Genome-wide association study of comorbid depressive syndrome and alcohol dependence.
ABSTRACT: Depression and alcohol dependence (AD) are common psychiatric disorders that often co-occur. Both disorders are genetically influenced, with heritability estimates in the range of 35-60%. In addition, evidence from twin studies suggests that AD and depression are genetically correlated. Herein, we report results from a genome-wide association study of a comorbid phenotype, in which cases meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV symptom threshold for major depressive symptomatology and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for AD.Samples (N=467 cases and N=407 controls) were of European-American descent and were genotyped using the Illumina Human 1M BeadChip array.Although no single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) meets genome-wide significance criteria, we identified 10 markers with P values less than 1 × 10(-5), seven of which are located in known genes, which have not been previously implicated in either disorder. Genes harboring SNPs yielding P values less than 1 × 10(-5) are functionally enriched for a number of gene ontology categories, notably several related to glutamatergic function. Investigation of expression localization using online resources suggests that these genes are expressed across a variety of tissues, including behaviorally relevant brain regions. Genes that have been previously associated with depression, AD, or other addiction-related phenotypes - such as CDH13, CSMD2, GRID1, and HTR1B - were implicated by nominally significant SNPs. Finally, the degree of overlap of significant SNPs between a comorbid phenotype and an AD-only phenotype is modest.These results underscore the complex genomic influences on psychiatric phenotypes and suggest that a comorbid phenotype is partially influenced by genetic variants that do not affect AD alone.
Project description:Background:Depressive symptoms are common among psychiatric patients with alcohol dependence (AD). However, the prevalence and clinical correlates of comorbid depressive symptoms are less well studied in Chinese Han patients. Methods:In this hospital-based survey, we recruited 378 psychiatric patients diagnosed with AD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). All patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to evaluate depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess the severity of drinking. Results:Compared to patients without depressive symptoms, 48.9% (185/378) of the patients with comorbid depressive symptoms were younger, had a more unstable marital status, had a higher AUDIT total score, and had a higher adverse consequences subscore (all P < 0.05). Further logistic regression analysis showed that unstable marital status (Odds ratios [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-3.99) and AUDIT total score (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions:Our findings indicate high comorbidity between AD and depressive symptoms in Chinese psychiatric patients. Moreover, some variables are correlates of comorbid depressive symptoms. Particular attention should be paid to the early detection and intervention for this comorbid condition and its risk factors.
Project description:Twin studies indicate that latent genetic factors overlap across comorbid psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used a novel approach to elucidate shared genetic factors across psychiatric outcomes by clustering single nucleotide polymorphisms based on their genome-wide association patterns. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to p-values resulting from genome-wide association studies across three phenotypes: symptom counts of alcohol dependence (AD), antisocial personality disorder (ASP), and major depression (MD), using the European-American case-control genome-wide association study subsample of the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (N?=?1399). In the 3-class model, classes were characterized by overall low associations (85.6% of SNPs), relatively stronger association only with MD (6.8%), and stronger associations with AD and ASP but not with MD (7.6%), respectively. These results parallel the genetic factor structure identified in twin studies. The findings suggest that applying LPA to association results across multiple disorders may be a promising approach to identify the specific genetic etiologies underlying shared genetic variance.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) report high rates of comorbid disorders, educational and occupational failure, and family instability. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical population of adults with ADHD and to examine associations between educational level, work participation, social characteristics and the rates of psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS:Out of 796 patients diagnosed with ADHD in a specialised outpatient clinic in Oslo, Norway, 548 (68%) agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study: 277 women and 271 men. ADHD was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. Comorbid disorders were diagnosed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. RESULTS:In this clinical sample, 53.5% had at least one current comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most prevalent disorders were major depression, substance use disorders and social phobia. Women had more eating disorders than men, whereas men had more alcohol and substance use disorders. Education above high school level (>12 years) and work participation were associated with lower rates of comorbid disorders (adjusted ORs 0.52 and 0.63, respectively). Gender, age, marital status, living with children or living in a city were not associated with comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS:Adult ADHD is associated with high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, irrespective of gender and age. It appears that higher education and work participation are related to lower probability of comorbidity.
