HECT-type ubiquitin ligase ITCH targets lysosomal-associated protein multispanning transmembrane 5 (LAPTM5) and prevents LAPTM5-mediated cell death.
ABSTRACT: LAPTM5 (lysosomal-associated protein multispanning transmembrane 5) is a membrane protein on the intracellular vesicles. We have previously demonstrated that the accumulation of LAPTM5-positive vesicles was closely associated with the programmed cell death occurring during the spontaneous regression of neuroblastomas. Although the accumulation of LAPTM5 protein might occur at the post-translational level, the molecular mechanism has been unclear. Here, we found that the level of LAPTM5 protein is regulated negatively by the degradation through ubiquitination by ITCH, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. ITCH directly binds to the PPxY motif of LAPTM5 via its WW domains and promotes ubiquitination through a HECT-type ligase domain. Overexpression of ITCH led to the degradation of LAPTM5 protein, and conversely, knockdown of ITCH by siRNA resulted in the stabilization of LAPTM5 protein. In addition, the inhibition of ITCH enhanced the cell death occurred by accumulation of LAPTM5 in neuroblastoma cells. These findings suggest that LAPTM5 is a novel substrate in terms of degradation by the ubiquitin ligase ITCH, and this system might act as a negative regulator in the spontaneous regression of neuroblastomas by preventing LAPTM5-mediated cell death.
Project description:LAPTM5 is a lysosomal transmembrane protein expressed in immune cells. We show that LAPTM5 binds the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4 and GGA3 to promote LAPTM5 sorting from the Golgi to the lysosome, an event that is independent of LAPTM5 ubiquitination. LAPTM5 contains three PY motifs (L/PPxY), which bind Nedd4-WW domains, and a ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM) motif. The Nedd4-LAPTM5 complex recruits ubiquitinated GGA3, which binds the LAPTM5-UIM; this interaction does not require the GGA3-GAT domain. LAPTM5 mutated in its Nedd4-binding sites (PY motifs) or its UIM is retained in the Golgi, as is LAPTM5 expressed in cells in which Nedd4 or GGA3 is knocked-down with RNAi. However, ubiquitination-impaired LAPTM5 can still traffic to the lysosome, suggesting that Nedd4 binding to LAPTM5, not LAPTM5 ubiquitination, is required for targeting. Interestingly, Nedd4 is also able to ubiquitinate GGA3. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4, via interactions with GGA3 and cargo (LAPTM5), regulates cargo trafficking to the lysosome without requiring cargo ubiquitination.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequently occurring solid tumor in children, and shows heterogeneous clinical behavior. Favorable tumors, which are usually detected by mass screening based on increased levels of catecholamines in urine, regress spontaneously via programmed cell death (PCD) or mature through differentiation into benign ganglioneuroma (GN). In contrast, advanced-type NB tumors often grow aggressively, despite intensive chemotherapy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of PCD during spontaneous regression in favorable NB tumors, as well as identifying genes with a pro-death role, is a matter of urgency for developing novel approaches to the treatment of advanced-type NB tumors.<h4>Principal findings</h4>We found that the expression of lysosomal associated protein multispanning transmembrane 5 (LAPTM5) was usually down-regulated due to DNA methylation in an NB cell-specific manner, but up-regulated in degenerating NB cells within locally regressing areas of favorable tumors detected by mass-screening. Experiments in vitro showed that not only a restoration of its expression but also the accumulation of LAPTM5 protein, was required to induce non-apoptotic cell death with autophagic vacuoles and lysosomal destabilization with lysosomal-membrane permeabilization (LMP) in a caspase-independent manner. While autophagy is a membrane-trafficking pathway to degrade the proteins in lysosomes, the LAPTM5-mediated lysosomal destabilization with LMP leads to an interruption of autophagic flux, resulting in the accumulation of immature autophagic vacuoles, p62/SQSTM1, and ubiqitinated proteins as substrates of autophagic degradation. In addition, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies appeared in degenerating NB cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We propose a novel molecular mechanism for PCD with the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles due to LAPTM5-mediated lysosomal destabilization. LAPTM5-induced cell death is lysosomal cell death with impaired autophagy, not cell death by autophagy, so-called autophagic cell death. Thus LAPTM5-mediated PCD is closely associated with the spontaneous regression of NBs and opens new avenues for exploring innovative clinical interventions for this tumor.
