Daedalus: a robust, turnkey platform for rapid production of decigram quantities of active recombinant proteins in human cell lines using novel lentiviral vectors.
ABSTRACT: A key challenge for the academic and biopharmaceutical communities is the rapid and scalable production of recombinant proteins for supporting downstream applications ranging from therapeutic trials to structural genomics efforts. Here, we describe a novel system for the production of recombinant mammalian proteins, including immune receptors, cytokines and antibodies, in a human cell line culture system, often requiring <3 weeks to achieve stable, high-level expression: Daedalus. The inclusion of minimized ubiquitous chromatin opening elements in the transduction vectors is key for preventing genomic silencing and maintaining the stability of decigram levels of expression. This system can bypass the tedious and time-consuming steps of conventional protein production methods by employing the secretion pathway of serum-free adapted human suspension cell lines, such as 293 Freestyle. Using optimized lentiviral vectors, yields of 20-100 mg/l of correctly folded and post-translationally modified, endotoxin-free protein of up to ~70 kDa in size, can be achieved in conventional, small-scale (100 ml) culture. At these yields, most proteins can be purified using a single size-exclusion chromatography step, immediately appropriate for use in structural, biophysical or therapeutic applications.
Project description:The recombinant production of Lac repressor (LacI) in Escherichia coli is complicated by its ubiquitous use as a regulatory element in commercially-available expression vectors and host strains. While LacI-regulated expression systems are often used to produce recombinant LacI, the product can be heterogeneous and unsuitable for some studies. Alternative approaches include using unregulated vectors which typically suffer from low yield or vectors with promoters induced by metabolically active sugars which can dilute isotope labels necessary for certain biophysical studies. Here, an optimized expression system and isolation protocol for producing various constructs of LacI is introduced which eliminates these complications. The expression vector is an adaptation of the pASK backbone wherein expression of the lacI gene is regulated by an anhydrotetracyline inducible tetA promoter and the host strain lacks the lacI gene. Typical yields in highly deuterated minimal medium are nearly 2-fold greater than those previously reported. Notably, the new expression system is also able to produce the isolated regulatory domain of LacI without co-expression of the full-length protein and without any defects in cell viability, eliminating the inconvenient requirement for strict monitoring of cell densities during pre-culturing. Typical yields in highly deuterated minimal medium are significantly greater than those previously reported. Characterization by solution NMR shows that LacI constructs produced using this expression system are highly homogenous and functionally active.
Project description:Plants are a promising platform to produce biopharmaceutical proteins, however, the toxic nature of some proteins inhibits their accumulation. We previously created a replicating geminiviral expression system based on bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) that enables very high-level production of recombinant proteins. To study the role of replication in this system, we generated vectors that allow separate and controlled expression of BeYDV Rep and RepA proteins. We show that the ratio of Rep and RepA strongly affects the efficiency of replication. Rep, RepA, and vector replication all elicit the plant hypersensitive response, resulting in cell death. We find that a modest reduction in expression of Rep and RepA reduces plant leaf cell death which, despite reducing the accumulation of viral replicons, increases target protein accumulation. A single nucleotide change in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) reduced Rep/RepA expression, reduced cell death, and enhanced the production of monoclonal antibodies. We also find that replicating vectors achieve optimal expression with lower Agrobacterium concentrations than non-replicating vectors, further reducing cell death. Viral UTRs are also shown to contribute substantially to cell death, while a native plant-derived 5' UTR does not.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue) of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-produced 2G12. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors an attractive option for biopharmaceutical development and production.
Project description:Due in part to the needs of the biopharmaceutical industry, there has been an increased drive to generate high quality recombinant proteins in large amounts. However, achieving high yields can be a challenge as the novelty and increased complexity of new targets often makes them 'difficult-to-express'. This study aimed to define the molecular features that restrict the production of a model 'difficult-to-express' recombinant protein, Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3). Building from experimental data, computational approaches were used to rationalize the redesign of this recombinant target to generate a chimera with enhanced secretion. The results highlight the importance of early identification of unfavourable sequence attributes, enabling the generation of engineered protein forms that bypass 'secretory' bottlenecks and result in efficient recombinant protein production.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Plant cell suspension cultures can be used for the production of valuable pharmaceutical and industrial proteins. When the recombinant protein is secreted into the culture medium, restricting expression to a defined growth phase can improve both the quality and quantity of the recovered product by minimizing proteolytic activity. Temporal restriction is also useful for recombinant proteins whose constitutive expression affects cell growth and viability, such as viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10).<h4>Results</h4>We have developed a novel, tetracycline-inducible system suitable for tobacco BY-2 suspension cells which increases the yields of vIL-10. The new system is based on a binary vector that is easier to handle than conventional vectors, contains an enhanced inducible promoter and 5'-UTR to improve yields, and incorporates a constitutively-expressed visible marker gene to allow the rapid and straightforward selection of the most promising transformed clones. Stable transformation of BY-2 cells with this vector, without extensive optimization of the induction conditions, led to a 3.5 fold increase in vIL-10 levels compared to constitutive expression in the same host.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have developed an effective and straightforward molecular farming platform technology that improves both the quality and the quantity of recombinant proteins produced in plant cells, particularly those whose constitutive expression has a negative impact on plant growth and development. Although we tested the platform using vIL-10 produced in BY-2 cells, it can be applied to other host/product combinations and is also useful for basic research requiring strictly controlled transgene expression.
