Defects in beta cell Ca²+ signalling, glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a murine model of K(ATP) channel-induced neonatal diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Mutations that render ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels insensitive to ATP inhibition cause neonatal diabetes mellitus. In mice, these mutations cause insulin secretion to be lost initially and, as the disease progresses, beta cell mass and insulin content also disappear. We investigated whether defects in calcium signalling alone are sufficient to explain short-term and long-term islet dysfunction. METHODS:We examined the metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion response in islets from mice that become diabetic after induction of ATP-insensitive Kir6.2 expression. To separate direct effects of K(ATP) overactivity on beta cell function from indirect effects of prolonged hyperglycaemia, normal glycaemia was maintained by protective exogenous islet transplantation. RESULTS:In endogenous islets from protected animals, glucose-dependent elevations of intracellular free-calcium activity ([Ca(2+)](i)) were severely blunted. Insulin content of these islets was normal, and sulfonylureas and KCl stimulated increased [Ca(2+)](i). In the absence of transplant protection, [Ca(2+)](i) responses were similar, but glucose metabolism and redox state were dramatically altered; sulfonylurea- and KCl-stimulated insulin secretion was also lost, because of systemic effects induced by long-term hyperglycaemia and/or hypoinsulinaemia. In both cases, [Ca(2+)](i) dynamics were synchronous across the islet. After reduction of gap-junction coupling, glucose-dependent [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion was partially restored, indicating that excitability of weakly expressing cells is suppressed by cells expressing mutants, via gap-junctions. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The primary defect in K(ATP)-induced neonatal diabetes mellitus is failure of glucose metabolism to elevate [Ca(2+)](i), which suppresses insulin secretion and mildly alters islet glucose metabolism. Loss of insulin content and mitochondrial dysfunction are secondary to the long-term hyperglycaemia and/or hypoinsulinaemia that result from the absence of glucose-dependent insulin secretion.
Project description:Effects of ARA290 on glucose homeostasis were studied in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. In GK rats receiving ARA290 daily for up to 4 weeks, plasma glucose concentrations were lower after 3 and 4 weeks, and HbA1c was reduced by ~20% without changes in whole body and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in islets from ARA290-treated rats. Additionally, in response to glucose, carbachol and KCl, islet cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentrations, [Ca(2+)]i, were higher and the frequency of [Ca(2+)]i oscillations enhanced compared to placebo. ARA290 also improved stimulus-secretion coupling for glucose in GK rat islets, as shown by an improved glucose oxidation rate, ATP production, and acutely enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. ARA290 also exerted an effect distal to the K-ATP channel on the insulin exocytotic pathway, since the insulin response was improved following islet depolarization by KCl when K-ATP channels were kept open by diazoxide. Finally, inhibition of protein kinase A completely abolished effects of ARA290 on insulin secretion. In conclusion, ARA290 improved glucose tolerance without affecting hematocrit in diabetic GK rats. This effect appears to be due to improved ?-cell glucose metabolism and [Ca(2+)]i handling, and thereby enhanced glucose-induced insulin release.
Project description:C57Bl/6 mice develop obesity and mild hyperglycemia when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Although diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a widely studied model of type 2 diabetes, little is known about beta-cell failure in these mice.DIO mice were separated in two groups according to body weight gain: low- and high-HFD responders (LDR and HDR). We examined whether mild hyperglycemia in HDR mice is due to reduced beta-cell mass or function and studied islet metabolism and signaling.HDR mice were more obese, hyperinsulinemic, insulin resistant, and hyperglycemic and showed a more altered plasma lipid profile than LDR. LDR mice largely compensated insulin resistance, whereas HDR showed perturbed glucose homeostasis. Neither LDR nor HDR mice showed reduced beta-cell mass, altered islet glucose metabolism, and triglyceride deposition. Insulin secretion in response to glucose, KCl, and arginine was impaired in LDR and almost abolished in HDR islets. Palmitate partially restored glucose- and KCl-stimulated secretion. The glucose-induced rise in ATP was reduced in both DIO groups, and the glucose-induced rise in Ca(2+) was reduced in HDR islets relatively to LDR. Glucose-stimulated lipolysis was decreased in LDR and HDR islets, whereas fat oxidation was increased in HDR islets only. Fatty acid esterification processes were markedly diminished, and free cholesterol accumulated in HDR islets.beta-Cell failure in HDR mice is not due to reduced beta-cell mass and glucose metabolism or steatosis but to a secretory dysfunction that is possibly due to altered ATP/Ca(2+) and lipid signaling, as well as free cholesterol deposition.