Project description:The CD1e protein participates in the presentation of lipid antigens in dendritic cells. Its transmembrane precursor is transported to lysosomes where it is cleaved into an active soluble form. In the presence of bafilomycin, which inhibits vacuolar ATPase and consequently the acidification of endosomal compartments, CD1e associates with a 27 kD protein. In this work, we identified this molecular partner as LAPTM5. The latter protein and CD1e colocalize in trans-Golgi and late endosomal compartments. The quantity of LAPTM5/CD1e complexes increases when the cells are treated with bafilomycin, probably due to the protection of LAPTM5 from lysosomal proteases. Moreover, we could demonstrate that LAPTM5/CD1e association occurs under physiological conditions. Although LAPTM5 was previously shown to act as a platform recruiting ubiquitin ligases and facilitating the transport of receptors to lysosomes, we found no evidence that LATPM5 controls either CD1e ubiquitination or the generation of soluble lysosomal CD1e proteins. Notwithstanding these last observations, the interaction of LAPTM5 with CD1e and their colocalization in antigen processing compartments both suggest that LAPTM5 might influence the role of CD1e in the presentation of lipid antigens.
Project description:LAPTM5 (lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane 5) is a protein that is preferentially expressed in immune cells, and it interacts with the Nedd4 family of ubiquitin ligases. Recent studies in T and B cells identified LAPTM5 as a negative regulator of T and B cell receptor levels at the plasma membrane. Here we investigated the function of LAPTM5 in macrophages. We demonstrate that expression of LAPTM5 is required for the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in response to Toll-like receptor ligands. We also show that RAW264.7 cells knocked down for LAPTM5 or macrophages from LAPTM5(-/-) mice exhibit reduced activation of NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways mediated by the TNF receptor, as well as multiple pattern recognition receptors in various cellular compartments. TNF stimulation of LAPTM5-deficient macrophages leads to reduced ubiquitination of RIP1 (receptor-interacting protein 1), suggesting a role for LAPTM5 at the receptor-proximate level. Interestingly, we find that macrophages from LAPTM5(-/-) mice display up-regulated levels of A20, a ubiquitin-editing enzyme responsible for deubiquitination of RIP1 and subsequent termination of NF-?B activation. Our studies thus indicate that, in contrast to its negative role in T and B cell activation, LAPTM5 acts as a positive modulator of inflammatory signaling pathways and hence cytokine secretion in macrophages. They also highlight a role for the endosomal/lysosomal system in regulating signaling via cytokine and pattern recognition receptors.
Project description:Lysosomal-associated protein multispanning transmembrane 5 (LAPTM5) is a membrane protein that localizes to intracellular vesicles. It has been previously demonstrated that LAPTM5 expression level is decreased in neuroblastoma (NB) cells, and excessive accumulation of LAPTM5 was shown to induce lysosomal cell death in these cells. However, the pathological expression and role of LAPTM5 in other types of human cancers are largely unknown. Here, we found that LAPTM5 mRNA level is frequently decreased in various cancer cell lines, and its low expression in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was significantly correlated with poor prognosis. Furthermore, we showed that overexpression of LAPTM5 in several cancer cells induces lysosomal cell death due to lysosomal destabilization, indicated by leakage of lysosomal cathepsin D into the cytosol as well as impairment of autophagy. These findings suggest that the inactivation of LAPTM5 may contribute to tumorigenesis in a subset of human cancers.
Project description:Background: Glioma therapy is challenged by the diffuse and invasive growth of glioma. Lysosomal protein transmembrane 5 (LAPTM5) was identified as an invasion inhibitor by an in vivo screen for invasion-associated genes. The aim of this study was to decipher the function of LAPTM5 in glioblastoma and its interaction with the CD40 receptor which is intensively evaluated as a target in the therapy of diverse cancers including glioma. Methods: Knockdown of LAPTM5 was performed in different glioma cell lines to analyze the impact on clonogenicity, invasiveness, sensitivity to temozolomide chemotherapy, and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. An expression array was used to elucidate the underlying pathways. CD40 knockdown and overexpression were induced to investigate a potential crosstalk of LAPTM5 and CD40. LAPTM5 and CD40 were correlated with the clinical outcome of glioma patients. Results: Knockdown of LAPTM5 unleashed CD40-mediated NF?B activation, resulting in enhanced invasiveness, clonogenicity, and temozolomide resistance that was overcome by NF?B inhibition. LAPTM5 expression correlated with better overall survival in glioblastoma patients depending on CD40 expression status. Conclusion: We conclude that LAPTM5 conveyed tumor suppression and temozolomide sensitation in CD40-positive glioblastoma through the inhibition of CD40-mediated NF?B activation. Hence, LAPTM5 may provide a potential biomarker for sensitivity to temozolomide in CD40-positive glioblastoma.
