Reevaluation of the role of the Pam18:Pam16 interaction in translocation of proteins by the mitochondrial Hsp70-based import motor.
ABSTRACT: The heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70)-based import motor, associated with the translocon on the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, drives translocation of proteins via cycles of binding and release. Stimulation of Hsp70's ATPase activity by the translocon-associated J-protein Pam18 is critical for this process. Pam18 forms a heterodimer with the structurally related protein Pam16, via their J-type domains. This interaction has been proposed to perform a critical regulatory function, inhibiting the ATPase stimulatory activity of Pam18. Using biochemical and genetic assays, we tested this hypothesis by assessing the in vivo function of Pam18 variants having altered abilities to stimulate Hsp70's ATPase activity. The observed pattern of genetic interactions was opposite from that predicted if the heterodimer serves an inhibitory function; instead the pattern was consistent with that of mutations known to cause reduction in the stability of the heterodimer. Analysis of a previously uncharacterized region of Pam16 revealed its requirement for formation of an active Pam18:Pam16 complex able to stimulate Hsp70's ATPase activity. Together, our data are consistent with the idea that Pam18 and Pam16 form a stable heterodimer and that the critical role of the Pam18:Pam16 interaction is the physical tethering of Pam18 to the translocon via its interaction with Pam16.
Project description:Translocation of proteins across the mitochondrial inner membrane is an essential process requiring an import motor having mitochondrial Hsp70 (mtHsp70) at its core. The J protein partner of mtHsp70, Pam18, is an integral part of this motor, serving to stimulate the ATPase activity of mtHsp70. Pam16, an essential protein having an inactive J domain that is unable to stimulate mtHsp70's ATPase activity, forms a heterodimer with Pam18, but its function is unknown. We set out to test the importance of three properties of Pam16: (i) a stable interaction between Pam16 and Pam18, (ii) the inability of Pam16's degenerate J domain to stimulate Ssc1's ATPase domain, and (iii) the innately lower stimulatory activity of the Pam16:Pam18 heterodimer, compared to Pam18 alone. Neither substantial reduction in the ability of Pam18 to stimulate Ssc1's ATPase activity, nor the presence of an active J domain in Pam16, had deleterious effects on cell growth, indicating the lack of importance of two of these biochemical properties. However, a stable interaction between Pam16's degenerate J domain and Pam18's J domain was found to be critical for function. Alterations that destabilized the Pam16:Pam18 heterodimer had deleterious effects on cell growth and mitochondrial protein import; intragenic suppressors that restored robust growth also restored heterodimer stability. Our results support the idea that Pam16's J-like domain strongly interacts with Pam18's J domain, leading to a productive interaction of Pam18 with mtHsp70 at the import channel.
Project description:A highly conserved, Hsp70-based, import motor, which is associated with the translocase on the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, is critical for protein translocation into the matrix. Hsp70 is tethered to the translocon via interaction with Tim44. Pam18, the J-protein co-chaperone, and Pam16, a structurally related protein with which Pam18 forms a heterodimer, are also critical components of the motor. Their N termini are important for the heterodimer's translocon association, with Pam18's and Pam16's N termini interacting in the intermembrane space and the matrix, respectively. Here, using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we report the identification of an N-terminal segment of Tim44, important for association of Pam16 with the translocon. We also report that higher amounts of Pam17, a nonessential motor component, are found associated with the translocon in both PAM16 and TIM44 mutants that affect their interaction with one another. These TIM44 and PAM16 mutations are also synthetically lethal with a deletion of PAM17. In contrast, a deletion of PAM17 has little, or no genetic interaction with a PAM18 mutation that affects translocon association of the Pam16:Pam18 heterodimer, suggesting a second role for the Pam16:Tim44 interaction. A similar pattern of genetic interactions and enhanced Pam17 translocon association was observed in the absence of the C terminus of Tim17, a core component of the translocon. We suggest the Pam16:Tim44 interaction may play two roles: (1) tethering the Pam16:Pam18 heterodimer to the translocon and (2) positioning the import motor for efficient engagement with the translocating polypeptide along with Tim17 and Pam17.
Project description:Pam18/Tim14 and Pam16/Tim16, highly conserved proteins among eukaryotes, are two essential subunits of protein import motors localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The heterodimer formed by Pam18 and Pam16 via their J-type domains serves a regulatory function in protein translocation. Here, we report that thirty-one Pam18 and twenty-six Pam16 putative orthologues in twelve plant species were identified and analyzed through bioinformatics strategy. Results data revealed that Pam18 and Pam16 were also highly conserved among plants including their J-type domains within the hydrophilic region. Key amino acid residues and an HPD motif of Pam18 were identical among the orthologues except OsPam18L5. N-myristoylation sites of Pam18 and casein kinase II phosphorylation sites of Pam 16 were more abundant, which might be important functional sites. Some Pam18 and Pam16 proteins contained a transmembrane region at the N-terminal region. Sub-cellular prediction results indicated that many orthologues localized at mitochondria. Gene expression analyses revealed that Pam18 and Pam16 in Arabidopsis might play roles in senescence and abiotic stress responses. Our detailed study provides a better understanding of Pam18 and Pam16 in plant kingdom.
