiation and hypertrophy identified microRNA-22 (miR-22) as a cardiac- and skeletal muscle-enriched microRNA that is upregulated during myocyte differentiation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Overexpression of miR-22 was sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We generated mouse models with global and cardiac-specific miR-22 deletion, and we found that cardiac miR-22 was essential for hypertrophic cardiac growth in response to stress. miR-22-null hearts blunted cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac remodeling in response to 2 independent stressors: isoproterenol infusion and an activated calcineurin transgene. Loss of miR-22 sensitized mice to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy under stress conditions. We identified Sirt1 and Hdac4 as miR-22 targets in the heart.Our studies uncover miR-22 as a critical regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac remodeling.
Project description:RAGE, receptor for advanced glycation endoproducts (AGE), has been characterized as an activator of osteoclastgenesis. However, whether RAGE directly regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation is unclear. Here, we show that RAGE has an inhibitory role in chondrocyte differentiation. RAGE expression was observed in chondrocytes from the prehypertrophic to hypertrophic regions. In cultured cells, overexpression of RAGE or dominant-negative-RAGE (DN-RAGE) demonstrated that RAGE inhibited cartilaginous matrix production, while DN-RAGE promoted production. Additionally, RAGE regulated Ihh and Col10a1 negatively but upregulated PTHrP receptor. Ihh promoter analysis and real-time PCR analysis suggested that downregulation of Cdxs was the key for RAGE-induced inhibition of chondrocyte differentiation. Overexpression of the NF-?B inhibitor I-?B-SR inhibited RAGE-induced NF-?B activation, but did not influence inhibition of cartilaginous matrix production by RAGE. The inhibitory action of RAGE was restored by the Rho family GTPases inhibitor Toxin B. Furthermore, inhibitory action on Ihh, Col10a1 and Cdxs was reproduced by constitutively active forms, L63RhoA, L61Rac, and L61Cdc42, but not by I-?B-SR. Cdx1 induced Ihh and Col10a1 expressions and directly interacted with Ihh promoter. Retinoic acid (RA) partially rescued the inhibitory action of RAGE. These data combined suggests that RAGE negatively regulates chondrocyte differentiation at the prehypertrophic stage by modulating NF-?B-independent and Rho family GTPases-dependent mechanisms.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>MicroRNAs act as post-transcriptional regulators that repress translation or degrade mRNA transcripts. Each microRNA has many mRNA targets and each mRNA may be targeted by several microRNAs. Skeletal muscles express a plethora of microRNA genes that regulate muscle development and function by controlling the expression of protein-coding target genes. To expand our understanding of the role of microRNA, specifically bta-miR-365-3p, in muscle biology, we investigated its functions in regulating primary bovine myoblast proliferation and differentiation.<h4>Results</h4>Firstly, we found that bta-miR-365-3p was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart tissue in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle. Quantitative PCR and western blotting results showed that overexpression of bta-miR-365-3p significantly reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 (CCND1), cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) but stimulated the expression levels of muscle differentiation markers, i.e., MYOD1, MYOG at both mRNA and protein level. Moreover, downregulation of bta-miR-365-3p increased the expression of CCND1, CDK2 and PCNA but decreased the expression of MYOD1 and MYOG at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, flow cytometry, EdU proliferation assays and immunostaining results showed that increased levels of bta-miR-365-3p suppressed cell proliferation but promoted myotube formation, whereas decreased levels of bta-miR-365-3p resulted in the opposite consequences. Finally, we identified that activin A receptor type I (ACVR1) could be a direct target of bta-miR-365-3p. It was demonstrated that bta-miR-365-3p can bind to the 3'UTR of ACVR1 gene to regulate its expression based on dual luciferase gene reporter assays. Consistently, knock-down of ACVR1 was associated with decreased expressions of CDK2, CCND1 and PCNA but increased expression of MYOG and MYOD1 both at mRNA and protein level.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Collectively, these data suggested that bta-miR-365-3p represses proliferation but promotes differentiation of bovine myoblasts through several biological mechanisms involving downregulation of ACVR1.
Project description:MicroRNAs are a population of short non-coding RNAs with widespread negative regulatory impact on mRNA translation. Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC) are a rare population in human cord blood that can be induced into cells representative of all three germinal layers. Here we analyzed the functional impact of miRNAs on the osteogenic differentiation in USSC.Gene expression profiling identified 20 microRNAs that were consistently upregulated during osteogenic differentiation of two different USSC cell lines (SA5/73 and SA8/25). Bioinformatic target gene prediction indicated that among these microRNAs, miR-10a, -22, -26a, -26b, and -29b recognize transcripts that encode a set of proteins inhibiting osteogenesis. We subsequently verified osteo-inhibitory CDK6, CTNNBIP1, HDAC4, and TOB1 and osteo-promoting SMAD1 as targets of these microRNAs. In Western blot analyses demonstrated that endogenous levels of CDK6 and HDAC4 were downregulated during osteogenic differentiation of USSC and reduced following ectopic expression of miR-26a/b and miR-29b. In contrast, endogenous expression of SMAD1, targeted by miR-26a/b, was unaltered during osteogenic differentiation of USSC or following ectopic expression of miR-26a/b. Functional overexpression analyses using microRNA mimics revealed that miR-26a/b, as well as miR-29b strongly accelerated osteogenic differentiation of USSC as assessed by Alizarin-Red staining and calcium-release assays.miR-26a/b and miR-29b are upregulated during osteogenic differentiation of USSC and share target genes inhibiting osteogenesis. Furthermore, these microRNAs accelerate osteogenic differentiation, likely mediated by osteo-inhibitory proteins such as CDK6 and HDAC4.
Project description:Endochondral bone formation is fundamental for skeletal development. During this process, chondrocytes undergo multiple steps of differentiation and coordinated transition from a proliferating to a hypertrophic stage, which is critical to advance skeletal development. Here, we identified the transcription factor Dmrt2 (double-sex and mab-3 related transcription factor 2) as a Sox9-inducible gene that promotes chondrocyte hypertrophy in pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes. Epigenetic analysis further demonstrated that Sox9 regulates Dmrt2 expression through an active enhancer located 18 kb upstream of the Dmrt2 gene and that this enhancer's chromatin status is progressively activated through chondrocyte differentiation. Dmrt2-knockout mice exhibited a dwarf phenotype with delayed initiation of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Dmrt2 augmented hypertrophic chondrocyte gene expression including Ihh through physical and functional interaction with Runx2. Furthermore, Dmrt2 deficiency reduced Runx2-dependent Ihh expression. Our findings suggest that Dmrt2 is critical for sequential chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone formation and coordinates the transcriptional network between Sox9 and Runx2.