Project description:Virus-like particles (VLPs) are hollow nanoparticles composed of recombinant viral surface proteins without a virus genome. In the present study, we investigated the production of influenza VLPs using recombinant insect cells. DNA fragments encoding influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix protein 1 (M1) were cloned with the Drosophila BiP signal sequence in plasmid vectors containing a blasticidin and a neomycin resistance gene, respectively. After Trichoplusia ni BTI-TN-5B1-4 (High Five) cells were co-transfected with a pair of constructed plasmid vectors, stably transformed cells were established via incubation with blasticidin and G418. Western blot analyses showed that recombinant High Five cells secreted HA and M1 proteins into the culture supernatant. Immunoprecipitation of the culture supernatant with an anti-HA antibody and transmission electron microscopy suggested that secreted HA and M1 proteins were in a particulate structure with a morphology similar to that of an influenza virus. Hemagglutination assay indicated that expressed HA molecules retained hemagglutination activity. In a shake-flask culture, recombinant cells achieved a high HA yield (? 10 ?g/ml) comparable to the yields obtained using the baculovirus-insect cell system. Recombinant insect cells may serve as excellent platforms for the efficient production of influenza VLPs for use as safe and effective vaccines and diagnostic antigens.
Project description:The use of recombinant algae for the production of valuable compounds is opening promising biotechnological applications. However, the development of efficient expression approaches is still needed to expand the exploitation of microalgae in biotechnology. Herein, the concept of using viral expression vectors in microalgae was explored for the first time. An inducible geminiviral vector leading to Rep-mediated replication of the expression cassette allowed the production of antigenic proteins at high levels. This system, called Algevir, allows the production of complex viral proteins (GP1 from Zaire ebolavirus) and bacterial toxin subunits (B subunit of the heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin), which retained their antigenic activity. The highest achieved yield was 1.25 mg/g fresh biomass (6 mg/L of culture), which was attained 3 days after transformation. The Algevir system allows for a fast and efficient production of recombinant proteins, overcoming the difficulties imposed by the low yields and unstable expression patterns frequently observed in stably transformed microalgae at the nuclear level; as well as the toxicity of some target proteins.
Project description:Microalgae exhibit great potential for recombinant therapeutic protein production, due to lower production costs, immunity to human pathogens, and advanced genetic toolkits. However, a fundamental aspect to consider for recombinant biopharmaceutical production is the presence of correct post-translational modifications. Multiple recent studies focusing on glycosylation in microalgae have revealed unique species-specific patterns absent in humans. Glycosylation is particularly important for protein function and is directly responsible for recombinant biopharmaceutical immunogenicity. Therefore, it is necessary to fully characterise this key feature in microalgae before these organisms can be established as industrially relevant microbial biofactories. Here, we review the work done to date on production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals in microalgae, experimental and computational evidence for N- and O-glycosylation in diverse microalgal groups, established approaches for glyco-engineering, and perspectives for their application in microalgal systems. The insights from this review may be applied to future glyco-engineering attempts to humanize recombinant therapeutic proteins and to potentially obtain cheaper, fully functional biopharmaceuticals from microalgae.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is a common host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, hypermannosylation hinders the use of recombinant proteins from yeast in most biopharmaceutical applications. Glyco-engineered yeast strains produce more homogeneously glycosylated proteins, but can be physiologically impaired and show tendencies for cellular agglomeration, hence are hard to cultivate. Further, comprehensive data regarding growth, physiology and recombinant protein production in the controlled environment of a bioreactor are scarce. RESULTS:A Man5GlcNAc2 glycosylating and a Man8-10GlcNAc2 glycosylating strain showed similar morphological traits during methanol induced shake-flask cultivations to produce the recombinant model protein HRP C1A. Both glyco-engineered strains displayed larger single and budding cells than a wild type strain as well as strong cellular agglomeration. The cores of these agglomerates appeared to be less viable. Despite agglomeration, the Man5GlcNAc2 glycosylating strain showed superior growth, physiology and HRP C1A productivity compared to the Man8-10GlcNAc2 glycosylating strain in shake-flasks and in the bioreactor. Conducting dynamic methanol pulsing revealed that HRP C1A productivity of the Man5GlcNAc2 glycosylating strain is best at a temperature of 30 °C. CONCLUSION:This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of growth, physiology and recombinant protein production of a Man5GlcNAc2 glycosylating strain in the controlled environment of a bioreactor. Furthermore, it is evident that cellular agglomeration is likely triggered by a reduced glycan length of cell surface glycans, but does not necessarily lead to lower metabolic activity and recombinant protein production. Man5GlcNAc2 glycosylated HRP C1A production is feasible, yields active protein similar to the wild type strain, but thermal stability of HRP C1A is negatively affected by reduced glycosylation.