A PLC?/PI3K?-GSK3 signaling pathway regulates cofilin phosphatase slingshot2 and neutrophil polarization and chemotaxis.
ABSTRACT: Neutrophils, in response to a chemoattractant gradient, undergo dynamic F-actin remodeling, a process important for their directional migration or chemotaxis. However, signaling mechanisms for chemoattractants to regulate the process are incompletely understood. Here, we characterized chemoattractant-activated signaling mechanisms that regulate cofilin dephosphorylation and actin cytoskeleton reorganization and are critical for neutrophil polarization and chemotaxis. In neutrophils, chemoattractants induced phosphorylation and inhibition of GSK3 via both PLC?-PKC and PI3K?-AKT pathways, leading to the attenuation of GSK3-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition of the cofilin phosphatase slingshot2 and an increase in dephosphorylated, active cofilin. The relative contribution of this GSK3-mediated pathway to neutrophil chemotaxis regulation depended on neutrophil polarity preset by integrin-induced polarization of PIP5K1C. Therefore, our study characterizes a signaling mechanism for chemoattractant-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and elucidates its context-dependent role in regulating neutrophil polarization and chemotaxis.
Project description:Neutrophils are important in innate immunity and acute inflammatory responses. However, the regulation of their recruitment to sites of inflammation has not been well characterized. Here, we investigated the kinase PIP5K1C and showed that PIP5K1C deficiency impaired neutrophil recruitment because of an adhesion defect. PIP5K1C regulated the adhesion through facilitating RhoA GTPase and integrin activation by chemoattractants. Integrins could induce polarization of an isoform of PIP5K1C, PIP5K1C-90, in neutrophils through intracellular vesicle transport independently of exogenous chemoattractant. PIP5K1C-90 polarization was required for polarized RhoA activation at uropods and provided an initial directional cue for neutrophil polarization on the endothelium. Importantly, the polarization was also required for circumventing the inhibition of lamellipodium formation by RhoA so that neutrophils could form leading edges required for transendothelial migration. Because integrins are not known to regulate neutrophil polarization, our study revealed a previously underappreciated role of integrin signaling in neutrophil regulation.
Project description:Neutrophil recruitment to inflammation sites purportedly depends on sequential waves of chemoattractants. Current models propose that leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), a secondary chemoattractant secreted by neutrophils in response to primary chemoattractants such as formyl peptides, is important in initiating the inflammation process. In this study we demonstrate that LTB(4) plays a central role in neutrophil activation and migration to formyl peptides. We show that LTB(4) production dramatically amplifies formyl peptide-mediated neutrophil polarization and chemotaxis by regulating specific signaling pathways acting upstream of actin polymerization and MyoII phosphorylation. Importantly, by analyzing the migration of neutrophils isolated from wild-type mice and mice lacking the formyl peptide receptor 1, we demonstrate that LTB(4) acts as a signal to relay information from cell to cell over long distances. Together, our findings imply that LTB(4) is a signal-relay molecule that exquisitely regulates neutrophil chemotaxis to formyl peptides, which are produced at the core of inflammation sites.
Project description:Chemoattractants induce neutrophil polarization through localized polymerization of F-actin at the leading edge. The suppression of rear and lateral protrusions is required for efficient chemotaxis and involves the temporal and spatial segregation of signaling molecules. We have previously shown that the intracellular calcium-dependent protease calpain is required for cell migration and is involved in regulating neutrophil chemotaxis. Here, we show that primary neutrophils and neutrophil-like HL-60 cells express both calpain 1 and calpain 2 and that chemoattractants induce the asymmetric recruitment of calpain 2, but not calpain 1, to the leading edge of polarized neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we show that enrichment of calpain 2 at the leading edge occurs during early pseudopod formation and that its localization is sensitive to changes in the chemotactic gradient. We demonstrate that calpain 2 is recruited to lipid rafts and that cholesterol depletion perturbs calpain 2 localization, suggesting that its enrichment at the front requires proper membrane organization. Finally, we show that catalytic activity of calpain is required to limit pseudopod formation in the direction of chemoattractant and for efficient chemotaxis. Together, our findings identify calpain 2 as a novel component of the frontness signal that promotes polarization during chemotaxis.
