Cohesin's concatenation of sister DNAs maintains their intertwining.
ABSTRACT: The contribution of DNA catenation to sister chromatid cohesion is unclear partly because it has never been observed directly within mitotic chromosomes. Differential sedimentation-velocity and gel electrophoresis reveal that sisters of 26 kb circular minichromosomes are held together by catenation as well as by cohesin. The finding that chemical crosslinking of cohesin's three subunit interfaces entraps sister DNAs of circular but not linear minichromosomes implies that cohesin functions using a topological principle. Importantly, cohesin holds both catenated and uncatenated DNAs together in this manner. In the vicinity of centromeres, catenanes are resolved by spindle forces, but linkages mediated directly by cohesin resist these forces even after complete decatenation. Crucially, persistence of catenation after S phase depends on cohesin. We conclude that by retarding Topo II-driven decatenation, cohesin mediates sister chromatid cohesion by an indirect mechanism as well as one involving entrapment of sister DNAs inside its tripartite ring.
Project description:The cohesin complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion contains three core subunits: Smc1, Smc3, and Scc1. Heterotypic interactions between Smc1 and Smc3 dimerization domains create stable V-shaped Smc1/Smc3 heterodimers with a hinge at the center and nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) at the ends of each arm. Interconnection of each NBD through their association with the N- and C-terminal domains of Scc1 creates a tripartite ring, within which sister DNAs are thought to be entrapped (the ring model). Crystal structures show that the Smc1/Smc3 hinge has a toroidal shape, with independent "north" and "south" interaction surfaces on an axis of pseudosymmetry. The ring model predicts that sister chromatid cohesion would be lost by transient hinge opening.We find that mutations within either interface weaken heterodimerization of isolated half hinges in vitro but do not greatly compromise formation of cohesin rings in vivo. They do, however, reduce the residence time of cohesin on chromosomes and cause lethal defects in sister chromatid cohesion. This demonstrates that mere formation of rings is insufficient for cohesin function. Stable cohesion requires cohesin rings that cannot easily open.Either the north or south hinge interaction surface is sufficient for the assembly of V-shaped Smc1/Smc3 heterodimers in vivo. Any tendency of Smc proteins with weakened hinges to dissociate will be suppressed by interconnection of their NBDs by Scc1. We suggest that transient hinge dissociation caused by the mutations described here is incompatible with stable sister chromatid cohesion because it permits chromatin fibers to escape from cohesin rings.
Project description:Mitotic chromosome structure is pivotal to cell division but difficult to observe in fine detail using conventional methods. DNA catenation has been implicated in both sister chromatid cohesion and chromosome condensation, but has never been observed directly. We have used a lab-on-a-chip microfluidic device and fluorescence microscopy, coupled with a simple image analysis pipeline, to digest chromosomal proteins and examine the structure of the remaining DNA, which maintains the canonical 'X' shape. By directly staining DNA, we observe that DNA catenation between sister chromatids (separated by fluid flow) is composed of distinct fibres of DNA concentrated at the centromeres. Disrupting the catenation of the chromosomes with Topoisomerase II? significantly alters overall chromosome shape, suggesting that DNA catenation must be simultaneously maintained for correct chromosome condensation, and destroyed to complete sister chromatid disjunction. In addition to demonstrating the value of microfluidics as a tool for examining chromosome structure, these results lend support to certain models of DNA catenation organization and regulation: in particular, we conclude from our observation of centromere-concentrated catenation that spindle forces could play a driving role in decatenation and that Topoisomerase II? is differentially regulated at the centromeres, perhaps in conjunction with cohesin.
