Hyperosmotic stress induces aquaporin-dependent cell shrinkage, polyphosphate synthesis, amino acid accumulation, and global gene expression changes in Trypanosoma cruzi.
ABSTRACT: The protist parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has evolved the ability to transit between completely different hosts and to replicate in adverse environments. In particular, the epimastigote form, the replicative stage inside the vector, is subjected to nutritional and osmotic stresses during its development. In this work, we describe the biochemical and global gene expression changes of epimastigotes under hyperosmotic conditions. Hyperosmotic stress resulted in cell shrinking within a few minutes. Depending on the medium osmolarity, this was followed by lack of volume recovery for at least 2 h or by slow recovery. Experiments with inhibitors, or with cells in which an aquaporin gene (TcAQP1) was knocked down or overexpressed, revealed its importance for the cellular response to hyperosmotic stress. Furthermore, the adaptation to this new environment was shown to involve the regulation of the polyphosphate polymerization state as well as changes in amino acid catabolism to generate compatible osmolytes. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of stressed parasites revealed down-regulation of genes belonging to diverse functional categories and up-regulation of genes encoding trans-sialidase-like and ribosomal proteins. Several of these changes were confirmed by Northern blot analyses. Sequence analysis of the 3'UTRs of up- and down-regulated genes allowed the identification of conserved structural RNA motifs enriched in each group, suggesting that specific ribonucleoprotein complexes could be of great importance in the adaptation of this parasite to different environments through regulation of transcript abundance.
Project description:With the aim of remaining viable, bacteria must deal with changes in environmental conditions, including increases in external osmolarity. While studies concerning bacterial response to this stress condition have focused on soil, marine and enteric species, this report is about Caulobacter crescentus, a species inhabiting freshwater oligotrophic habitats.A genomic analysis reported in this study shows that most of the classical genes known to be involved in intracellular solute accumulation under osmotic adaptation are missing in C. crescentus. Consistent with this observation, growth assays revealed a restricted capability of the bacterium to propagate under hyperosmotic stress, and addition of the compatible solute glycine betaine did not improve bacterial resistance. A combination of transcriptomic and proteomic analyses indicated quite similar changes triggered by the presence of either salt or sucrose, including down-regulation of many housekeeping processes and up-regulation of functions related to environmental adaptation. Furthermore, a GC-MS analysis revealed some metabolites at slightly increased levels in stressed cells, but none of them corresponding to well-established compatible solutes.Despite a clear response to hyperosmotic stress, it seems that the restricted capability of C. crescentus to tolerate this unfavorable condition is probably a consequence of the inability to accumulate intracellular solutes. This finding is consistent with the ecology of the bacterium, which inhabits aquatic environments with low nutrient concentration.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms that enable multicellular organisms to sense and modulate their responses to hyperosmotic environments are poorly understood. Here, we employ Caenorhabditis elegans to characterize the response of a multicellular organism to osmotic stress and establish a genetic screen to isolate mutants that are osmotic stress resistant (OSR). In this study, we describe the cloning of a novel gene, osr-1, and demonstrate that it regulates osmosensation, adaptation, and survival in hyperosmotic environments. Whereas wild-type animals exposed to hyperosmotic conditions rapidly lose body volume, motility, and viability, osr-1(rm1) mutant animals maintain normal body volume, motility, and viability even upon chronic exposures to high osmolarity environments. In addition, osr-1(rm1) animals are specifically resistant to osmotic stress and are distinct from previously characterized osmotic avoidance defective (OSM) and general stress resistance age-1(hx546) mutants. OSR-1 is expressed in the hypodermis and intestine, and expression of OSR-1 in hypodermal cells rescues the osr-1(rm1) phenotypes. Genetic epistasis analysis indicates that OSR-1 regulates survival under osmotic stress via CaMKII and a conserved p38 MAP kinase signaling cascade and regulates osmotic avoidance and resistance to acute dehydration likely by distinct mechanisms. We suggest that OSR-1 plays a central role in integrating stress detection and adaptation responses by invoking multiple signaling pathways to promote survival under hyperosmotic environments.