Project description:Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a hereditary disorder characterized by pancreatic insufficiency and bone marrow failure. Most Shwachman-Diamond syndrome patients have mutations in the SBDS gene located at chromosome 7 and suffer from recurrent infections, due to neutropenia in combination with impaired neutrophil chemotaxis. Currently, the role of the actin cytoskeleton in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome neutrophils has not been investigated. Therefore, we performed immunofluorescence for SBDS and F-actin on human neutrophilic cells. Additionally, we examined in control neutrophils and cells from genetically defined Shwachman-Diamond syndrome patients F-actin polymerization and cytoskeletal polarization characteristics upon chemoattractant stimulation. These studies showed that SBDS and F-actin co-localize in neutrophilic cells and that F-actin polymerization and depolymerization characteristics are altered in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome neutrophils as compared to control neutrophils in response to both fMLP and C5a. Moreover, F-actin cytoskeletal polarization is delayed in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome neutrophils. Thus, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome neutrophils have aberrant chemoattractant-induced F-actin properties which might contribute to the impaired neutrophil chemotaxis.
Project description:We studied the role of the target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) during neutrophil chemotaxis, a process that is mediated through the polarization of actin and myosin filament networks. We show that inhibition of mTORC2 activity, achieved via knock down (KD) of Rictor, severely inhibits neutrophil polarization and directed migration induced by chemoattractants, independently of Akt. Rictor KD also abolishes the ability of chemoattractants to induce cAMP production, a process mediated through the activation of the adenylyl cyclase 9 (AC9). Cells with either reduced or higher AC9 levels also exhibit specific and severe tail retraction defects that are mediated through RhoA. We further show that cAMP is excluded from extending pseudopods and remains restricted to the cell body of migrating neutrophils. We propose that the mTORC2-dependent regulation of MyoII occurs through a cAMP/RhoA-signaling axis, independently of actin reorganization during neutrophil chemotaxis.
Project description:Chemotaxis is fundamental to the directional migration of neutrophils toward endogenous and exogenous chemoattractants. Recent studies have demonstrated that ADF/cofilin superfamily members play important roles in reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton by disassembling actin filaments. GMFG, a novel ADF/cofilin superfamily protein that is expressed in inflammatory cells, has been implicated in regulating actin reorganization in microendothelial cells, but its function in neutrophils remains unclear. Here, we show that GMFG is an important regulator for cell migration and polarity in neutrophils. Knockdown of endogenous GMFG impaired fMLF- and IL-8 (CXCL8)-induced chemotaxis in dHL-60 cells. GMFG knockdown attenuated the formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge of cells exposed to fMLF or CXCL8, as well as the phosphorylation of p38 and PAK1/2 in response to fMLF or CXCL8. Live cell imaging revealed that GMFG was recruited to the leading edge of cells in response to fMLF, as well as CXCL8. Overexpression of GMFG enhanced phosphorylation of p38 but not of PAK1/2 in dHL-60 cells. In addition, we found that GMFG is associated with WAVE2. Taken together, our findings suggest that GMFG is a novel factor in regulating neutrophil chemotaxis by modulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization.