Project description:The condensin complex is a key determinant of mitotic chromosome architecture. In addition, condensin promotes resolution of sister chromatids during anaphase, a function that is conserved from prokaryotes to human. Anaphase bridges observed in cells lacking condensin are reminiscent of chromosome segregation failure after inactivation of topoisomerase II (topo II), the enzyme that removes catenanes persisting between sister chromatids following DNA replication. Circumstantial evidence has linked condensin to sister chromatid decatenation but, because of the difficulty of observing chromosome catenation, this link has remained indirect. Alternative models for how condensin facilitates chromosome resolution have been put forward. Here, we follow the catenation status of circular minichromosomes of three sizes during the Saccharomyeces cerevisiae cell cycle. Catenanes are produced during DNA replication and are for the most part swiftly resolved during and following S-phase, aided by sister chromatid separation. Complete resolution, however, requires the condensin complex, a dependency that becomes more pronounced with increasing chromosome size. Our results provide evidence that condensin prevents deleterious anaphase bridges during chromosome segregation by promoting sister chromatid decatenation.
Project description:As predicted by the notion that sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by entrapment of sister DNAs inside cohesin rings, there is a perfect correlation between co-entrapment of circular minichromosomes and sister chromatid cohesion. In most cells where cohesin loads onto chromosomes but fails to form cohesion, loading is accompanied by entrapment of individual DNAs. However, cohesin with a hinge whose positively charged lumen has been neutralized not only loads onto and translocates along chromatin but also organizes it into chromatid-like threads, despite largely failing to entrap DNAs inside its ring. Thus, cohesin engages chromatin in both a non-topological and a topological manner. Further, mutation of three highly conserved lysines within the Smc1 hinge abolishes all loading without affecting cohesin’s initial recruitment to centromers or its ability to hydrolyze ATP. We suggest that loading and translocation are mediated by conformational changes in cohesin’s hinge driven by cycles of ATP hydrolysis. Overall design: Effect of hinge mutations of S. cerevisiae cohesin complexes on loading onto chromosomes, assessed by calibrated ChIP-seq on an Ion Torrent Proton (Life Technologies)
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by entrapment of sister DNAs by a tripartite ring composed of cohesin's Smc1, Smc3, and ?-kleisin subunits. Cohesion requires acetylation of Smc3 by Eco1, whose role is to counteract an inhibitory (antiestablishment) activity associated with cohesin's Wapl subunit. We show that mutations abrogating antiestablishment activity also reduce turnover of cohesin on pericentric chromatin. Our results reveal a "releasing" activity inherent to cohesin complexes transiently associated with Wapl that catalyzes their dissociation from chromosomes. Fusion of Smc3's nucleotide binding domain to ?-kleisin's N-terminal domain also reduces cohesin turnover within pericentric chromatin and permits establishment of Wapl-resistant cohesion in the absence of Eco1. We suggest that releasing activity opens the Smc3/?-kleisin interface, creating a DNA exit gate distinct from its proposed entry gate at the Smc1/3 interface. According to this notion, the function of Smc3 acetylation is to block its dissociation from ?-kleisin. The functional implications of regulated ring opening are discussed.
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion involves entrapment of sister DNAs by a cohesin ring created through association of a kleisin subunit (Scc1) with ATPase heads of Smc1/Smc3 heterodimers. Cohesin's association with chromatin involves subunits recruited by Scc1: Wapl, Pds5, and Scc3/SA, in addition to Scc2/4 loading complex. Unlike Pds5, Wapl, and Scc2/4, Scc3s are encoded by all eukaryotic genomes. Here, a crystal structure of Scc3 reveals a hook-shaped protein composed of tandem ? helices. Its N-terminal domain contains a conserved and essential surface (CES) present even in organisms lacking Pds5, Wapl, and Scc2/4, while its C-terminal domain binds a section of the kleisin Scc1. Scc3 turns over in G2/M while maintaining cohesin's association with chromosomes and it promotes de-acetylation of Smc3 upon Scc1 cleavage.