Project description:Under stress, cells need to optimize the activity of a wide range of gene products during the response phases: shock, adaptation, and recovery. This requires coordination of several levels of regulation, including turnover and translation efficiencies of mRNAs. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways are implicated in many aspects of the environmental stress response, including initiation of transcription, translation efficiency, and mRNA turnover. In this study, we analyze mRNA turnover rates and mRNA steady-state levels at different time points following mild hyperosmotic shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The regulation of mRNA stability is transient and affects most genes for which there is a change in transcript level. These changes precede and prepare for the changes in steady-state levels, both regarding the initial increase and the later decline of stress-induced mRNAs. The inverse is true for stress-repressed genes, which become stabilized during hyperosmotic stress in preparation of an increase as the cells recover. The MAP kinase Hog1 affects both steady-state levels and stability of stress-responsive transcripts, whereas the Hog1-activated kinase Rck2 influences steady-state levels without a major effect on stability. Regulation of mRNA stability is a wide-spread, but not universal, effect on stress-responsive transcripts during transient hyperosmotic stress. By destabilizing stress-induced mRNAs when their steady-state levels have reached a maximum, the cell prepares for the subsequent recovery phase when these transcripts are to return to normal levels. Conversely, stabilization of stress-repressed mRNAs permits their rapid accumulation in the recovery phase. Our results show that mRNA turnover is coordinated with transcriptional induction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Oral streptococci metabolize carbohydrate to produce organic acids, which not only decrease the environmental pH, but also increase osmolality of dental plaque fluid due to tooth demineralization and consequent calcium and phosphate accumulation. Despite these unfavorable environmental changes, the bacteria continue to thrive. The aim of this study was to obtain a global view on strategies taken by Streptococcus mutans to deal with physiologically relevant elevated osmolality, and perseveres within a cariogenic dental plaque. RESULTS: We investigated phenotypic change of S. mutans biofilm upon hyperosmotic challenge. We found that the hyperosmotic condition was able to initiate S. mutans biofilm dispersal by reducing both microbial content and extracellular polysaccharides matrix. We then used whole-genome microarray with quantitative RT-PCR validation to systemically investigate the underlying molecular machineries of this bacterium in response to the hyperosmotic stimuli. Among those identified 40 deferentially regulated genes, down-regulation of gtfB and comC were believed to be responsible for the observed biofilm dispersal. Further analysis of microarray data showed significant up-regulation of genes and pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Specific genes involved in heat shock response and acid tolerance were also upregulated, indicating potential cross-talk between hyperosmotic and other environmental stress. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperosmotic condition induces significant stress response on S. mutans at both phenotypic and transcriptomic levels. In the meantime, it may take full advantage of these environmental stimuli to better fit the fluctuating environments within oral cavity, and thus emerges as numeric-predominant bacterium under cariogenic conditions.
Project description:All living cells employ an array of different mechanisms to help them survive changes in extra cellular osmotic pressure. The difference in the concentration of chemicals in a bacterium's cytoplasm and the external environment generates an osmotic pressure that inflates the cell. It is thought that the bacterium Escherichia coli use a number of interconnected systems to adapt to changes in external pressure, allowing them to maintain turgor and live in surroundings that range more than two-hundred-fold in external osmolality. Here, we use fluorescence imaging to make the first measurements of cell volume changes over time during hyperosmotic shock and subsequent adaptation on a single cell level in vivo with a time resolution on the order of seconds. We directly observe two previously unseen phases of the cytoplasmic water efflux upon hyperosmotic shock. Furthermore, we monitor cell volume changes during the post-shock recovery and observe a two-phase response that depends on the shock magnitude. The initial phase of recovery is fast, on the order of 15-20 min and shows little cell-to-cell variation. For large sucrose shocks, a secondary phase that lasts several hours adds to the recovery. We find that cells are able to recover fully from shocks as high as 1 Osmol/kg using existing systems, but that for larger shocks, protein synthesis is required for full recovery.
