Systematic drug repositioning based on clinical side-effects.
ABSTRACT: Drug repositioning helps fully explore indications for marketed drugs and clinical candidates. Here we show that the clinical side-effects (SEs) provide a human phenotypic profile for the drug, and this profile can suggest additional disease indications. We extracted 3,175 SE-disease relationships by combining the SE-drug relationships from drug labels and the drug-disease relationships from PharmGKB. Many relationships provide explicit repositioning hypotheses, such as drugs causing hypoglycemia are potential candidates for diabetes. We built Naïve Bayes models to predict indications for 145 diseases using the SEs as features. The AUC was above 0.8 in 92% of these models. The method was extended to predict indications for clinical compounds, 36% of the models achieved AUC above 0.7. This suggests that closer attention should be paid to the SEs observed in trials not just to evaluate the harmful effects, but also to rationally explore the repositioning potential based on this "clinical phenotypic assay".
Project description:Drug co-prescription (or drug combination) is a therapeutic strategy widely used as it may improve efficacy and reduce side-effect (SE). Since it is impractical to screen all possible drug combinations for every indication, computational methods have been developed to predict new combinations. In this study, we describe a novel approach that utilizes clinical SEs from post-marketing surveillance and the drug label to predict 1,508 novel drug-drug combinations. It outperforms other prediction methods, achieving an AUC of 0.92 compared to an AUC of 0.69 in a previous method, on a much larger drug combination set (245 drug combinations in our dataset compared to 75 in previous work.). We further found from the feature selection that three FDA black-box warned serious SEs, namely pneumonia, haemorrhage rectum, and retinal bleeding, contributed mostly to the predictions and a model only using these three SEs can achieve an average area under curve (AUC) at 0.80 and accuracy at 0.91, potentially with its simplicity being recognized as a practical rule-of-three in drug co-prescription or making fixed-dose drug combination. We also demonstrate this performance is less likely to be influenced by confounding factors such as biased disease indications or chemical structures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drug repositioning, also known as drug repurposing, defines new indications for existing drugs and can be used as an alternative to drug development. In recent years, the accumulation of large volumes of information related to drugs and diseases has led to the development of various computational approaches for drug repositioning. Although herbal medicines have had a great impact on current drug discovery, there are still a large number of herbal compounds that have no definite indications. RESULTS:In the present study, we constructed a computational model to predict the unknown pharmacological effects of herbal compounds using machine learning techniques. Based on the assumption that similar diseases can be treated with similar drugs, we used four categories of drug-drug similarity (e.g., chemical structure, side-effects, gene ontology, and targets) and three categories of disease-disease similarity (e.g., phenotypes, human phenotype ontology, and gene ontology). Then, associations between drug and disease were predicted using the employed similarity features. The prediction models were constructed using classification algorithms, including logistic regression, random forest and support vector machine algorithms. Upon cross-validation, the random forest approach showed the best performance (AUC?=?0.948) and also performed well in an external validation assessment using an unseen independent dataset (AUC?=?0.828). Finally, the constructed model was applied to predict potential indications for existing drugs and herbal compounds. As a result, new indications for 20 existing drugs and 31 herbal compounds were predicted and validated using clinical trial data. CONCLUSIONS:The predicted results were validated manually confirming the performance and underlying mechanisms - for example, irinotecan as a treatment for neuroblastoma. From the prediction, herbal compounds were considered to be drug candidates for related diseases which is important to be further developed. The proposed prediction model can contribute to drug discovery by suggesting drug candidates from herbal compounds which have potentials but few were studied.
