Tumor necrosis factor-related genes and colon and rectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) is a promoter of inflammation. Genes in the TNF pathway include tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A), TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), mitogen activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8), 14 (MAPK14), and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7), nuclear factor of activated-T-5 (NFAT5) cells and NFAT activated protein with ITAM motif 1 ?NFAM1). Data from population-based studies of colon cancer (cases=1,555; controls=1,956) and rectal cancer (cases=754; controls=959) were used. We observed that MAP3K7 rs13208824 was associated with reduced colon cancer risk (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71, 0.98 dominant model), TNF rs1800630 was associated with an increased colon cancer risk (OR 1.19 95% CI 1.03, 1.38 for CA/AAvsCC), and TNFRSF1A rs4149570 was associated with reduced risk (OR 0.79 95% CI 0.64, 0.96 TTvsGG). For rectal cancer MAPK8 rs10508901 was associated with increased risk (OR 1.45 95% CI 1.05, 1.99 AA vs CC/CA; NFAT5 (rs12447326 and rs16959025) was associated with a 40% reduced risk for the recessive model. Aspirin/NSAID interacted with MAP3K7 (colon cancer) and with MAPK14, NFAT5, and TRAF2 (rectal cancer); smoking cigarettes interacted with NFAM1 and NFAT2 (colon cancer) and MAPK8, NFAT5, and TNFRSF1A (rectal cancer); BMI interacted with NFAM1 and NFAT5 (colon cancer) and with MAPK8 and TNFRSF1A (rectal cancer). A genotype summary score showed a threefold increased risk of dying with higher mutational load. Although few independent associations were detected, aspirin/NSAID, cigarette smoking, and BMI influenced genes in this pathway. These data suggest pathways through which TNF-signaling operates.
Project description:Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate many cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. We evaluate genetic variation in the c-Jun-N-terminal kinases, p38, and extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 MAPK-signaling pathways and colon and rectal cancer risk using data from population-based case-control studies (colon: n = 1555 cases, 1956 controls; rectal: n = 754 cases, 959 controls). We assess 19 genes (DUSP1, DUSP2, DUSP4, DUSP6, DUSP7, MAP2K1, MAP3K1, MAP3K2, MAP3K3, MAP3K7, MAP3K9, MAP3K10, MAP3K11, MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK8, MAPK12, MAPK14 and RAF1). MAP2K1 rs8039880 [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.38, 0.83; GG versus AA genotype] and MAP3K9 rs11625206 (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.14, 1.76; recessive model) were associated with colon cancer (P (adj) value < 0.05). DUSP1 rs322351 (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.88; TT versus CC) and MAPK8 rs10857561 (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08, 2.03; AA versus GG/GA) were associated with rectal cancer (P (adj) < 0.05). Aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, cigarette smoking and body mass index interacted with several genes to alter cancer risk. Genetic variants had unique associations with KRAS, TP53 and CIMP+ tumors. DUSP2 rs1724120 [hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.54, 0.96; AA versus GG/GA), MAP3K10 rs112956 (HRR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.76; CT/TT versus CC) and MAP3K11 (HRR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.18, 2.62 TT versus GG/GT) influenced survival after diagnosis with colon cancer; MAP2K1 rs8039880 (HRR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.34, 4.79 GG versus AG/GG) and Raf1 rs11923427 (HRR = 0.59 95% CI = 0.40, 0.86; AA versus TT/TA) were associated with rectal cancer survival. These data suggest that genetic variation in the MAPK-signaling pathway influences colorectal cancer risk and survival after diagnosis. Associations may be modified by lifestyle factors that influence inflammation and oxidative stress.
Project description:Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Associations between genes in the DUSP, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK-signaling pathways and dietary factors associated with growth factors, inflammation, and oxidative stress and risk of colon and rectal cancer were evaluated. Data include colon cases (n = 1555) and controls (n = 1956) and rectal cases (n = 754) and controls (n = 959). Statistically significant interactions were observed for the MAPK-signaling pathways after adjustment for multiple comparisons. DUSP genes interacted with carbohydrates, mutagen index, calories, calcium, vitamin D, lycopene, dietary fats, folic acid, and selenium. MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK1, and RAF1 within the ERK1/2 MAPK-signaling pathway interacted with dietary fats and cruciferous vegetables. Within the JNK MAPK-signaling pathway, interactions between MAP3K7 and protein, vitamin C, iron, folic acid, carbohydrates, and cruciferous vegetables; MAP3K10 and folic acid; MAP3K9 and lutein/zeaxanthin; MAPK8 and calcium; MAP3K3 and calcium and lutein; MAP3K1 and cruciferous vegetables. Interaction within the p38-signaling pathway included MAPK14 with calories, carbohydrates saturated fat, selenium, vitamin C; MAP3K2 and carbohydrates, and folic acid. These data suggest that dietary factors involved in inflammation and oxidative stress interact with MAPK-signaling genes to alter risk of colorectal cancer.