Project description:Various intracellular mechanisms are activated in response to stress, leading to adaptation or death. Autophagy, an intracellular process that promotes lysosomal degradation of proteins, is an adaptive response to several types of stress. Osmotic stress occurs under both physiological and pathological conditions, provoking mechanical stress and activating various osmoadaptive mechanisms. Polycystin-2 (PC2), a membrane protein of the polycystin family, is a mechanical sensor capable of activating the cell signaling pathways required for cell adaptation and survival. Here we show that hyperosmotic stress provoked by treatment with hyperosmolar concentrations of sorbitol or mannitol induces autophagy in HeLa and HCT116 cell lines. In addition, we show that mTOR and AMPK, two stress sensor proteins involved modulating autophagy, are downregulated and upregulated, respectively, when cells are subjected to hyperosmotic stress. Finally, our findings show that PC2 is required to promote hyperosmotic stress-induced autophagy. Downregulation of PC2 prevents inhibition of hyperosmotic stress-induced mTOR pathway activation. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of PC2 as a mechanosensor that modulates autophagy under hyperosmotic stress conditions.
Project description:The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, and upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associated with virulence. In this study, growth profiles, transcriptomics, and phenotypic, mutant, and single-cell analyses were used to explore the effects of hyperosmotic stress exposure on C. jejuni. Increased growth inhibition correlated with increased osmotic concentration, with both ionic and nonionic stressors inhibiting growth at 0.620 total osmol liter(-1). C. jejuni adaptation to a range of osmotic stressors and concentrations was accompanied by severe filamentation in subpopulations, with microscopy indicating septum formation and phenotypic diversity between individual cells in a filament. Population heterogeneity was also exemplified by the bifurcation of colony morphology into small and large variants on salt stress plates. Flow cytometry of C. jejuni harboring green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the ATP synthase promoter likewise revealed bimodal subpopulations under hyperosmotic stress. We also identified frequent hyperosmotic stress-sensitive variants within the clonal wild-type population propagated on standard laboratory medium. Microarray analysis following hyperosmotic upshift revealed enhanced expression of heat shock genes and genes encoding enzymes for synthesis of potential osmoprotectants and cross-protective induction of oxidative stress genes. The capsule export gene kpsM was also upregulated, and an acapsular mutant was defective for growth under hyperosmotic stress. For C. jejuni, an organism lacking most conventional osmotic response factors, these data suggest an unusual hyperosmotic stress response, including likely "bet-hedging" survival strategies relying on the presence of stress-fit individuals in a heterogeneous population.
Project description:The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adapt to various food and food- processing environments has been attributed to its robustness, persistence and prevalence in the food supply chain. To improve the present understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in hyperosmotic and low-temperature stress adaptation of L. monocytogenes, we undertook transcriptomics analysis on three strains adapted to sub-lethal levels of these stress stimuli and assessed functional gene response. Adaptation to hyperosmotic and cold-temperature stress has revealed many parallels in terms of gene expression profiles in strains possessing different levels of stress tolerance. Gene sets associated with ribosomes and translation, transcription, cell division as well as fatty acid biosynthesis and peptide transport showed activation in cells adapted to either cold or hyperosmotic stress. Repression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism and transport as well as flagella was evident in stressed cells, likely linked to activation of CodY regulon and consequential cellular energy conservation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: With the aim of remaining viable, bacteria must deal with changes in environmental conditions, including increases in external osmolarity. While studies concerning bacterial response to this stress condition have focused on soil, marine and enteric species, this report is about Caulobacter crescentus, a species inhabiting freshwater oligotrophic habitats. RESULTS: A genomic analysis reported in this study shows that most of the classical genes known to be involved in intracellular solute accumulation under osmotic adaptation are missing in C. crescentus. Consistent with this observation, growth assays revealed a restricted capability of the bacterium to propagate under hyperosmotic stress, and addition of the compatible solute glycine