Project description:Plasma insulin is pulsatile and reflects oscillatory insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. Although both islet Ca(2+) and metabolism oscillate, there is disagreement over their interrelationship, and whether they can be dissociated. In some models of islet oscillations, Ca(2+) must oscillate for metabolic oscillations to occur, whereas in others metabolic oscillations can occur without Ca(2+) oscillations. We used NAD(P)H fluorescence to assay oscillatory metabolism in mouse islets stimulated by 11.1 mM glucose. After abolishing Ca(2+) oscillations with 200 microM diazoxide, we observed that oscillations in NAD(P)H persisted in 34% of islets (n = 101). In the remainder of the islets (66%) both Ca(2+) and NAD(P)H oscillations were eliminated by diazoxide. However, in most of these islets NAD(P)H oscillations could be restored and amplified by raising extracellular KCl, which elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) level but did not restore Ca(2+) oscillations. Comparatively, we examined islets from ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel-deficient SUR1(-/-) mice. Again NAD(P)H oscillations were evident even though Ca(2+) and membrane potential oscillations were abolished. These observations are predicted by the dual oscillator model, in which intrinsic metabolic oscillations and Ca(2+) feedback both contribute to the oscillatory islet behavior, but argue against other models that depend on Ca(2+) oscillations for metabolic oscillations to occur.
Project description:Reduced lipolysis in hormone-sensitive lipase-deficient mice is associated with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), suggesting that endogenous beta-cell lipid stores provide signaling molecules for insulin release. Measurements of lipolysis and triglyceride (TG) lipase activity in islets from HSL(-/-) mice indicated the presence of other TG lipase(s) in the beta-cell. Using real time-quantitative PCR, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was found to be the most abundant TG lipase in rat islets and INS832/13 cells. To assess its role in insulin secretion, ATGL expression was decreased in INS832/13 cells (ATGL-knockdown (KD)) by small hairpin RNA. ATGL-KD increased the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) into TG. ATGL-KD cells showed decreased glucose- or Gln + Leu-induced insulin release, as well as reduced response to KCl or palmitate at high, but not low, glucose. The K(ATP)-independent/amplification pathway of GSIS was considerably reduced in ATGL-KD cells. ATGL(-/-) mice were hypoinsulinemic and hypoglycemic and showed decreased plasma TG and FFAs. A hyperglycemic clamp revealed increased insulin sensitivity and decreased GSIS and arginine-induced insulin secretion in ATGL(-/-) mice. Accordingly, isolated islets from ATGL(-/-) mice showed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose, glucose + palmitate, and KCl. Islet TG content and FFA esterification into TG were increased by 2-fold in ATGL(-/-) islets, but glucose usage and oxidation were unaltered. The results demonstrate the importance of ATGL and intracellular lipid signaling for fuel- and non-fuel-induced insulin secretion.
Project description:Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycaemia due to impaired insulin secretion and aberrant glucagon secretion resulting from changes in pancreatic islet cell function and/or mass. The extent to which hyperglycaemia per se underlies these alterations remains poorly understood. Here we show that ?-cell-specific expression of a human activating KATP channel mutation in adult mice leads to rapid diabetes and marked alterations in islet morphology, ultrastructure and gene expression. Chronic hyperglycaemia is associated with a dramatic reduction in insulin-positive cells and an increase in glucagon-positive cells in islets, without alterations in cell turnover. Furthermore, some ?-cells begin expressing glucagon, whilst retaining many ?-cell characteristics. Hyperglycaemia, rather than KATP channel activation, underlies these changes, as they are prevented by insulin therapy and fully reversed by sulphonylureas. Our data suggest that many changes in islet structure and function associated with diabetes are attributable to hyperglycaemia alone and are reversed when blood glucose is normalized.
Project description:Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in diabetic complications. However, their role in beta-cell dysfunction is less clear. In this study we examined the effects of AGEs on islet function in mice and in isolated islets. AGE-BSA or BSA was administered ip to normal mice twice a day for 2 wk. We showed that AGE-BSA-treated mice exhibited significantly higher glucose levels and lower insulin levels in response to glucose challenge than did BSA-treated mice, although there were no significant differences in insulin sensitivity and islet morphology between two groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by islets of the AGE-BSA-treated mice or AGE-BSA-treated normal islets was significantly lower than that by islets isolated from the BSA-treated mice or BSA-treated normal islets. Furthermore, AGE treatment of islet beta-cells inhibited ATP production, and glimepiride, a sulfonylurea derivative, restored glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Further investigation indicated that AGEs inhibited cytochrome c oxidase activity by inducing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Blocking the formation of nitric oxide with an iNOS selective inhibitor aminoguanidine reversed the inhibitory effects of AGEs on ATP production and insulin secretion. We conclude that AGEs inhibit cytochrome c oxidase and ATP production, leading to the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through iNOS-dependent nitric oxide production.