Project description:Programmed germ cell death is critical for functional spermatogenesis. Increased germ cell apoptosis can be triggered by various regulatory stimuli, including testicular hyperthermia or deprivation of gonadotropins and intratesticular testosterone. We have previously shown the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 14 in apoptotic signaling of male germ cells across species after hormone deprivation. This study investigates the role of MAPK14 in germ cell apoptosis in rats triggered by testicular hyperthermia. The contributions of the MAPK1/3 and the MAPK8 to male germ cell death were also examined after this intervention. We show that 1) testicular hyperthermia results in induction of both MAPK1/3 and MAPK14 but not MAPK8; 2) inhibition of MAPK1/3 has no effect on the incidence of heat-induced germ cell apoptosis, suggesting that MAPK1/3 signaling may be dispensable for heat-induced male germ cell apoptosis; and 3) activation of MAPK14 and BCL2 phosphorylation are critical for heat-induced male germ cell apoptosis in rats. Thus, unlike the hormone deprivation model, heat stress through activation of the MAPK14 signaling promotes germ cell apoptosis by provoking BCL2 phosphorylation, leading to its inactivation and the subsequent activation of the mitochondria-dependent death pathway. These novel findings point to a critical role of MAPK14 in stage- and cell-specific activation of male germ cell apoptosis triggered by hormone deprivation or heat stress.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease, which is associated with increasing mortality and morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to clearly define the COPD pathogenic mechanism and to explore effective therapies. Previous studies indicated that cigarette smoke (CS) induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung epithelial (LE) cells. Excessive ELANE/HNE (elastase, neutrophil elastase), a factor involved in protease-antiprotease imbalance and the pathogenesis of COPD, causes LE cell apoptosis and upregulates the expression of several stimulus-responsive genes. However, whether or not elastase induces autophagy in LE cell remains unknown. The level of PGF (placental growth factor) is higher in COPD patients than non-COPD controls. We hypothesize that elastase induces PGF expression and causes autophagy in LE cells. In this study, we demonstrated that porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induced PGF expression and secretion in LE cells in vitro and in vivo. The activation of MAPK8/JNK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8) and MAPK14/p38alpha MAPK signaling pathways was involved in the PGF mediated regulation of the TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex) pathway and autophagy in LE cells. Notably, PGF-induced MAPK8 and MAPK14 signaling pathways mediated the inactivation of MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), the upregulation of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 ?) and the increase of autophagosome formation in mice. Furthermore, the PPE-induced autophagy promotes further apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In summary, elastase-induced autophagy promotes LE cell apoptosis and pulmonary emphysema through the upregulation of PGF. PGF and its downstream MAPK8 and MAPK14 signaling pathways are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of emphysema and COPD.