Project description:Translocation of proteins across membranes is essential for the biogenesis of each cell and is achieved by proteinaceous complexes. We analyzed the translocation complex of the intermembrane space from chloroplasts and identified a 12-kDa protein associated with the Toc machinery. Toc12 is an outer envelope protein exposing a soluble domain into the intermembrane space. Toc12 contains a J-domain and stimulates the ATPase activity of DnaK. The conformational stability and the ability to stimulate Hsp70 are dependent on a disulfide bridge within the loop region of the J-domain, suggesting a redox-regulated activation of the chaperone. Toc12 is associated with Toc64 and Tic22. Its J-domain recruits the Hsp70 of outer envelope membrane to the intermembrane space translocon and facilitates its interaction to the preprotein.
Project description:Mitochondrial J-proteins play a critical role in governing Hsp70 activity and, hence, are essential for organellar protein translocation and folding. In contrast to yeast, which has a single J-protein Pam18, humans involve two J-proteins, DnaJC15 and DnaJC19, associated with contrasting cellular phenotype, to transport proteins into the mitochondria. Mutation in DnaJC19 results in dilated cardiomyopathy and ataxia syndrome, whereas expression of DnaJC15 regulates the response of cancer cells to chemotherapy. In the present study we have comparatively assessed the biochemical properties of the J-protein paralogs in relation to their association with the import channel. Both DnaJC15 and DnaJC19 formed two distinct subcomplexes with Magmas at the import channel. Knockdown analysis suggested an essential role for Magmas and DnaJC19 in organellar protein translocation and mitochondria biogenesis, whereas DnaJC15 had dispensable supportive function. The J-proteins were found to have equal affinity for Magmas and could stimulate mitochondrial Hsp70 ATPase activity by equivalent levels. Interestingly, we observed that DnaJC15 exhibits bifunctional properties. At the translocation channel, it involves conserved interactions and mechanism to translocate the precursors into mitochondria. In addition to protein transport, DnaJC15 also showed a dual role in yeast where its expression elicited enhanced sensitivity of cells to cisplatin that required the presence of a functional J-domain. The amount of DnaJC15 expressed in the cell was directly proportional to the sensitivity of cells. Our analysis indicates that the differential cellular phenotype displayed by human mitochondrial J-proteins is independent of their activity and association with Magmas at the translocation channel.
Project description:ATP hydrolysis and polypeptide binding, the two key activities of Hsp70 molecular chaperones, are inherent properties of different domains of the protein. The coupling of these two activities is critical because the bound nucleotide determines, in part, the affinity of Hsp70s for protein substrate. In addition, cochaperones of the Hsp40 (DnaJ) class, which stimulate Hsp70 ATPase activity, have been proposed to play an important role in promoting efficient Hsp70 substrate binding. Because little is understood about this functional interaction between domains of Hsp70s, we investigated mutations in the region encoding the ATPase domain that acted as intragenic suppressors of a lethal mutation (I485N) mapping to the peptide-binding domain of the mitochondrial Hsp70 Ssc1. Analogous amino acid substitution in the ATPase domain of the Escherichia coli Hsp70 DnaK had a similar intragenic suppressive effect on the corresponding I462T temperature-sensitive peptide-binding domain mutation. I462T protein had a normal basal ATPase activity and was capable of nucleotide-dependent conformation changes. However, the reduced affinity of I462T for substrate peptide (and DnaJ) is likely responsible for the inability of I462T to function in vivo. The suppressor mutation (D79A) appears to partly alleviate the defect in DnaJ ATPase stimulation caused by I462T, suggesting that alteration in the interaction with DnaJ may alter the chaperone cycle to allow productive interaction with polypeptide substrates. Preservation of the intragenic suppression phenotypes between eukaryotic mitochondrial and bacterial Hsp70s suggests that the phenomenon studied here is a fundamental aspect of the function of Hsp70:Hsp40 chaperone machines.