Project description:Although β-cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to diabetes, the mechanism by which the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel influences islet insulin secretion remains debated. We investigated the CFTR-dependent islet-autonomous mechanisms affecting insulin secretion by using islets isolated from CFTR knockout ferrets. Total insulin content was lower in CF as compared with wild-type (WT) islets. Furthermore, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was impaired in perifused neonatal CF islets, with reduced first, second, and amplifying phase secretion. Interestingly, CF islets compensated for reduced insulin content under static low-glucose conditions by secreting a larger fraction of islet insulin than WT islets, probably because of elevated SLC2A1 transcripts, increased basal inhibition of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATP), and elevated basal intracellular Ca2+. Interleukin (IL)-6 secretion by CF islets was higher relative to WT, and IL-6 treatment of WT ferret islets produced a CF-like phenotype with reduced islet insulin content and elevated percentage insulin secretion in low glucose. CF islets exhibited altered expression of INS, CELA3B, and several β-cell maturation and proliferation genes. Pharmacologic inhibition of CFTR reduced GSIS by WT ferret and human islets but similarly reduced insulin secretion and intracellular Ca2+ in CFTR knockout ferret islets, indicating that the mechanism of action is not through CFTR. Single-molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization, on isolated ferret and human islets and ferret pancreas, demonstrated that CFTR RNA colocalized within KRT7+ ductal cells but not endocrine cells. These results suggest that CFTR affects β-cell function via a paracrine mechanism involving proinflammatory factors secreted from islet-associated exocrine-derived cell types.
Project description:The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is required for cell type segregation during pancreatic islet organogenesis. We have investigated the functional consequences of ablating NCAM on pancreatic beta-cell function. In vivo, NCAM(-/-) mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance and basal hyperinsulinemia. Insulin secretion from isolated NCAM(-/-) islets is enhanced at glucose concentrations below 15 mM but inhibited at higher concentrations. Glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha-cells evoked by low glucose was also severely impaired in NCAM(-/-) islets. The diminution of insulin secretion is not attributable to defective glucose metabolism or glucose sensing (documented as glucose-induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and K(ATP)-channel activity). Resting K(ATP) conductance was lower in NCAM(-/-) beta-cells than wild-type cells, and this difference was abolished when F-actin was disrupted by cytochalasin D (1 muM). In wild-type beta-cells, the submembrane actin network disassembles within 10 min during glucose stimulation (30 mM), an effect not seen in NCAM(-/-) beta-cells. Cytochalasin D eliminated this difference and normalized insulin and glucagon secretion in NCAM(-/-) islets. Capacitance measurements of exocytosis indicate that replenishment of the readily releasable granule pool is suppressed in NCAM(-/-) alpha- and beta-cells. Our data suggest that remodeling of the submembrane actin network is critical to normal glucose regulation of both insulin and glucagon secretion.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Beta cells situated in the islet of Langerhans respond more vigorously to glucose than do dissociated beta cells. Mechanisms for this discrepancy were studied by comparing insulin-producing MIN6 cells aggregated into pseudoislets with MIN6 monolayer cells and mouse and human islets. METHODS: MIN6 monolayers, pseudoislets and mouse and human islets were exposed to glucose, ?-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), pyruvate, KIC plus glutamine and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors LY294002 or wortmannin. Insulin secretion (ELISA), cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c; microfluorometry), glucose oxidation (radiolabelling), the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism (PCR) and the phosphorylation of insulin receptor signalling proteins (western blotting) were measured. RESULTS: Insulin secretory responses to glucose, pyruvate, KIC and glutamine were higher in pseudoislets than monolayers and comparable to those of human islets. Glucose oxidation and genes for mitochondrial metabolism were upregulated in pseudoislets compared with single cells and monolayers, respectively. Phosphorylation at the inhibitory S636/639 site of IRS-1 was significantly higher in monolayers and dispersed human and mouse cells than pseudoislets and intact human and mouse islets. PI3K inhibition only slightly attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from monolayers, but substantially reduced that from pseudoislets and human and mouse islets without suppressing the glucose-induced [Ca(2+)]c response. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We propose that islet architecture is critical for proper beta cell mitochondrial metabolism and IRS-1 signalling, and that PI3K regulates insulin secretion at a step distal to the elevation of [Ca(2+)]c.
Project description:The present study was undertaken to determine the main metabolic secretory signals generated by the mitochondrial substrate MeS (methyl succinate) compared with glucose in mouse and rat islets and to understand the differences. Glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism both have key roles in the stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose. Both fuels elicited comparable oscillatory patterns of Ca2+ and changes in plasma and mitochondrial membrane potential in rat islet cells and clonal pancreatic beta-cells (INS-1). Saturation of the Ca2+ signal occurred between 5 and 6 mM MeS, while secretion reached its maximum at 15 mM, suggesting operation of a K(ATP)-channel-independent pathway. Additional responses to MeS and glucose included elevated NAD(P)H autofluorescence in INS-1 cells and islets and increases in assayed NADH and NADPH and the ATP/ADP ratio. Increased NADPH and ATP/ADP ratios occurred more rapidly with MeS, although similar levels were reached after 5 min of exposure to each fuel, whereas NADH increased more with MeS than with glucose. Reversal of MeS-induced cell depolarization by Methylene Blue completely inhibited MeS-stimulated secretion, whereas basal secretion and KCl-induced changes in these parameters were not affected. MeS had no effect on secretion or signals in the mouse islets, in contrast with glucose, possibly due to a lack of malic enzyme. The data are consistent with the common intermediates being pyruvate, cytosolic NADPH or both, and suggest that cytosolic NADPH production could account for the more rapid onset of MeS-induced secretion compared with glucose stimulation.