Project description:Given the costly and time consuming process and high attrition rates in drug discovery and development, drug repositioning or drug repurposing is considered as a viable strategy both to replenish the drying out drug pipelines and to surmount the innovation gap. Although there is a growing recognition that mechanistic relationships from molecular to systems level should be integrated into drug discovery paradigms, relatively few studies have integrated information about heterogeneous networks into computational drug-repositioning candidate discovery platforms.Using known disease-gene and drug-target relationships from the KEGG database, we built a weighted disease and drug heterogeneous network. The nodes represent drugs or diseases while the edges represent shared gene, biological process, pathway, phenotype or a combination of these features. We clustered this weighted network to identify modules and then assembled all possible drug-disease pairs (putative drug repositioning candidates) from these modules. We validated our predictions by testing their robustness and evaluated them by their overlap with drug indications that were either reported in published literature or investigated in clinical trials.Previous computational approaches for drug repositioning focused either on drug-drug and disease-disease similarity approaches whereas we have taken a more holistic approach by considering drug-disease relationships also. Further, we considered not only gene but also other features to build the disease drug networks. Despite the relative simplicity of our approach, based on the robustness analyses and the overlap of some of our predictions with drug indications that are under investigation, we believe our approach could complement the current computational approaches for drug repositioning candidate discovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to the high cost and low success rate in new drug development, systematic drug repositioning methods are exploited to find new indications for existing drugs. OBJECTIVE:We sought to propose a new computational drug repositioning method to identify repositioning drugs for Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS:We developed a novel heterogeneous network mining repositioning method that constructed a 3-layer network of disease, drug, and adverse drug reaction and involved user-generated data from online health communities to identify potential candidate drugs for PD. RESULTS:We identified 44 non-Parkinson drugs by using the proposed approach, with data collected from both pharmaceutical databases and online health communities. Based on the further literature analysis, we found literature evidence for 28 drugs. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, the proposed heterogeneous network mining repositioning approach is promising for identifying repositioning candidates for PD. It shows that adverse drug reactions are potential intermediaries to reveal relationships between disease and drug.
Project description:Inferring potential drug indications, for either novel or approved drugs, is a key step in drug development. Previous computational methods in this domain have focused on either drug repositioning or matching drug and disease gene expression profiles. Here, we present a novel method for the large-scale prediction of drug indications (PREDICT) that can handle both approved drugs and novel molecules. Our method is based on the observation that similar drugs are indicated for similar diseases, and utilizes multiple drug-drug and disease-disease similarity measures for the prediction task. On cross-validation, it obtains high specificity and sensitivity (AUC=0.9) in predicting drug indications, surpassing existing methods. We validate our predictions by their overlap with drug indications that are currently under clinical trials, and by their agreement with tissue-specific expression information on the drug targets. We further show that disease-specific genetic signatures can be used to accurately predict drug indications for new diseases (AUC=0.92). This lays the computational foundation for future personalized drug treatments, where gene expression signatures from individual patients would replace the disease-specific signatures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chemoresistance is a primary clinical challenge for the management of small cell lung cancer. Additionally, transcriptional regulation by super enhancer (SE) has an important role in tumor evolution. The functions of SEs, a key class of noncoding DNA cis-regulatory elements, have been the subject of many recent studies in the field of cancer research. METHODS:In this study, using chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), we aimed to identify SEs associated with chemoresistance from H69AR cells. Through integrated bioinformatics analysis of the MEME chip, we predicted the master transcriptional factors (TFs) binding to SE sites and verified the relationships between TFs of SEs and drug resistance by RNA interference, cell counting kit 8 assays, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:In total, 108 SEs were screened from H69AR cells. When combining this analysis with RNA-seq data, 45 SEs were suggested to be closely related to drug resistance. Then, 12 master TFs were predicted to localize to regions of those SEs. Subsequently, we selected forkhead box P1 (FOXP1), interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), and specificity protein 1 (SP1) to authenticate the functional relationships of master TFs with chemoresistance via SEs. CONCLUSIONS:We screened out SEs involved with drug resistance and evaluated the functions of FOXP1, IRF1, and SP1 in chemoresistance. Our findings established a large group of SEs associated with drug resistance in small cell lung cancer, revealed the drug resistance mechanisms of SEs, and provided insights into the clinical applications of SEs.
Project description:Drug repositioning identifies new indications for known drugs. Here we report repositioning of the malaria drug amodiaquine as a potential anti-cancer agent. While most repositioning efforts emerge through serendipity, we have devised a computational approach, which exploits interaction patterns shared between compounds. As a test case, we took the anti-viral drug brivudine (BVDU), which also has anti-cancer activity, and defined ten interaction patterns using our tool PLIP. These patterns characterise BVDU's interaction with its target s. Using PLIP we performed an in silico screen of all structural data currently available and identified the FDA approved malaria drug amodiaquine as a promising repositioning candidate. We validated our prediction by showing that amodiaquine suppresses chemoresistance in a multiple myeloma cancer cell line by inhibiting the chaperone function of the cancer target Hsp27. This work proves that PLIP interaction patterns are viable tools for computational repositioning and can provide search query information from a given drug and its target to identify structurally unrelated candidates, including drugs approved by the FDA, with a known safety and pharmacology profile. This approach has the potential to reduce costs and risks in drug development by predicting novel indications for known drugs and drug candidates.