Project description:Neutrophils sense and respond to diverse chemotactic cues through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, the precise trafficking dynamics of chemoattractant GPCRs during neutrophil activation and chemotaxis remain unclear. Here, by using small-molecule inhibitors and CRISPR-based knockouts, we establish that two primary chemoattractant GPCRs - formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and complement component 5a (C5a) receptor 1 (C5aR1) - internalize in a CDC42-actin-dependent manner. Through live-cell imaging, we demonstrate that, upon stimulation, FPR1 rapidly clusters and re-distributes along the plasma membrane to the trailing edge, where it internalizes and is directionally trafficked towards the front of migrating primary human neutrophils. In contrast to FPR1 and C5aR1, the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor (BLT1, also known as LTB4R), which relays LTB4 signals in response to primary chemoattractants during neutrophil chemotaxis, fails to internalize upon physiological stimulation with LTB4, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) or C5a. Importantly, we report that blocking the LTB4-BLT1 axis or downstream myosin activation enhances the internalization of FPR1 and C5aR1, thus reducing downstream signaling and impairing chemotaxis to primary chemoattractants. The polarized trafficking of chemoattractant GPCRs and its regulation by the BLT1-mediated myosin activation therefore drives persistent chemotactic signaling in neutrophils.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:As mediators of innate immunity, neutrophils respond to chemoattractants by adopting a highly polarized morphology. Efficient chemotaxis requires the formation of one prominent pseudopod at the cell front characterized by actin polymerization, while local inhibition suppresses the formation of rear and lateral protrusions. This asymmetric control of signaling pathways is required for directional migration along a chemotactic gradient. Here, we identify the MAGUK protein p55/MPP1 as a mediator of the frontness signal required for neutrophil polarization. We developed a p55 knockout (p55(-/-)) mouse model, and demonstrate that p55(-/-) neutrophils form multiple transient pseudopods upon chemotactic stimulation, and do not migrate efficiently in vitro. Upon agonist stimulation, p55 is rapidly recruited to the leading edge of neutrophils in mice and humans. Total F-actin polymerization, along with Rac1 and RhoA activation, appear to be normal in p55(-/-) neutrophils. Importantly, phosphorylation of Akt is significantly decreased in p55(-/-) neutrophils upon chemotactic stimulation. The activity of immunoprecipitated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma), responsible for chemoattractant-induced synthesis of PIP(3) and Akt phosphorylation, is unperturbed in p55(-/-) neutrophils. Although the total amount of PIP(3) is normal in p55(-/-) neutrophils, PIP(3) is diffusely localized and forms punctate aggregates in activated p55(-/-) neutrophils, as compared to its accumulation at the leading edge membrane in the wild type neutrophils. Together, these results show that p55 is required for neutrophil polarization by regulating Akt phosphorylation through a mechanism that is independent of PI3Kgamma activity.
Project description:The dynamics of neutrophil chemotaxis under competing chemoattractant gradients was studied using a microfluidic platform. This microfluidic platform, which establishes a stable and dynamic gradient of chemoattractants across a cell culture chamber, enabled the investigation of human neutrophil migration patterns in the presences of four different chemoattractants (leukotriene B(4), chemokine C-X-C motif ligands 2 and 8, and fMLP) and competing gradients of all pairwise combinations. The migration patterns for individual cells were tracked and quantitatively analyzed, and the results suggest a hierarchy among these chemoattractants of fMLP > CXCL8 > CXCL2 > leukotriene B(4). In all conditions, over 60% of neutrophils exposed to a competing gradient move toward the stronger signal though the weaker chemoattractant still influences neutrophil motility. These results yield insight about how each chemoattractant contributes to overall neutrophil chemotaxis within complex physiological environments.
Project description:Neutrophils constitute the largest class of white blood cells and are the first responders in the innate immune response. They are able to sense and migrate up concentration gradients of chemoattractants in search of primary sites of infection and inflammation through a process known as chemotaxis. These chemoattractants include formylated peptides and various chemokines. While much is known about chemotaxis to individual chemoattractants, far less is known about chemotaxis towards many. Previous studies have shown that in opposing gradients of intermediate chemoattractants (interleukin-8 and leukotriene B4), neutrophils preferentially migrate toward the more distant source. In this work, we investigated neutrophil chemotaxis in opposing gradients of chemoattractants using a microfluidic platform. We found that primary neutrophils exhibit oscillatory motion in opposing gradients of intermediate chemoattractants. To understand this behavior, we constructed a mathematical model of neutrophil chemotaxis. Our results suggest that sensory adaptation alone cannot explain the observed oscillatory motion. Rather, our model suggests that neutrophils employ a winner-take-all mechanism that enables them to transiently lock onto sensed targets and continuously switch between the intermediate attractant sources as they are encountered. These findings uncover a previously unseen behavior of neutrophils in opposing gradients of chemoattractants that will further aid in our understanding of neutrophil chemotaxis and the innate immune response. In addition, we propose a winner-take-all mechanism allows the cells to avoid stagnation near local chemical maxima when migrating through a network of chemoattractant sources.