Project description:DnaJ proteins are characterized by a 'J' domain which is homologous to a region of the Escherichia coli protein DnaJ. DnaJ has been shown to interact with the chaperone protein DnaK, and a number of eukaryotic DnaJ-like proteins have been found to interact with the 70 kDa heat-shock protein/70 kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsp70/Hsc70), the eukaryotic homologues of DnaK. Cysteine-string proteins (Csps) are believed to function in calcium-stimulated exocytosis and in this paper we describe a specific ATP-dependent interaction between a Csp (Csp1) and Hsc70/Hsp70. We also show that Csp1 can stimulate the ATPase activity of both Hsc70 and Hsp70 several-fold. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Csp2, a Csp variant found in adrenal chromaffin cells, can enhance the ATPase activity of Hsc70 to a similar extent as Csp1, whereas Csp(137-198), a truncated protein lacking the 'J' domain of Csp1 is unable to stimulate the ATPase activity of Hsc70. This suggests that the functions of Csp1 and Csp2 must differ in some aspect other than interaction with Hsc70. This study is also important from a general view of DnaJ/Hsc70 interactions, as Csps lack a G/F-rich region which has been suggested to be essential for activation of the ATPase activity of DnaK by DnaJ. Thus, this work would imply that a G/F-rich region is not an essential feature of DnaJ proteins for stimulation of the ATPase activity of Hsp70 proteins.
Project description:The SecA molecular nanomachine in bacteria uses energy from ATP hydrolysis to drive post-translational secretion of preproteins through the SecYEG translocon. Cytosolic SecA exists in a dimeric, "closed" state with relatively low ATPase activity. After binding to the translocon, SecA undergoes major conformational rearrangement, leading to a state that is structurally more "open", has elevated ATPase activity, and is active in translocation. The structural details underlying this conformational change in SecA remain incompletely defined. Most SecA crystal structures report on the cytosolic form; only one structure sheds light on a form of SecA that has engaged the translocon. We have used mild destabilization of SecA to trigger conformational changes that mimic those in translocation-active SecA and thus study its structural changes in a simplified, soluble system. Results from circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence, and limited proteolysis demonstrate that the SecA conformational reorganization involves disruption of several domain-domain interfaces, partial unfolding of the second nucleotide binding fold (NBF) II, partial dissociation of the helical scaffold domain (HSD) from NBF I and II, and restructuring of the 30 kDa C-terminal region. These changes account for the observed high translocation SecA ATPase activity because they lead to the release of an inhibitory C-terminal segment (called intramolecular regulator of ATPase 1, or IRA1) and of constraints on NBF II (or IRA2) that allow it to stimulate ATPase activity. The observed conformational changes thus position SecA for productive interaction with the SecYEG translocon and for transfer of segments of its passenger protein across the translocon.
Project description:Mitochondria are essential organelles required for a number of key cellular processes. As most mitochondrial proteins are nuclear encoded, their efficient translocation into the organelle is critical. Transport of proteins across the inner membrane is driven by a multicomponent, matrix-localized "import motor," which is based on the activity of the molecular chaperone Hsp70 and a J-protein cochaperone. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two paralogous J-proteins, Pam18 and Mdj2, can form the import motor. Both contain transmembrane and matrix domains, with Pam18 having an additional intermembrane space (IMS) domain. Evolutionary analyses revealed that the origin of the IMS domain of S. cerevisiae Pam18 coincides with a gene duplication event that generated the PAM18/MDJ2 gene pair. The duplication event and origin of the Pam18 IMS domain occurred at the relatively ancient divergence of the fungal subphylum Saccharomycotina. The timing of the duplication event also corresponds with a number of additional functional changes related to mitochondrial function and respiration. Physiological and genetic studies revealed that the IMS domain of Pam18 is required for efficient growth under anaerobic conditions, even though it is dispensable when oxygen is present. Thus, the gene duplication was beneficial for growth capacity under particular environmental conditions as well as diversification of the import motor components.
Project description:DnaJ proteins often bind to unfolded substrates and recruit their Hsp70 partners. This induces a conformational change in the Hsp70 that stabilizes its binding to substrate. By some unknown mechanism, the DnaJ protein is released. We examined the requirements for the release of ERdj3, a mammalian ER DnaJ, from substrates and found that BiP promoted the release of ERdj3 only in the presence of ATP. Mutations in ERdj3 or BiP that disrupted their interaction interrupted the release of ERdj3. BiP mutants that were defective in any step of the ATPase cycle were also unable to release ERdj3. These results demonstrate that a functional interaction between ERdj3 and BiP, including both a direct interaction and the ability to stimulate BiP's ATPase activity are required to release ERdj3 from substrate and support a model where ERdj3 must recruit BiP and stimulate its high-affinity association with the substrate through activation of ATP hydrolysis to trigger its own release from substrates. On the basis of similarities among DnaJs and Hsp70s, this is likely to be applicable to other Hsp70-DnaJ pairs.