betaine did not improve bacterial resistance. A combination of transcriptomic and proteomic analyses indicated quite similar changes triggered by the presence of either salt or sucrose, including down-regulation of many housekeeping processes and up-regulation of functions related to environmental adaptation. Furthermore, a GC-MS analysis revealed some metabolites at slightly increased levels in stressed cells, but none of them corresponding to well-established compatible solutes. CONCLUSION: Despite a clear response to hyperosmotic stress, it seems that the restricted capability of C. crescentus to tolerate this unfavorable condition is probably a consequence of the inability to accumulate intracellular solutes. This finding is consistent with the ecology of the bacterium, which inhabits aquatic environments with low nutrient concentration. Three experimental procedures, each of them performed in three replicates. A total of nine independent biological samples were used
Project description:A screening process was used to determine hyperosmotic as well as cold stress tolerance of a diverse set of Listeria monocytogenes strains and was based on the capacity to grow at sub lethal levels of NaCl and 4°C. Analysis of gene expression in cells adapted to cold and hyperosmotic stress revealed significant strain specificity in terms of individual gene expression profiles though general patterns of expression within functional gene subsets were largely similar. . Strain ATCC19115 revealed 150 significantly up- and 146 down-regulated genes in cells adapted to both hyperosmotic and cold stress, 82 up- and 56 down-regulated genes were matching in response to both stresses in strain 70-1700, whereas ScottA, a relatively stress-tolerant strain, showed up-regulation of 77 genes whilst 106 genes were significantly down-regulated. Among these homologously expressed genes only 22 were found to be significantly up-regulated and only 7 were down-regulated in all three strains adapted to hyperosmotic stress and cold temperature, suggesting a dominating strain specific response. Overall adaptation to hyperosmotic and low temperature growth conditions in three L. monocytogenes strains were found to have many parallels, especially when examined using a statistically-based ontological approach. Evidence was presented for strong activation of genes associated with protein synthesis, in particular those coding proteins of the ribosome and involved directly in transcription. Genes associated with DNA maintenance; modification to cell envelope, and cell division were also up-regulated. On the other hand strong suppression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism and transport as well as flagella assembly was evident in stress adapted cells most likely due to energy preservation via CodY regulon. This suggests that adaptation to these adverse conditions engages similar mechanisms to cope with the induced stressful environments. The microarray component of the experiments had the aim of determining: i) To examine the gene expression responses of three L. monocytogenes strains that had different intrinsic salt resistances following adaptation to hyperosmotic stress. ii) To examine the gene expression responses of three L. monocytogenes strains that had different intrinsic cold tolerances following adaptation to cold stress. iii) To evaluate common pathways of adaptation to hyperosmotic and cold stresses Control cultures (four biological replicates; exception strain ATCC19115 for the 10%NaCl stress which had three biological replicates) were labeled with Cy3 (exception strain ATCC19115 for the 10%NaCl-3 dyeswapped, where the control was labeled with Cy5 and sample with Cy3) for each treatment sample for three different L. monocytogenes strains. Sample cultures (four biological replicates; exception strain ATCC19115 for the 10%NaCl which had three biological replicates) were labeled with Cy5 (exception strain ATCC19115 for the 10%NaCl-3 dyeswapped, where the control was labeled with Cy5 and sample with Cy3) for each treatment sample for three different L. monocytogenes strains. Condition one –sub-lethal hyperosmotic stress: Control culture (Cy3-labelled RNA, except ATCC19115 for the 10%NaCl-3 dyeswapped , where the control was labeled with Cy5 and sample with Cy3) - strains were grown to mid exponential growth phase at 25°C (in a shaking water bath) in brain-heart infusion broth. Test cultures (Cy5-labelled RNA, except ATCC19115 for the 10%NaCl-3 dyeswapped , where the control was labeled with Cy5 and sample with Cy3) – strains grown to mid exponential growth at 25°C phase (in a shaking water bath) in BHI broth supplemented with 8% additional NaCl (strain 701700), 10% additional NaCl (strain ATCC19115) or 12% additional NaCl (ScottA). Condition two – cold stress: Control culture (Cy3-labelled RNA) - strains were grown to mid exponential growth phase at 25°C (in a shaking water bath) in brain-heart infusion broth. Test cultures (Cy5-labelled RNA) – strains grown to exponential growth phase at 4°C in BHI broth.