Project description:Several melatonin receptors agonists (ramelteon, prolonged-release melatonin, agomelatine and tasimelteon) have recently become available for the treatment of insomnia, depression and circadian rhythms sleep-wake disorders. The efficacy and safety profiles of these compounds in the treatment of the indicated disorders are reviewed. Accumulating evidence indicates that sleep-wake disorders and co-existing medical conditions are mutually exacerbating. This understanding has now been incorporated into the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). Therefore, when evaluating the risk/benefit ratio of sleep drugs, it is pertinent to also evaluate their effects on wake and comorbid condition. Beneficial effects of melatonin receptor agonists on comorbid neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic symptomatology beyond sleep regulation are also described. The review underlines the beneficial value of enhancing physiological sleep in comorbid conditions.
Project description:Though the phenotype of anxiety about medical illness has long been recognized, there continues to be debate as to whether it is a distinct psychiatric disorder and, if so, to which diagnostic category it belongs.Our objective was to investigate the pattern of psychiatric comorbidity in hypochondriasis (HC) and to assess the relationship of health anxiety to anxiety, depressive, and somatoform disorders.Data were collected as part of a clinical trial on treatment methods for HC. In all, 194 participants meeting criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) HC were assessed by sociodemographic variables, results of structured diagnostic interviews, and validated instruments for assessing various symptom dimensions of psychopathology.Most of the individuals with HC had comorbid psychiatric illness; the mean number of comorbid diagnoses was 1.4, and 35.1% had HC as their only diagnosis. Participants were more likely to have only comorbid anxiety disorders than only comorbid depressive or somatoform disorders. Multiple regression analysis of continuous measures of symptoms revealed the strongest correlation of health anxiety with anxiety symptoms, and a weaker correlation with somatoform symptoms; in multiple regression analysis, there was no correlation between health anxiety and depressive symptoms.Our findings suggest that the entity of health anxiety (HC in DSM-IV and illness anxiety disorder in DSM-5) is a clinical syndrome distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Analysis of comorbidity patterns and continuous measures of symptoms suggest that its appropriate classification is with anxiety rather than somatoform or mood disorders.
Project description:We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans.This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification (never vs. remitted vs. current) and self-reported habitual sleep duration (normal vs. short). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported.Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep.Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness.
Project description:Bipolar, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorders are common, highly heritable psychiatric disorders, for which familial coaggregation, as well as epidemiological and genetic evidence, suggests overlapping etiologies. No definitive susceptibility genes have yet been identified for any of these disorders. Genetic heterogeneity, combined with phenotypic imprecision and poor marker coverage, has contributed to the difficulty in defining risk variants. We focused on families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, to reduce genetic heterogeneity, and, as a precursor to genomewide association studies, we undertook a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping screen of 64 candidate genes (440 SNPs) chosen on the basis of previous linkage or of association and/or biological relevance. We genotyped an average of 6.9 SNPs per gene, with an average density of 1 SNP per 11.9 kb in 323 bipolar I disorder and 274 schizophrenia or schizoaffective Ashkenazi case-parent trios. Using single-SNP and haplotype-based transmission/disequilibrium tests, we ranked genes on the basis of strength of association (P<.01). Six genes (DAO, GRM3, GRM4, GRIN2B, IL2RB, and TUBA8) met this criterion for bipolar I disorder; only DAO has been previously associated with bipolar disorder. Six genes (RGS4, SCA1, GRM4, DPYSL2, NOS1, and GRID1) met this criterion for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder; five replicate previous associations, and one, GRID1, shows a novel association with schizophrenia. In addition, six genes (DPYSL2, DTNBP1, G30/G72, GRID1, GRM4, and NOS1) showed overlapping suggestive evidence of association in both disorders. These results may help to prioritize candidate genes for future study from among the many suspected/proposed for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. They provide further support for shared genetic susceptibility between these two disorders that involve glutamate-signaling pathways.
