Titrated oxygen requirement and prognostication in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
ABSTRACT: The supplemental oxygen flow rate is a common bedside measure of gas exchange impairment. We aimed to determine whether a titrated oxygen requirement (TOR) predicted mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We examined 104 adults with IPF enrolled in a prospective cohort study and a validation cohort of 151 adults with a variety of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). The TOR was defined as the lowest oxygen flow rate required to maintain an oxyhaemoglobin saturation of 96% while standing. Cox proportional hazards models and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves were used to examine survival time. A higher TOR was associated with a greater mortality rate independent of forced vital capacity and 6-min walk test results in IPF (adjusted hazard ratio (per 1 L·min(-1)) 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.27). The TOR was at least as accurate as pulmonary function and 6-min walk testing at predicting 1-yr mortality. Findings were similar in other ILDs. The TOR is a simple, inexpensive bedside measurement that aids prognostication in IPF.
Project description:A proportion of patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), including the ILDs that are commonly associated with autoimmune diseases, develop a progressive fibrosing phenotype characterised by worsening of lung function, dyspnoea and quality of life, and early mortality. No drugs are approved for the treatment of ILDs other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). At present, immunomodulatory medications are the mainstay of treatment for non-IPF ILDs. However, with the exception of systemic sclerosis-associated ILD, the evidence to suggest that immunosuppression may preserve lung function in patients with these ILDs comes only from retrospective, observational, or uncontrolled studies. In this article, we review the evidence for the treatments currently used to treat ILDs associated with autoimmune diseases and other ILDs and the ongoing trials of immunosuppressant and antifibrotic therapies in patients with these ILDs.Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim.
Project description:Change in body composition with skeletal muscle wasting, a major component of pulmonary cachexia, is associated with mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer. However, its relevance in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) remains unclear. We hypothesized changes in body composition would be associated with mortality in ILDs. We measured the cross-sectional-area (ESMCSA) and muscle attenuation (ESMMA) of erector-spinae muscles, as determined by CT-imaging, in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n?=?131) and idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (iPPFE; n?=?43) and controls. Subsequently, implications with prognosis were evaluated. The ESMCSA of ILD patients, but not ESMMA, was significantly smaller than that in controls. Lower ESMCSA with decreased BMI were recorded in iPPFE patients versus IPF patients, whilst IPF patients had decreased ESMCSA without BMI decline. Lower ESMCSA in IPF patients were associated with poorer prognoses. Conversely, decreased ESMMA were associated with worse survival in iPPFE patients. Multivariate analyses showed that ESMCSA in IPF and ESMMA in iPPFE were independent risk factors for mortality. Distinct changes in body composition had prognostic significance among patients with IPF and iPPFE. Lower ESMCSA and ESMMA were independently associated with poor prognosis in IPF and iPPFE, respectively. These results suggest values to measure body composition changes in managing patients with IPF and iPPFE.
Project description:A proportion of patients with fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) develop a progressive phenotype characterised by decline in lung function, worsening quality of life and early mortality. Other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), there are no approved drugs for fibrosing ILDs and a poor evidence base to support current treatments. Fibrosing ILDs with a progressive phenotype show commonalities in clinical behaviour and in the pathogenic mechanisms that drive disease worsening. Nintedanib is an intracellular inhibitor of tyrosine kinases that has been approved for treatment of IPF and has recently been shown to reduce the rate of lung function decline in patients with ILD associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD). In vitro data demonstrate that nintedanib inhibits several steps in the initiation and progression of lung fibrosis, including the release of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators, migration and differentiation of fibrocytes and fibroblasts, and deposition of extracellular matrix. Nintedanib also inhibits the proliferation of vascular cells. Studies in animal models with features of fibrosing ILDs such as IPF, SSc-ILD, rheumatoid arthritis-ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and silicosis demonstrate that nintedanib has anti-fibrotic activity irrespective of the trigger for the lung pathology. This suggests that nintedanib inhibits fundamental processes in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. A trial of nintedanib in patients with progressive fibrosing ILDs other than IPF (INBUILD) will report results in 2019.