Project description:Recently we have shown that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MAPK14/p38? is involved in resistance of colon cancer cells to camptothecin-related drugs. Here we further investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in such drug resistance and showed that, in HCT116 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in which TP53 was genetically ablated (HCT116-TP53KO), overexpression of constitutively active MAPK14/p38? decreases cell sensitivity to SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan), inhibits cell proliferation and induces survival-autophagy. Since autophagy is known to facilitate cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatment, we then investigated the relationship between MAPK14/p38?, autophagy and resistance to irinotecan. We demonstrated that induction of autophagy by SN38 is dependent on MAPK14/p38? activation. Finally, we showed that inhibition of MAPK14/p38? or autophagy both sensitizes HCT116-TP53KO cells to drug therapy. Our data proved that the two effects are interrelated, since the role of autophagy in drug resistance required the MAPK14/p38?. Our results highlight the existence of a new mechanism of resistance to camptothecin-related drugs: upon SN38 induction, MAPK14/p38? is activated and triggers survival-promoting autophagy to protect tumor cells against the cytotoxic effects of the drug. Colon cancer cells could thus be sensitized to drug therapy by inhibiting either MAPK14/p38 or autophagy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Deletions of 6q15-16.1 are recurrently found in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). This chromosomal region includes the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7) gene which has a crucial role in innate immune signaling and was observed to be functionally and prognostically relevant in different cancer entities. Therefore, we correlated the presence of MAP3K7 deletions with clinical parameters in a cohort of 327 pediatric T-ALL patients and investigated the function of MAP3K7 in the T-ALL cell lines CCRF-CEM, Jurkat and MOLT-4. METHODS:MAP3K7 deletions were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). T-ALL cell lines were transduced with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing anti-MAP3K7 shRNA or a non-silencing shRNA together with a GFP reporter. Transduction efficiency was measured by flow cytometry and depletion efficiency by RT-PCR and Western blots. Induction of apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry after staining with PE-conjugated Annexin V. In order to assess the contribution of NF-κB signaling to the effects of MAP3K7 depletion, cells were treated with TNF-α and cell lysates analyzed for components of the NF-κB pathway by Western blotting and for expression of the NF-κB target genes BCL2, CMYC, FAS, PTEN and TNF-α by RT-PCR. RESULTS:MAP3K7 is deleted in approximately 10% and point-mutated in approximately 1% of children with T-ALL. In 32 of 33 leukemias the deletion of MAP3K7 also included the adjacent CASP8AP2 gene. MAP3K7 deletions were associated with the occurrence of SIL-TAL1 fusions and a mature immunophenotype, but not with response to treatment and outcome. Depletion of MAP3K7 expression in T-ALL cell lines by shRNAs slowed down proliferation and induced apoptosis, but neither changed protein levels of components of NF-κB signaling nor NF-κB target gene expression after stimulation with TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS:This study revealed that the recurrent deletion of MAP3K7/CASP8AP2 is associated with SIL-TAL1 fusions and a mature immunophenotype, but not with response to treatment and risk of relapse. Homozygous deletions of MAP3K7 were not observed, and efficient depletion of MAP3K7 interfered with viability of T-ALL cells, indicating that a residual expression of MAP3K7 is indispensable for T-lymphoblasts.
Project description:The transcription factor STAT3 is activated inappropriately in 70% of breast cancers, most commonly in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Although the transcriptional function of STAT3 is essential for tumorigenesis, the key target genes regulated by STAT3 in driving tumor pathogenesis have remained unclear. To identify critical STAT3 target genes, we treated TNBC cell lines with two different compounds that block STAT3 transcriptional function, pyrimethamine and PMPTP. We then performed gene expression analysis to identify genes whose expression is strongly down-regulated by both STAT3 inhibitors. Foremost among the down-regulated genes was TNFRSF1A, which encodes a transmembrane receptor for TNF?. We showed that STAT3 binds directly to a regulatory region within the TNFRSF1A gene, and that TNFRSF1A levels are dependent on STAT3 function in both constitutive and cytokine-induced models of STAT3 activation. Furthermore, TNFRSF1A is a major mediator of both basal and TNF?-induced NF-?B activity in breast cancer cells. We extended these findings to primary human breast cancers, in which we found that high TNFRSF1A transcript levels correlated with STAT3 activation. In addition, and consistent with a causal role, increased TNFRSF1A expression was associated with an NF-?B gene expression in signature in breast cancers. Thus, TNFRSF1A is a STAT3 target gene that regulates the NF-?B pathway. These findings reveal a novel functional crosstalk between STAT3 and NF-?B signaling in breast cancer. Furthermore, elevated TNFRSF1A levels may predict a subset of breast tumors that are sensitive to STAT3 transcriptional inhibitors, and may be a biomarker for response to inhibition of this pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The interaction of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) with its receptors: TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B is critical for the promotion of tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. To better understand the roles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF-?, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B genes in the development of breast cancer, we explored the associations between SNPs in these three genes and breast cancer susceptibility in northeast Chinese Han women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This case-control study was conducted among 1016 breast cancer patients and 806 age-matched healthy controls. Seven SNPs in the TNF-? (rs1800629, rs361525), TNFRSF1A (rs767455, rs4149577 and rs1800693) and TNFRSF1B (rs1061622 and rs1061624) genes were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. In TNFRSF1B, the rs1061622 GT genotype and the G allele conferred a reduced susceptibility to breast cancer (P?=?0.000662, OR?=?0.706, 95% CI: 0.578-0.863; P?=?0.002, OR?=?0.769, 95% CI; 0.654-0.905, respectively). Moreover, the AG genotype, the AA genotype and the A allele in rs1061624 conferred an increased risk of breast cancer (P?=?0.007, OR?=?1.470, 95% CI:1.112-1.943; P?=?0.00109, OR?=?1.405 95% CI:1.145-1.724; P?=?0.001, OR?=?1.248 95% CI:1.092-1.426, respectively). These two SNPs also had associations with breast cancer risk under the dominant model. In haplotype analysis, the CTA (rs767455 C-rs4149577 T-rs1800693 A) haplotype in TNFRSF1A and the TA (rs1061622 T-rs1061624 A) haplotype in TNFRSF1B had higher frequencies in breast cancer patients (P?=?0.00324; P?=?0.000370, respectively), but the frequency of GG (rs1061622 G-rs1061624 G) haplotype in TNFRSF1B was lower in breast cancer patients (P?=?0.000251). The associations of the three haplotypes remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. In addition, significant associations were also observed between TNFRSF1A polymorphisms and lymph node metastasis, P53, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) statuses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rs1061622 and rs1061624 in TNFRSF1B may affect breast cancer risk, and SNPs in TNFRSF1A are associated with the clinical features of breast cancer.
