DddW, a third DMSP lyase in a model Roseobacter marine bacterium, Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3.
ABSTRACT: Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 is a model Roseobacter marine bacterium, particularly regarding its catabolism of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an abundant anti-stress molecule made by marine phytoplankton. We found a novel gene, dddW, which encodes a DMSP lyase that cleaves DMSP into acrylate plus the environmentally important volatile dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Mutations in dddW reduced, but did not abolish DMS production. Transcription of dddW was greatly enhanced by pre-growth of cells with DMSP, via a LysR-type regulator. Close DddW homologs occur in only one other Roseobacter species, and there are no close homologs and only a few related sequences in metagenomes of marine bacteria. In addition to DddW, R. pomeroyi DSS-3 had been shown to have two other, different, DMSP lyases, DddP and DddQ, plus an enzyme that demethylates DMSP, emphasizing the importance of this substrate for this model bacterium.
Project description:The osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a key nutrient in marine environments and its catabolism by bacteria through enzymes known as DMSP lyases generates dimethylsulfide (DMS), a gas of importance in climate regulation, the sulfur cycle, and signaling to higher organisms. Despite the environmental significance of DMSP lyases, little is known about how they function at the mechanistic level. In this study we biochemically characterize DddW, a DMSP lyase from the model roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DddW is a 16.9 kDa enzyme that contains a C-terminal cupin domain and liberates acrylate, a proton, and DMS from the DMSP substrate. Our studies show that as-purified DddW is a metalloenzyme, like the DddQ and DddP DMSP lyases, but contains an iron cofactor. The metal cofactor is essential for DddW DMSP lyase activity since addition of the metal chelator EDTA abolishes its enzymatic activity, as do substitution mutations of key metal-binding residues in the cupin motif (His81, His83, Glu87, and His121). Measurements of metal binding affinity and catalytic activity indicate that Fe(II) is most likely the preferred catalytic metal ion with a nanomolar binding affinity. Stoichiometry studies suggest DddW requires one Fe(II) per monomer. Electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show an interaction between NO and Fe(II)-DddW, with NO binding to the EPR silent Fe(II) site giving rise to an EPR active species (g = 4.29, 3.95, 2.00). The change in the rhombicity of the EPR signal is observed in the presence of DMSP, indicating that substrate binds to the iron site without displacing bound NO. This work provides insight into the mechanism of DMSP cleavage catalyzed by DddW.
Project description:The organosulfur compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced by phytoplankton and is ubiquitous in the surface ocean. Once released from phytoplankton, marine bacteria degrade DMSP by either the cleavage pathway to form the volatile gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) or the demethylation pathway, yielding methanethiol (MeSH), which is readily assimilated or oxidized. The enzyme DmdB, a methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA)-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, catalyzes the second step in the demethylation pathway and is a major regulatory point. The two forms of DmdB present in the marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, RPO_DmdB1 and RPO_DmdB2, and the single form in the SAR11 clade bacterium "Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique" HTCC1062, PU_DmdB1, were characterized in detail. DmdB enzymes were also examined from Ruegeria lacuscaerulensis ITI-1157, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Burkholderia thailandensis E264. The DmdB enzymes separated into two phylogenetic clades. All enzymes had activity with MMPA and were sensitive to inhibition by salts, but there was no correlation between the clades and substrate specificity or salt sensitivity. All Ruegeria species enzymes were inhibited by physiological concentrations (70 mM) of DMSP. However, ADP reversed the inhibition of RPO_DmdB1, suggesting that this enzyme was responsive to cellular energy charge. MMPA reversed the inhibition of RPO_DmdB2 as well as both R. lacuscaerulensis ITI-1157 DmdB enzymes, suggesting that a complex regulatory system exists in marine bacteria. In contrast, the DmdBs of the non-DMSP-metabolizing P. aeruginosa PAO1 and B. thailandensis E264 were not inhibited by DMSP, suggesting that DMSP inhibition is a specific adaptation of DmdBs from marine bacteria.
Project description:The Escherichia coli YhdH polypeptide is in the MDR012 sub-group of medium chain reductase/dehydrogenases, but its biological function was unknown and no phenotypes of YhdH(-) mutants had been described. We found that an E. coli strain with an insertional mutation in yhdH was hyper-sensitive to inhibitory effects of acrylate, and, to a lesser extent, to those of 3-hydroxypropionate. Close homologues of YhdH occur in many Bacterial taxa and at least two animals. The acrylate sensitivity of YhdH(-) mutants was corrected by the corresponding, cloned homologues from several bacteria. One such homologue is acuI, which has a role in acrylate degradation in marine bacteria that catabolise dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) an abundant anti-stress compound made by marine phytoplankton. The acuI genes of such bacteria are often linked to ddd genes that encode enzymes that cleave DMSP into acrylate plus dimethyl sulfide (DMS), even though these are in different polypeptide families, in unrelated bacteria. Furthermore, most strains of Roseobacters, a clade of abundant marine bacteria, cleave DMSP into acrylate plus DMS, and can also demethylate it, using DMSP demethylase. In most Roseobacters, the corresponding gene, dmdA, lies immediately upstream of acuI and in the model Roseobacter strain Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, dmdA-acuI were co-regulated in response to the co-inducer, acrylate. These observations, together with findings by others that AcuI has acryloyl-CoA reductase activity, lead us to suggest that YdhH/AcuI enzymes protect cells against damaging effects of intracellular acryloyl-CoA, formed endogenously, and/or via catabolising exogenous acrylate. To provide "added protection" for bacteria that form acrylate from DMSP, acuI was recruited into clusters of genes involved in this conversion and, in the case of acuI and dmdA in the Roseobacters, their co-expression may underpin an interaction between the two routes of DMSP catabolism, whereby the acrylate product of DMSP lyases is a co-inducer for the demethylation pathway.