Project description:Cohesin mediates sister chromatid cohesion by topologically entrapping sister DNA molecules inside its ring structure. Cohesin is loaded onto DNA by the Scc2/NIPBL-Scc4/MAU2-loading complex in a manner that depends on the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of cohesin's Smc1 and Smc3 subunits. Subsequent cohesion establishment during DNA replication depends on Smc3 acetylation by Esco1 and Esco2 and on recruitment of sororin, which "locks" cohesin on DNA by inactivating the cohesin release factor Wapl.Human cohesin ATPase mutants associate transiently with DNA in a manner that depends on the loading complex but cannot be stabilized on chromatin by depletion of Wapl. These mutants cannot be acetylated, fail to interact with sororin, and do not mediate cohesion. The absence of Smc3 acetylation in the ATPase mutants is not a consequence of their transient association with DNA but is directly caused by their inability to hydrolyze ATP because acetylation of wild-type cohesin also depends on ATP hydrolysis.Our data indicate that cohesion establishment involves the following steps. First, cohesin transiently associates with DNA in a manner that depends on the loading complex. Subsequently, ATP hydrolysis by cohesin leads to entrapment of DNA and converts Smc3 into a state that can be acetylated. Finally, Smc3 acetylation leads to recruitment of sororin, inhibition of Wapl, and stabilization of cohesin on DNA. Our finding that cohesin's ATPase activity is required for both cohesin loading and Smc3 acetylation raises the possibility that cohesion establishment is directly coupled to the reaction in which cohesin entraps DNA.
Project description:Cohesin is a conserved protein complex indispensible for proper cell division, because it secures sister-chromatid cohesion following DNA replication until segregation is required at the onset of anaphase. Recent studies have revealed functions beyond this, showing that cohesin binds to interphase chromatin regulating gene expression at select loci via long-range chromosomal interactions. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Sofueva et al (2013) use a combination of chromatin conformation capture methods, classical FISH imaging, and loss-of-function studies to elegantly demonstrate how cohesin controls the 3D architectural organization of the genome.
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion essential for mitotic chromosome segregation is thought to involve the co-entrapment of sister DNAs within cohesin rings. Although cohesin can load onto chromosomes throughout the cell cycle, it only builds cohesion during S phase. A key question is whether cohesion is generated by conversion of cohesin complexes associated with un-replicated DNAs ahead of replication forks into cohesive structures behind them, or from nucleoplasmic cohesin that is loaded de novo onto nascent DNAs associated with forks, a process that would be dependent on cohesin's Scc2 subunit. We show here that in S. cerevisiae, both mechanisms exist and that each requires a different set of replisome-associated proteins. Cohesion produced by cohesin conversion requires Tof1/Csm3, Ctf4 and Chl1 but not Scc2 while that created by Scc2-dependent de novo loading at replication forks requires the Ctf18-RFC complex. The association of specific replisome proteins with different types of cohesion establishment opens the way to a mechanistic understanding of an aspect of DNA replication unique to eukaryotic cells.
Project description:During meiosis, chromosomes adopt a specialized organization involving assembly of a cohesin-based axis along their lengths, with DNA loops emanating from this axis. We applied novel, quantitative, and widely applicable cytogenetic strategies to elucidate the molecular bases of this organization using Caenorhabditis elegans. Analyses of wild-type (WT) chromosomes and de novo circular minichromosomes revealed that meiosis-specific HORMA-domain proteins assemble into cohorts in defined numbers and co-organize the axis together with 2 functionally distinct cohesin complexes (REC-8 and COH-3/4) in defined stoichiometry. We further found that REC-8 cohesins, which load during S phase and mediate sister-chromatid cohesion, usually occur as individual complexes, supporting a model wherein sister cohesion is mediated locally by a single cohesin ring. REC-8 complexes are interspersed in an alternating pattern with cohorts of axis-organizing COH-3/4 complexes (averaging 3 per cohort), which are insufficient to confer cohesion but can bind to individual chromatids, suggesting a mechanism to enable formation of asymmetric sister-chromatid loops. Indeed, immunofluorescence/fluorescence in situ hybridization (immuno-FISH) assays demonstrate frequent asymmetry in genomic content between the loops formed on sister chromatids. We discuss how features of chromosome axis/loop architecture inferred from our data can help to explain enigmatic, yet essential, aspects of the meiotic program.