Project description:Depression, schizophrenia and panic disorder are common mental disorders in the community and hospitalized patients. These mental disorders negatively affect life quality and even expectancy of life. Haptoglobin (Hp) phenotype (Hp 1-1, 1-2, or 2-2) is associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases, but its association with psychiatric disorders, a growing concern in the modern society, has not been studied thoroughly. The aim of the study was to examine whether Hp phenotype is associated with common mental disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and panic disorder.The study included 92 Arab patients with mental disorders, and among them 44 suffered from schizophrenia (mean age 39 ± 1.5 years), 17 from depression (mean age 44.5 ± 3.1 years), 31 from panic disorder (mean age of 44.9 ± 2.7 years), and 206 healthy Arab control subjects with a mean age of 42.6 ± 0.9 years. Beck's depression inventory assessment and Hamilton depression scale were administered for depression and panic disorder diagnosis. Schizophrenia was evaluated with positive and negative affect schedule (Panas) test. All mental disorders were evaluated by clinical review. Blood analysis for Hp phenotype was performed. Diagnosis was made using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders axis to correlate depression with Hp phenotype.In mentally healthy controls, 10.7% were Hp 1-1, 38.8% Hp 2-1, and 50.5% Hp 2-2. In patients with the studied psychiatric disorders, Hp phenotype was comparable to healthy subjects; 8.7% were Hp 1-1, 50% Hp 2-1, and 41.3% Hp 2-2. When Hp phenotyping was analyzed in the psychiatric subgroups, Hp 2-1 was more common among depressed and schizophrenic patients, as compared with healthy subjects (58.8% and 52.3% vs. 38.8%). In patients who suffer from panic disorder, Hp phenotype distribution was 6.5% Hp 1-1, 41.9% Hp 2-1, and 51.6% Hp 2-2, suggesting a lower prevalence among Hp 1-1 phenotype.Arab patients who carry Hp 2-1 phenotype may be at risk to develop depression or schizophrenia more than the general healthy population. In contrast, Hp 1-1 subjects have a lower prevalence of panic disorder.
Project description:This study aimed to determine if current comorbid psychiatric disorders differ in adults with cocaine use disorder, other stimulant (primarily methamphetamine) use disorder, or both, and identify demographic and clinical characteristics in those with increasing numbers of comorbid disorders. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial beginning in residential settings (N=302) was used. Mood disorders were present in 33.6%, and anxiety disorders in 29.6%, with no differences among stimulant use disorder groups. Panic disorder was more frequently present with other stimulant use disorder. Those with two or more comorbid psychiatric disorders were more often female, White, had more symptoms of depression, greater propensity and risk for suicidal behavior, lower functioning in psychiatric and family domains, lower quality of life, more symptoms with stimulant abstinence and greater likelihood of marijuana dependence. Those with one or more comorbid disorders had more medical disorder burden, lower cognitive and physical functioning, greater pain, and higher rates of other drug dependence. With current comorbid psychiatric disorders, the morbidity of stimulant use disorders increases. Use of validated assessments near treatment entry, and a treatment plan targeting not only substance use and comorbid psychiatric disorders, but functional impairments, medical disorder burden and pain, may be useful.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Depression and alcohol abuse or dependence (AUD) co-occur in the general population more frequently than expected by chance. Alcohol use influences the circadian rhythms generated by the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and circadian rhythm alterations in turn are common in depressive disorders as well as among persons addicted to alcohol. METHODS:32 SNPs in 19 circadian clockwork related genes were analyzed using DNA from 76 individuals with comorbid depression and AUD, 446 individuals with AUD and 517 healthy controls with no psychiatric diagnosis. The individuals participated in a nationwide health examination study, representative of the general population aged 30 and over in Finland. RESULTS:The CLOCK haplotype TTGC formed by SNPs rs3805151, rs2412648, rs11240 and rs2412646, was associated with increased risk for comorbidity (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.14-2.28, P = 0.0077). The SNPs of importance for this suggestive association were rs2412646 and rs11240 indicating location of the functional variation in the block downstream rs2412648. There was no indication for association between CLOCK and AUD. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest an association between the CLOCK gene and the comorbid condition of alcohol use and depressive disorders. Together with previous reports it indicates that the CLOCK variations we found here may be a vulnerability factor to depression given the exposure to alcohol in individuals having AUD.