Project description:The ubiquitous algal metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a major source of carbon and reduced sulfur for marine bacteria. Recently, the enzyme responsible for the demethylation of DMSP, designated DmdA, was identified, and homologs were found to be common in marine bacterioplankton cells. The recombinant DmdA proteins from the cultured marine bacteria Pelagibacter ubique HTCC1062 and Silicibacter pomeroyi DSS-3 were purified with a three-step procedure using anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and hydroxyapatite chromatographies. The P. ubique enzyme possessed an M(r) on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 38,500. Under nondenaturing conditions, the M(r) was 68,000, suggesting that the enzyme was likely to be a dimer. The purified enzyme exhibited strict substrate specificity for DMSP, as DmdA from both S. pomeroyi and P. ubique possessed no detectable demethylase activity with glycine betaine, dimethyl glycine, methylmercaptopropionate, methionine, or dimethylsulfonioacetate. Less than 1% activity was found with dimethylsulfoniobutanoate and dimethylsulfoniopentanoate. The apparent K(m)s for DMSP were 13.2 +/- 2.0 and 5.4 +/- 2.3 mM for the P. ubique and S. pomeroyi enzymes, respectively. In cell extracts of S. pomeroyi DSS-3, the apparent K(m) for DMSP was 8.6 +/- 1.2 mM, similar to that of purified recombinant DmdA. The intracellular concentration of DMSP in chemostat-grown S. pomeroyi DSS-3 was 70 mM. These results suggest that marine bacterioplankton may actively accumulate DMSP to osmotically significant concentrations that favor near-maximal rates of DMSP demethylation activity.
Project description:Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which is the major source of organic sulfur in the world's oceans, plays a significant role in the global sulfur cycle. This compound is rapidly degraded by marine bacteria either by cleavage to dimethylsulfide (DMS) or demethylation to 3-methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA). The diversity of genes encoding bacterial demethylation (dmdA) and DMS production (dddL and dddP) were measured in Arctic Kongsfjorden. Both dmdA and dddL genes were detected in all stations along a transect from the outer to the inner fjord, while dddP gene was only found in the outer and middle parts of the fjord. The dmdA gene was completely confined to the Roseobacter clade, while the dddL gene was confined to the genus Sulfitobacter. Although the dddP gene pool was also dominated by homologs from the Roseobacter clade, there were a few dddP genes showing close relationships to both Alphaproteobacter and Gammaproteobacter. The results of this study suggest that the Roseobacter clade may play an important role in DMSP catabolism via both demethylation and cleavage pathways in surface waters of Kongsfjorden during summer.
Project description:Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is mainly produced by marine phytoplankton but is released into the microbial food web and degraded by marine bacteria to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and other products. To reveal the abundance and distribution of bacterial DMSP degradation genes and the corresponding bacterial communities in relation to DMS and DMSP concentrations in seawater, we collected surface seawater samples from DMS hot spot sites during a cruise across the Pacific Ocean. We analyzed the genes encoding DMSP lyase (dddP) and DMSP demethylase (dmdA), which are responsible for the transformation of DMSP to DMS and DMSP assimilation, respectively. The averaged abundance (±standard deviation) of these DMSP degradation genes relative to that of the 16S rRNA genes was 33% ± 12%. The abundances of these genes showed large spatial variations. dddP genes showed more variation in abundances than dmdA genes. Multidimensional analysis based on the abundances of DMSP degradation genes and environmental factors revealed that the distribution pattern of these genes was influenced by chlorophyll a concentrations and temperatures. dddP genes, dmdA subclade C/2 genes, and dmdA subclade D genes exhibited significant correlations with the marine Roseobacter clade, SAR11 subgroup Ib, and SAR11 subgroup Ia, respectively. SAR11 subgroups Ia and Ib, which possessed dmdA genes, were suggested to be the main potential DMSP consumers. The Roseobacter clade members possessing dddP genes in oligotrophic subtropical regions were possible DMS producers. These results suggest that DMSP degradation genes are abundant and widely distributed in the surface seawater and that the marine bacteria possessing these genes influence the degradation of DMSP and regulate the emissions of DMS in subtropical gyres of the Pacific Ocean.