Project description:Radiological pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) lesion is characterized by pleural thickening with associated signs of subpleural fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). This study evaluated the clinical significance of radiological PPFE as an isolated finding or associated with other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) in patients having fibrotic ILDs and registered for cadaveric lung transplantation (LT).This retrospective study included 118 fibrotic ILD patients registered for LT. Radiological PPFE on HRCT was assessed. The impact of radiological PPFE on clinical features and transplantation-censored survival were evaluated.Radiological PPFE was observed in 30/118 cases (25%): definite PPFE (PPFE concentrated in the upper lobes, with involvement of lower lobes being less marked) in 12 (10%) and consistent PPFE (PPFE not concentrated in the upper lobes, or PPFE with features of coexistent disease present elsewhere) in 18 (15%). Of these, 12 had late-onset non-infectious pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and/or chemotherapy (LONIPCs), 9 idiopathic PPFE, and 9 other fibrotic ILDs (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, IPF; other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, other IIPs; connective tissue disease-associated ILD, CTD-ILD, and hypersensitivity pneumonia, HP). Radiological PPFE was associated with previous history of pneumothorax, lower body mass index, lower percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC), higher percentage of predicted diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide, less desaturation on six-minute walk test, and hypercapnia. The median survival time of all study cases was 449 days. Thirty-seven (28%) received LTs: cadaveric in 31 and living-donor lobar in six. Of 93 patients who did not receive LT, 66 (71%) died. Radiological PPFE was marginally associated with better survival after adjustment for age, sex, %FVC, and six-minute walk distance <?250 m (hazard ratio 0.51 [0.25-1.05], p?=?0.07). After adjustment for covariates, idiopathic PPFE and LONIPC with radiological PPFE was associated with better survival than fibrotic ILDs without radiological PPFE (hazard ratio 0.38 [0.16-0.90], p?=?0.03), and marginally better survival than other fibrotic ILDs with radiological PPFE (hazard ratio, 0.20 [0.04-1.11], p?=?0.07).idiopathic PPFE and LONIPC with radiological PPFE has better survival on the wait list for LT than fibrotic ILDs without radiological PPFE, after adjustment for age, sex, %FVC, and six-minute walk distance.
Project description:We used data from the INBUILD and INPULSIS trials to investigate the natural history of progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs).Subjects in the two INPULSIS trials had a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) while subjects in the INBUILD trial had a progressive fibrosing ILD other than IPF and met protocol-defined criteria for ILD progression despite management. Using data from the placebo groups, we compared the rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) (mL·year-1) and mortality over 52?weeks in the INBUILD trial with pooled data from the INPULSIS trials.The adjusted mean annual rate of decline in FVC in the INBUILD trial (n=331) was similar to that observed in the INPULSIS trials (n=423) (-192.9?mL·year-1 and -221.0?mL·year-1, respectively; nominal p-value=0.19). The proportion of subjects who had a relative decline in FVC >10% predicted at Week 52 was 48.9% in the INBUILD trial and 48.7% in the INPULSIS trials, and the proportion who died over 52?weeks was 5.1% in the INBUILD trial and 7.8% in the INPULSIS trials. A relative decline in FVC >10% predicted was associated with an increased risk of death in the INBUILD trial (hazard ratio 3.64) and the INPULSIS trials (hazard ratio 3.95).These findings indicate that patients with fibrosing ILDs other than IPF, who are progressing despite management, have a subsequent clinical course similar to patients with untreated IPF, with a high risk of further ILD progression and early mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:CXCR4, a transmembrane-receptor located on epithelial cells that is activated by CXCL12, may have a role in IPF via migration of CXCR4+ fibrocytes to the lung. However, its expression has not been fully characterised in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) or other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). CXCL12 is constitutively expressed in the bone marrow, and levels of CXCR4 regulate control of this signalling pathway. The aim of this study was to profile the expression of CXCR4 in lung tissue and peripheral circulation of patients with IPF and other fibrotic ILDs. METHODS:Expression of CXCR4 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was examined by flow cytometry in 20 patients with IPF and 10 age-matched non-disease control (NDC) donors. Levels of CXCL12 in human plasma were measured by ELISA. Expression of CXCR4, CXCL12, CD45, and e-cadherin was assessed in IPF (n?=?10), other fibrotic ILD (n?=?8) and NDC (n?=?10) lung tissue by multiplex immunohistochemistry (OPAL) and slides were scanned using a Vectra 3 scanner. Cells were quantified with computer automated histological analysis software (HALO). RESULTS:In blood, the number of CXCR4+ cells was lower but the level of CXCL12 was higher in patients with IPF compared to NDC donors. Elevated CXCR4 expression was detected in lung tissue from patients with IPF and other fibrotic ILDs compared to NDC. There were higher levels of CXCR4+/e-cadherin+/CXCL12+ (epithelial) cells in IPF lung tissue compared to NDC, but there was no difference in the numbers of CXCR4+/CD45+/CXCL12+ (myeloid) cells between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS:This report demonstrates that CXCR4 is overexpressed not only in IPF but also in other ILDs and expression is particularly prominent within both honeycomb cysts and distal airway epithelium. This observation supports the hypothesis that CXCR4 may drive tissue fibrosis through binding its specific ligand CXCL12. Although CXCR4 expressing cells could be either of epithelial or myeloid origin it appears that the former is more prominent in IPF lung tissue. Further characterization of the cells of the honeycomb cyst may lead to a better understanding of the fibrogenic processes in IPF and other end-stage fibrotic ILDs.