Project description:To explore whether gene expression profiling can identify a molecular mechanism for the clinical benefit of canakinumab treatment in patents with tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).Blood samples were collected from 20 patients with active TRAPS who received canakinumab 150?mg every 4?weeks for 4?months in an open-label proof-of-concept phase II study, and from 20 aged-matched healthy volunteers. Gene expression levels were evaluated in whole blood samples by microarray analysis for arrays passing quality control checks.Patients with TRAPS exhibited a gene expression signature in blood that differed from that in healthy volunteers. Upon treatment with canakinumab, many genes relevant to disease pathogenesis moved towards levels seen in the healthy volunteers. Canakinumab downregulated the TRAPS-causing gene (TNF super family receptor 1A (TNFRSF1A)), the drug-target gene (interleukin (IL)-1B) and other inflammation-related genes (eg, MAPK14). In addition, several inflammation-related pathways were evident among the differentially expressed genes. Canakinumab treatment reduced neutrophil counts, but the observed expression differences remained after correction for this.These gene expression data support a model in which canakinumab produces clinical benefit in TRAPS by increasing neutrophil apoptosis and reducing pro-inflammatory signals resulting from the inhibition of IL-1?. Notably, treatment normalised the overexpression of TNFRSF1A, suggesting that canakinumab has a direct impact on the main pathogenic mechanism in TRAPS.NCT01242813.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in KRAS are frequent in human cancer, yet effective targeted therapeutics for these cancers are still lacking. Attempts to drug the MEK kinases downstream of KRAS have had limited success in clinical trials. Understanding the specific genomic vulnerabilities of KRAS-driven cancers may uncover novel patient-tailored treatment options. METHODS:We first searched for synthetic lethal (SL) genetic interactions with mutant RAS in yeast with the ultimate aim to identify novel cancer-specific targets for therapy. Our method used selective ploidy ablation, which enables replication of cancer-specific gene expression changes in the yeast gene disruption library. Second, we used a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic screen in KRAS mutant human colon cancer cells to understand the mechanistic connection between the synthetic lethal interaction discovered in yeast and downstream RAS signaling in human cells. RESULTS:We identify loss of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor IRE1 as synthetic lethal with activated RAS mutants in yeast. In KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cell lines, genetic ablation of the human ortholog of IRE1, ERN1, does not affect growth but sensitizes to MEK inhibition. However, an ERN1 kinase inhibitor failed to show synergy with MEK inhibition, suggesting that a non-kinase function of ERN1 confers MEK inhibitor resistance. To investigate how ERN1 modulates MEK inhibitor responses, we performed genetic screens in ERN1 knockout KRAS mutant colon cancer cells to identify genes whose inactivation confers resistance to MEK inhibition. This genetic screen identified multiple negative regulators of JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) /JUN signaling. Consistently, compounds targeting JNK/MAPK8 or TAK1/MAP3K7, which relay signals from ERN1 to JUN, display synergy with MEK inhibition. CONCLUSIONS:We identify the ERN1-JNK-JUN pathway as a novel regulator of MEK inhibitor response in KRAS mutant colon cancer. The notion that multiple signaling pathways can activate JUN may explain why KRAS mutant tumor cells are traditionally seen as highly refractory to MEK inhibitor therapy. Our findings emphasize the need for the development of new therapeutics targeting JUN activating kinases, TAK1 and JNK, to sensitize KRAS mutant cancer cells to MEK inhibitors.