Project description:Drug repositioning is a cost-efficient and time-saving process to drug development compared to traditional techniques. A systematic method to drug repositioning is to identify candidate drug's gene expression profiles on target disease models and determine how similar these profiles are to approved drugs. Databases such as the CMAP have been developed recently to help with systematic drug repositioning.To overcome the limitation of connectivity maps on data coverage, we constructed a comprehensive in silico drug-protein connectivity map called DMAP, which contains directed drug-to-protein effects and effect scores. The drug-to-protein effect scores are compiled from all database entries between the drug and protein have been previously observed and provide a confidence measure on the quality of such drug-to-protein effects.In DMAP, we have compiled the direct effects between 24,121 PubChem Compound ID (CID), which were mapped from 289,571 chemical entities recognized from public literature, and 5,196 reviewed Uniprot proteins. DMAP compiles a total of 438,004 chemical-to-protein effect relationships. Compared to CMAP, DMAP shows an increase of 221 folds in the number of chemicals and 1.92 fold in the number of ATC codes. Furthermore, by overlapping DMAP chemicals with the approved drugs with known indications from the TTD database and literature, we obtained 982 drugs and 622 diseases; meanwhile, we only obtained 394 drugs with known indication from CMAP. To validate the feasibility of applying new DMAP for systematic drug repositioning, we compared the performance of DMAP and the well-known CMAP database on two popular computational techniques: drug-drug-similarity-based method with leave-one-out validation and Kolmogorov-Smirnov scoring based method. In drug-drug-similarity-based method, the drug repositioning prediction using DMAP achieved an Area-Under-Curve (AUC) score of 0.82, compared with that using CMAP, AUC = 0.64. For Kolmogorov-Smirnov scoring based method, with DMAP, we were able to retrieve several drug indications which could not be retrieved using CMAP. DMAP data can be queried using the existing C2MAP server or downloaded freely at: http://bio.informatics.iupui.edu/cmapsReliable measurements of how drug affect disease-related proteins are critical to ongoing drug development in the genome medicine era. We demonstrated that DMAP can help drug development professionals assess drug-to-protein relationship data and improve chances of success for systematic drug repositioning efforts.
Project description:The traditional de novo drug discovery is known as a high cost and high risk process. In response, recently there is an increasing interest in discovering new indications for known drugs-a process known as drug repositioning-using computational methods. In this study, we present a new systematic approach for identifying potential new indications of an existing drug through its relation to similar drugs. Different from the previous similarity-based methods, we adapted a novel bipartite-graph based method when considering common drug targets and their interaction information. Furthermore, we added drug structure information into the calculation of drug pairwise similarity. In cross-validation experiments, our method achieved a sensitivity of 0.77 and specificity of 0.92 (AUC = 0.888) and compared favorably to the state of the art. When compared with a control group of drug uses, our drug repositioning results were found to be significantly enriched in both the biomedical literature and clinical trials. Our results indicate that combining chemical structure and drug target information results in better prediction performance and that the proposed approach successfully captures the implicit information between drug targets.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During the last decade, there has been a surge towards computational drug repositioning owing to constantly increasing -omics data in the biomedical research field. While numerous existing methods focus on the integration of heterogeneous data to propose candidate drugs, it is still challenging to substantiate their results with mechanistic insights of these candidate drugs. Therefore, there is a need for more innovative and efficient methods which can enable better integration of data and knowledge for drug repositioning. RESULTS:Here, we present a customizable workflow (PS4DR) which not only integrates high-throughput data such as genome-wide association study (GWAS) data and gene expression signatures from disease and drug perturbations but also takes pathway knowledge into consideration to predict drug candidates for repositioning. We have collected and integrated publicly available GWAS data and gene expression signatures for several diseases and hundreds of FDA-approved drugs or those under clinical trial in this study. Additionally, different pathway databases were used for mechanistic knowledge integration in the workflow. Using this systematic consolidation of data and knowledge, the workflow computes pathway signatures that assist in the prediction of new indications for approved and investigational drugs. CONCLUSION:We showcase PS4DR with applications demonstrating how this tool can be used for repositioning and identifying new drugs as well as proposing drugs that can simulate disease dysregulations. We were able to validate our workflow by demonstrating its capability to predict FDA-approved drugs for their known indications for several diseases. Further, PS4DR returned many potential drug candidates for repositioning that were backed up by epidemiological evidence extracted from scientific literature. Source code is freely available at https://github.com/ps4dr/ps4dr.