Project description:Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are chronic, progressive, parenchymal lung diseases with high morbidity and mortality. In recent studies, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with ILD has been reported to be high. However, the prevalence and predictive factors of OSA in Korean ILD patients are not well defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictive factors of OSA in Korean patients with ILD. Clinical data from 86 patients with ILD enrolled from December 2017 to April 2019 at Haeundae-Paik Hospital, Busan, South Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. OSA was monitored with a level 4 portable device and defined as an apnea-hypopnea index of more than 5 per hour of sleep. The median follow-up period was 7 months. The mean age was 69.8 years, and 64% of participants were men. Among the ILDs, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was the most common (66.3%), followed by connective tissue disease-associated ILD (16.3%) and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (5.8%). Forty-six ILD patients (53.5%) were diagnosed with OSA, and IPF patients had OSA more frequently (64.9% vs. 31.0%, p = 0.003) than those with other ILDs. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.19, p = 0.002), higher body weight (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10, p = 0.012), and diabetes mellitus (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.26-12.91, p = 0.019) were independent risk factors for OSA in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. In the multivariable Cox analysis, an IPF diagnosis was a significant risk factor for one-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 7.92, 95% CI: 1.01-61.83, p = 0.048) in ILD patients; however, OSA was not. In conclusion, half of Korean patients with ILD had OSA. Older age, higher body weight, and diabetes mellitus were risk factors for OSA in patients with ILD.
Project description:The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple test that is widely used to assess functional exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Patients with IPF have reduced exercise capacity due to a number of factors, such as impaired respiratory mechanics and circulatory problems. As a self-paced and usually submaximal exercise test, the 6MWT reflects the exercise level of everyday activities. Variables measured during the 6MWT, such as six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and desaturation, are strong predictors of mortality in patients with IPF. However, the results of a 6MWT are affected by numerous factors, including age, body size, comorbidities and the use of supplemental oxygen during the test, and these need to be borne in mind when interpreting the results of individual and serial tests. Clinical studies, including trials of potential therapies for IPF, have differed in the methodology used to implement the 6MWT, hindering the comparison of results across studies. In this review, I describe the utility of the 6MWT in patients with IPF and provide recommendations for standardisation of the test for use both in clinical practice and research. A brief video on how to set up and administer the 6MWT is available at http://www.usscicomms.com/respiratory/lancaster/6mwt/.
Project description:Rationale:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease, with high mortality. Currently, the aetiology and the pathology of IPF are poorly understood, with both innate and adaptive responses previously being implicated in the disease pathogenesis. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) and antibodies to Hsp in patients with IPF have been suggested as therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers, respectively. We aimed to study the relationship between the expression of Hsp72 and anti-Hsp72 antibodies in the BAL fluid and serum Aw disease progression in patients with IPF. Methods:A novel indirect ELISA to measure anti-Hsp72 IgG was developed and together with commercially available ELISAs used to detect Hsp72 IgG, Hsp72 IgGAM, and Hsp72 antigen, in the serum and BALf of a cohort of IPF (n = 107) and other interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients (n = 66). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Hsp72 in lung tissue. The cytokine expression from monocyte-derived macrophages was measured by ELISA. Results:Anti-Hsp72 IgG was detectable in the serum and BALf of IPF (n = 107) and other ILDs (n = 66). Total immunoglobulin concentrations in the BALf showed an excessive adaptive response in IPF compared to other ILDs and healthy controls (p = 0.026). Immunohistochemistry detection of C4d and Hsp72 showed that these antibodies may be targeting high expressing Hsp72 type II alveolar epithelial cells. However, detection of anti-Hsp72 antibodies in the BALf revealed that increasing concentrations were associated with improved patient survival (adjusted HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.85; p = 0.003). In vitro experiments demonstrate that anti-Hsp72 complexes stimulate macrophages to secrete CXCL8 and CCL18. Conclusion:Our results indicate that intrapulmonary anti-Hsp72 antibodies are associated with improved outcomes in IPF. These may represent natural autoantibodies, and anti-Hsp72 IgM and IgA may provide a beneficial role in disease pathogenesis, though the mechanism of action for this has yet to be determined.
Project description:Background: New biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate diagnosis in Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD), thus reducing the need for invasive procedures, and to enable tailoring and monitoring of medical treatment. Methods: In this study we investigated if patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n = 21), non-IPF ILDs (n = 57) and other lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) n = 24, lung cancer (LC) n = 16) as well as healthy subjects (n = 20) show relevant differences in exhaled NO (FeNO; Niox MINO), or in eicosanoid (PGE2, 8-isoprostane; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) levels as measured in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). Results: There was no significant difference in FeNO values between IPF, non-IPF ILDs and healthy subjects, although some individual patients showed highly elevated FeNO. On the basis of the FeNO signal, it was neither possible to differentiate between the kind of disease nor to detect exacerbations. In addition, there was no correlation between FeNO values and lung function. The investigation of the eicosanoids in EBCs was challenging (PGE2) or unreliable (8-isoprostane), but worked out well in BALF. A significant increase of free 8-isoprostane was observed in BALF, but not in EBCs, of patients with IPF, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and sarcoidosis, possibly indicating severity of oxidative stress. Conclusions: FeNO-measurements are not of diagnostic benefit in different ILDs including IPF. The same holds true for PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in EBC by ELISA.