Project description:Dimethylsufoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important and abundant organic sulfur compound and an important substrate for marine bacterioplankton. The Roseobacter clade of marine alpha-proteobacteria, including Silicibacter pomeroyi strain DSS3, are known to be a key phylogenetic group involved in DMSP degradaton. The fate of DMSP has important implications for the global sulfur cycle, but the genes involved in this process and their regulation are largely unknown. S. pomeroyi is capable of performing two major pathways of DMSP degradation, making it an interesting model organism. Based on the full genome sequence of this strain we designed an oligonucleotide-based microarray for the detection of transcripts of nearly all genes. The array was used to study the transcriptional response of S. pomeroyi cultures to additions of DMSP or Acetate in a time series experiment. We identified a number of DMSP-upregulated genes that could be assigned to potential roles in the metabolization of DMSP. DMSP also affected the transcription of other groups of genes, including genes for transport and metabolization of peptides, amino-acids and polyamines. High DMSP concentrations may be a chemical signal indicating phytoplankton abundance and elicit a regulatory response aimed at making maximum use of the available nutrients under these conditions. Keywords: Microarray, marine bacterium, messenger RNA, transcription, sulfur metabolism The array design is based on the complete genome sequence of S. pomeroyi strain DSS 3 and available from Genbank (Accession numbers CP000031 and CP000032). Probes for all identified potential genes were designed by Combimatrix using proprietary software. A total of 4161 genes out of the 4348 identified potential genes on the S. pomeroyi genome are represented on the array. When possible, two probes per gene were designed.
Project description:Members of the marine Roseobacter clade can degrade dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) via competing pathways releasing either methanethiol (MeSH) or dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Deuterium-labeled [(2)H6]DMSP and the synthetic DMSP analogue dimethyltelluriopropionate (DMTeP) were used in feeding experiments with the Roseobacter clade members Phaeobacter gallaeciensis DSM 17395 and Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, and their volatile metabolites were analyzed by closed-loop stripping and solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC-MS. Feeding experiments with [(2)H6]DMSP resulted in the incorporation of a deuterium label into MeSH and DMS. Knockout of relevant genes from the known DMSP demethylation pathway to MeSH showed in both species a residual production of [(2)H3]MeSH, suggesting that a second demethylation pathway is active. The role of DMSP degradation pathways for MeSH and DMS formation was further investigated by using the synthetic analogue DMTeP as a probe in feeding experiments with the wild-type strain and knockout mutants. Feeding of DMTeP to the R. pomeroyi knockout mutant resulted in a diminished, but not abolished production of demethylation pathway products. These results further corroborated the proposed second demethylation activity in R. pomeroyi. Isotopically labeled [(2)H3]methionine and (34)SO4 (2-), synthesized from elemental (34)S8, were tested to identify alternative sulfur sources besides DMSP for the MeSH production in P. gallaeciensis. Methionine proved to be a viable sulfur source for the MeSH volatiles, whereas incorporation of labeling from sulfate was not observed. Moreover, the utilization of selenite and selenate salts by marine alphaproteobacteria for the production of methylated selenium volatiles was explored and resulted in the production of numerous methaneselenol-derived volatiles via reduction and methylation. The pathway of selenate/selenite reduction, however, proved to be strictly separated from sulfate reduction.
Project description:We report the complete genome sequences of five bacteriophages infecting Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, a member of the marine Roseobacter lineage. The genomic sequences of these five bacteriophages are almost identical and are closely related to members of the Chivirus genus. The genes associated with the lysogenic cycle were also found.
Project description:Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an important nitrogen source for marine bacteria. TMAO can also be metabolized by marine bacteria into volatile methylated amines, the precursors of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. However, it was not known how TMAO is recognized and imported by bacteria. Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, a marine Roseobacter, has an ATP-binding cassette transporter, TmoXWV, specific for TMAO. TmoX is the substrate-binding protein of the TmoXWV transporter. In this study, the substrate specificity of TmoX of R. pomeroyi DSS-3 was characterized. We further determined the structure of the TmoX/TMAO complex and studied the TMAO-binding mechanism of TmoX by biochemical, structural, and mutational analyses. A Ca(2+) ion chelated by an extended loop in TmoX was shown to be important for maintaining the stability of TmoX. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that TmoX can alternate between "open" and "closed" states for binding TMAO. In the substrate-binding pocket, four tryptophan residues interact with the quaternary amine of TMAO by cation-? interactions, and Glu131 forms a hydrogen bond with the polar oxygen atom of TMAO. The ?-? stacking interactions between the side chains of Phe and Trp are also essential for TMAO binding. Sequence analysis suggests that the TMAO-binding mechanism of TmoX may have universal significance in marine bacteria, especially in the marine Roseobacter clade. This study sheds light on how marine microorganisms utilize TMAO.Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an important nitrogen source for marine bacteria. The products of TMAO metabolized by bacteria are part of the precursors of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. It is unclear how TMAO is recognized and imported by bacteria. TmoX is the substrate-binding protein of a TMAO-specific transporter. Here, the substrate specificity of TmoX of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 was characterized. The TMAO-binding mechanism of TmoX was studied by biochemical, structural, and mutational analyses. Moreover, our results suggest that the TMAO-binding mechanism may have universal significance in marine bacteria. This study sheds light on how marine microorganisms utilize TMAO and should lead to a better understanding of marine nitrogen cycling.