Atrial natriuretic peptide enhances microvascular albumin permeability by the caveolae-mediated transcellular pathway.
ABSTRACT: AIMS: Cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) participates in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure and intravascular volume homeostasis. The hypovolaemic effects of ANP result from coordinated actions in the kidney and systemic microcirculation. Hence, ANP, via its guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor and intracellular cyclic GMP as second messenger, stimulates endothelial albumin permeability. Ultimately, this leads to a shift of plasma fluid into interstitial pools. Here we studied the role of caveolae-mediated transendothelial albumin transport in the hyperpermeability effects of ANP. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intravital microscopy studies of the mouse cremaster microcirculation showed that ANP stimulates the extravasation of fluorescent albumin from post-capillary venules and causes arteriolar vasodilatation. The hyperpermeability effect was prevented in mice with conditional, endothelial deletion of GC-A (EC GC-A KO) or with deleted caveolin-1 (cav-1), the caveolae scaffold protein. In contrast, the vasodilating effect was preserved. Concomitantly, the acute hypovolaemic action of ANP was abolished in EC GC-A KO and Cav-1(-/-) mice. In cultured microvascular rat fat pad and mouse lung endothelial cells, ANP stimulated uptake and transendothelial transport of fluorescent albumin without altering endothelial electrical resistance. The stimulatory effect on albumin uptake was prevented in GC-A- or cav-1-deficient pulmonary endothelia. Finally, preparation of caveolin-enriched lipid rafts from mouse lung and western blotting showed that GC-A and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I partly co-localize with Cav-1 in caveolae microdomains. CONCLUSION: ANP enhances transendothelial caveolae-mediated albumin transport via its GC-A receptor. This ANP-mediated cross-talk between the heart and the microcirculation is critically involved in the regulation of intravascular volume.
Project description:Caveolin-1, the signature protein of endothelial cell caveolae, has many important functions in vascular cells. Caveolae are thought to be the transcellular pathway by which plasma proteins cross normal capillary endothelium, but, unexpectedly, cav-1(-/-) mice, which lack caveolae, have increased permeability to plasma albumin. The acute increase in vascular permeability induced by agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A occurs through venules, not capillaries, and particularly through the vesiculo-vacuolar organelle (VVO), a unique structure composed of numerous interconnecting vesicles and vacuoles that together span the venular endothelium from lumen to ablumen. Furthermore, the hyperpermeable blood vessels found in pathological angiogenesis, mother vessels, are derived from venules. The present experiments made use of cav-1(-/-) mice to investigate the relationship between caveolae and VVOs and the roles of caveolin-1 in VVO structure in the acute vascular hyperpermeability induced by VEGF-A and in pathological angiogenesis and associated chronic vascular hyperpermeability. We found that VVOs expressed caveolin-1 variably but, in contrast to caveolae, were present in normal numbers and with apparently unaltered structure in cav-1(-/-) mice. Nonetheless, VEGF-A-induced hyperpermeability was strikingly reduced in cav-1(-/-) mice, as was pathological angiogenesis and associated chronic vascular hyperpermeability, whether induced by VEGF-A(164) or by a tumor. Thus, caveolin-1 is not necessary for VVO structure but may have important roles in regulating VVO function in acute vascular hyperpermeability and angiogenesis.
Project description:We investigated the role of NF-kappaB activation by the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in inducing caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression and its consequence in contributing to the leakiness of the endothelial barrier. We observed that LPS challenge of human lung microvascular endothelial cells induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in expression of Cav-1 mRNA and protein. The NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modifier binding domain)-binding domain peptide (IkB kinase (IKK)-NEMO-binding domain (NBD) peptide), which prevents NF-kappaB activation by inhibiting the interaction of IKKgamma with the IKK complex, blocked LPS-induced Cav-1 mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of NF-kappaB subunit p65/RelA expression with small interfering RNA also prevented LPS-induced Cav-1 expression. Caveolae open to the apical and basal plasmalemma of endothelial cells increased 2-4-fold within 4 h of LPS exposure. IKK-NBD peptide markedly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the number of caveolae as well as transendothelial albumin permeability. These observations were recapitulated in mouse studies in which IKK-NBD peptide prevented Cav-1 expression and interfered with the increase in lung microvessel permeability induced by LPS. Thus, LPS mediates NF-kappaB-dependent Cav-1 expression that results in increased caveolae number and thereby contributes to the mechanism of increased transendothelial albumin permeability.