Project description:Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase, a central regulator of the DNA damage response, regulates the activity of several E3-ubiquitin ligases, and the ubiquitination-proteasome system is a consistent target of ATM. ITCH is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that modulates the ubiquitination of several targets, therefore participating to the regulation of several cellular responses, such as the DNA damage response, tumor necrosis factor? (TNF?), Notch and Hedgehog signaling, and the differentiation of 'naive' lymphocytes into T helper type 2 cells. Here we uncover ATM as a novel positive modulator of ITCH E3-ubiquitin ligase activity. A single residue on ITCH protein, S161, which is part of an ATM SQ consensus motif, is required for ATM-dependent activation of ITCH. ATM activity enhances ITCH enzymatic activity, which in turn drives the ubiquitination and degradation of c-FLIP-L and c-Jun, previously identified as ITCH substrates. Importantly, ATM-deficient mice show resistance to hepatocyte cell death, similarly to Itch-deficient animals, providing in vivo genetic evidence for this circuit. Our data identify ITCH as a novel component of the ATM-dependent signaling pathway and suggest that the impairment of the correct functionality of ITCH caused by Atm deficiency may contribute to the complex clinical features linked to Ataxia Telangiectasia.
Project description:We characterized the mechanism of action of the neuregulin-non-competitive anti-HER3 therapeutic antibody 9F7-F11 that blocks the PI3K/AKT pathway, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and regression of pancreatic and breast cancer in vivo. We found that 9F7-F11 induces rapid HER3 down-regulation. Specifically, 9F7-F11-induced HER3 ubiquitination and degradation in pancreatic, breast and prostate cancer cell lines was driven mainly by the itchy E3 ubiquitin ligase (ITCH/AIP4). Overexpression of the ITCH/AIP4 inhibitor N4BP1 or small-interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ITCH/AIP4 inhibited HER3 ubiquitination/degradation and PI3K/AKT signaling blockade induced by 9F7-F11. Moreover, 9F7-F11-mediated JNK1/2 phosphorylation led to ITCH/AIP4 activation and recruitment to HER3 for receptor ubiquitination and degradation. ITCH/AIP4 activity was activated by the deubiquitinases USP8 and USP9X, as demonstrated by RNA interference. Taken together, our results suggest that 9F7-F11-induced HER3 ubiquitination and degradation in cancer cells mainly occurs through JNK1/2-dependent ITCH/AIP4 activation.
Project description:The protein p73, a homologue of the tumor suppressor protein p53, is capable of inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. MDM2 is transcriptionally activated by p73 and represses the functions of p73, including p73-dependent transactivation and growth suppression. However, the molecular mechanism of this repression is unknown. In this study, we show that MDM2 mediates p73 ubiquitination. MDM2 mainly utilizes K11, K29 and K63-linked chains to mediate p73 ubiquitination in vivo and in vitro. However, MDM2 is unable to promote p73 degradation in most tested cell lines. Surprisingly, we observe that overexpression of Mdm2 promotes p73 degradation mainly through Itch in Mdm2-null MEFs. We further find that Itch interacts with the transfected Mdm2 in Mdm2-null cells. Moreover, our findings reveal that the E3 ligase activity of MDM2 is required to repress p73-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest but not p73-dependent transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the data suggest a link between p73 ubiquitination/MDM2 E3 ligase activity and p73 biological functions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Ubiquitin E3 ligase-mediated protein degradation regulates osteoblast function. Itch, an E3 ligase, affects numerous cell functions by regulating ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of related proteins. However, the Itch-related cellular and molecular mechanisms by which osteoblast differentiation and function are elevated during bone fracture repair are as yet unknown. METHODS:We examined the expression levels of E3 ligases and NF-?B members in callus samples during bone fracture repair by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the total amount of ubiquitinated proteins by Western blot analysis in wild-type (WT) mice. The expression levels of osteoblast-associated genes in fracture callus from Itch knockout (KO) mice and their WT littermates were examined by qPCR. The effect of NF-?B on Itch expression in C2C12 osteoblast cells was determined by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. RESULTS:The expression levels of WW Domain Containing E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 1 (Wwp1), SMAD Specific E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 1 (Smurf1), SMAD Specific E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 2 (Smurf2) and Itch were all significantly increased in the fracture callus of WT mice, which was associated with elevated expression of NF-?B members and total ubiquitinated proteins. Callus tissue isolated from Itch KO mice expressed higher levels of osteoblast-associated genes, including Runx2, a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation, but osteoclast-associated genes were not increased. Both NF-?B RelA and RelB proteins were found to bind to the NF-?B binding site in the mouse Itch promoter. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that Itch depletion may have a strong positive effect on osteoblast differentiation in fracture callus. Thus, ubiquitin E3 ligase Itch could be a potential target for enhancing bone fracture healing.Cite this article: J. Liu, X. Li, H. Zhang, R. Gu, Z. Wang, Z. Gao, L. Xing. Ubiquitin E3 ligase Itch negatively regulates osteoblast function by promoting proteasome degradation of osteogenic proteins. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:154-161. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.63.BJR-2016-0237.R1.