Project description:Oxidants are important signaling molecules known to increase endothelial permeability, although the mechanisms underlying permeability regulation are not clear.To define the role of caveolin-1 in the mechanism of oxidant-induced pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability and edema formation.Using genetic approaches, we show that phosphorylation of caveolin-1 Tyr14 is required for increased pulmonary microvessel permeability induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Caveolin-1-deficient mice (cav-1(-/-)) were resistant to H(2)O(2)-induced pulmonary vascular albumin hyperpermeability and edema formation. Furthermore, the vascular hyperpermeability response to H(2)O(2) was completely rescued by expression of caveolin-1 in cav-1(-/-) mouse lung microvessels but was not restored by the phosphorylation-defective caveolin-1 mutant. The increase in caveolin-1 phosphorylation induced by H(2)O(2) was dose-dependently coupled to both increased (125)I-albumin transcytosis and decreased transendothelial electric resistance in pulmonary endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 following H(2)O(2) exposure resulted in the dissociation of vascular endothelial cadherin/beta-catenin complexes and resultant endothelial barrier disruption.Caveolin-1 phosphorylation-dependent signaling plays a crucial role in oxidative stress-induced pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability via transcellular and paracellular pathways. Thus, caveolin-1 phosphorylation may be an important therapeutic target for limiting oxidant-mediated vascular hyperpermeability, protein-rich edema formation, and acute lung injury.
Project description:Vascular endothelial hyperpermeability is one of the manifestations of endothelial dysfunction. Resveratrol (Res) is considered to be beneficial in protecting endothelial function. However, currently, the exact protective effect and involved mechanisms of Res on endothelial dysfunction-hyperpermeability have not been completely clarified. The aim of present study is to investigate the effects of Res on amelioration of endothelial hyperpermeability and the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a normal or high-fat/sucrose diet (HFS) with or without Res for 13 weeks. HFS and in vitro treatment with high glucose increased hyperpermeability in rat aorta, heart, liver and kidney and cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), respectively, which was attenuated by Res treatment. Application of Res reversed the changes in eNOS and Cav-1 expressions in aorta and heart of rats fed HFS and in BAECs incubated with high glucose. Res stimulated the formation of NO inhibited by high glucose in BAECs. Beta-Cyclodextrin (?-CD), caveolae inhibitor, showed the better beneficial effect than Res alone to up-regulate eNOS phosphorylative levels, while NG-Nitro-77 L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), eNOS inhibitor, had no effect on Cav-1 expression. Our studies suggested that HFS and in vitro treatment with high glucose caused endothelial hyperpermeability, which were ameliorated by Res at least involving Cav-1/eNOS regulation.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was shown to induce an increase in caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression in endothelial cells; however, the mechanisms regarding this response and the consequences on caveolae-mediated transcellular transport have not been completely investigated. This study aims to investigate the role of LPS-induced Cav-1 phosphorylation in pulmonary microvascular permeability in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs).Rat PMVECs were isolated, cultured, and identified. Endocytosis experiments were employed to stain the nuclei by DAPI, and images were obtained with a fluorescence microscope. Permeability of endothelial cultures was measured to analyze the barrier function of endothelial monolayer. Western blot assay was used to examine the expression of Cav-1, pCav-1, triton-insoluble Cav-1, and triton-soluble Cav-1 protein.The LPS treatment induced phosphorylation of Cav-1, but did not alter the total Cav-1 level till 60 min in both rat and human PMVECs. LPS treatment also increased the triton-insoluble Cav-1 level, which peaked 15 min after LPS treatment in both rat and human PMVECs. LPS treatment increases the intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Src inhibitors, including PP2, PP1, Saracatinib, and Quercetin, partially inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of Cav-1. In addition, both PP2 and caveolae disruptor M?CD inhibited LPS-induced increase of triton-insoluble Cav-1. LPS induces permeability by activating interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor and targeting other adhesion markers, such as ZO-1 and occludin. LPS treatment also significantly increased the endocytosis of albumin, which could be blocked by PP2 or M?CD. Furthermore, LPS treatment for 15 min significantly elevated Evans Blue-labeled BSA transport in advance of a decrease in transendothelial electrical resistance of PMVEC monolayer at this time point. After LPS treatment for 30 min, transendothelial electrical resistance decreased significantly. Moreover, PP2 and M?CD blocked LPS-induced increase in Evans Blue-labeled BSA level.Our study demonstrates that LPS-induced Cav-1 phosphorylation may lead to the increase of transcellular permeability prior to the increase of paracellular permeability in a Src-dependent manner. Thus, LPS-induced Cav-1 phosphorylation may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory lung disease associated with elevated microvascular permeability.
Project description:We investigated the role of caveolae in the mechanism of increased pulmonary vascular permeability and edema formation induced by the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). We observed that the increase in lung vascular permeability induced by the activation of PMNs required caveolin-1, the caveolae scaffold protein. The permeability increase induced by PMN activation was blocked in caveolin-1 knockout mice and by suppressing caveolin-1 expression in rats. The response was also dependent on Src phosphorylation of caveolin-1 known to activate caveolae-mediated endocytosis in endothelial cells. To address the role of PMN interaction with endothelial cells, we used an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 blocking monoclonal antibody. Preventing the ICAM-1-mediated PMN binding to endothelial cells abrogated Src phosphorylation of caveolin-1, as well as the increase in endothelial permeability. Direct ICAM-1 activation by crosslinking recapitulated these responses, suggesting that ICAM-1 activates caveolin-1 signaling responsible for caveolae-mediated endothelial hyperpermeability. Our results provide support for the novel concept that a large component of pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability induced by activation of PMNs adherent to the vessel wall is dependent on signaling via caveolin-1 and increased caveolae-mediated transcytosis. Thus, it is important to consider the role of the transendothelial vesicular permeability pathway that contributes to edema formation in developing therapeutic interventions against PMN-mediated inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury.
Project description:Myeloperoxidase (MPO), the phagocyte hemoprotein involved in neutrophil host defense and consuming nitric oxide (*NO), induces the nitration of extracellular matrix proteins and tissue remodeling subsequent to its transcytosis across the endothelial barrier. We addressed the role of an interaction of MPO with albumin as a requirement for MPO transport across the endothelium. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS analysis of 80- and 60-kDa proteins purified from human lung tissue [with a human serum albumin (HSA)-affinity column] identified these albumin-binding proteins as MPO and MPO-heavy chain. A peptide corresponding to the MPO-heavy chain residues 425-454 demonstrated high-affinity binding to HSA. Replacement of the positively charged residues, R and K with G, prevented the binding of HSA to the peptide. We observed that albumin increased the binding of (125)I-MPO to lung microvascular endothelial cells by 2-fold and the rate of transendothelial flux of (125)I-MPO in cultured monolayers and intact vessels. Disruption of caveolae with cyclodextrin prevented the albumin-induced increase in transendothelial flux of (125)I-MPO. We also observed by confocal imaging that albumin induced the rapid internalization of MPO and its colocalization with albumin-labeled vesicles. MPO colocalized with the caveolae markers cholera toxin subunit B and caveolin 1 in the endocytosed vesicles. Thus, transcytosis of MPO by caveolae induced by its charge-dependent interaction with albumin is an important means of delivering MPO to the subendothelial space. Albumin-mediated transport of MPO may thereby regulate NO bioavailability and formation of NO-derived oxidants in the vessel wall.
Project description:Vascular leakage is a life-threatening complication of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Previously, association between "paracellular" endothelial hyperpermeability and plasma leakage had been extensively investigated. However, whether "transcellular" endothelial leakage is involved in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) remained unknown. We thus investigated effects of DENV (serotype 2) infection on transcellular transport of albumin, the main oncotic plasma protein, through human endothelial cell monolayer by Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, fluorescence imaging, and fluorometry. The data showed that Alexa488-conjugated bovine serum albumin (Alexa488-BSA) was detectable inside DENV2-infected cells and its level was progressively increased during 48-h post-infection. While paracellular transport could be excluded using FITC-conjugated dextran, Alexa488-BSA was progressively increased and decreased in lower and upper chambers of Transwell, respectively. Pretreatment with nystatin, an inhibitor of caveolae-dependent endocytic pathway, significantly decreased albumin internalization into the DENV2-infected cells, whereas inhibitors of other endocytic pathways showed no significant effects. Co-localization of the internalized Alexa488-BSA and caveolin-1 was also observed. Our findings indicate that DENV infection enhances caveolae-mediated albumin transcytosis through human endothelial cells that may ultimately induce plasma leakage from intravascular compartment. Further elucidation of this model in vivo may lead to effective prevention and better therapeutic outcome of DHF/DSS.
Project description:Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) negatively regulates endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase-derived NO production, and this has been mapped to several residues on Cav-1, including F92. Herein, we reasoned that endothelial expression of an F92ACav-1 transgene would let us decipher the mechanisms and relationships between caveolae structure and intracellular signaling.This study was designed to separate caveolae formation from its downstream signaling effects.An endothelial-specific doxycycline-regulated mouse model for the expression of Cav-1-F92A was developed. Blood pressure by telemetry and nitric oxide bioavailability by electron paramagnetic resonance and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein were determined. Caveolae integrity in the presence of Cav-1-F92A was measured by stabilization of caveolin-2, sucrose gradient, and electron microscopy. Histological analysis of heart and lung, echocardiography, and signaling were performed.This study shows that mutant Cav-1-F92A forms caveolae structures similar to WT but leads to increases in NO bioavailability in vivo, thereby demonstrating that caveolae formation and downstream signaling events occur through independent mechanisms.