Functional analysis of C-type lysozyme in penaeid shrimp.
ABSTRACT: Lysozyme is an enzyme that cleaves the ?-1,4-glycosidic linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, leading to bacterial lysis. Recently, lysozyme has been found to have anti-HIV and anti-cancer properties in mammals. However, most functional analyses were done in vitro using purified or recombinant lysozyme protein. Here, we used RNA interference to silence c-type lysozyme expression in penaeid shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, to analyze the function of lysozyme in vivo. Silencing of lysozyme expression by dsRNA lysozyme (dsLYZ) led to 100% mortality without any artificial bacterial infection in 5 days. Lysozyme deficiency caused the number of hemocytes in hemolymph to decrease from 1.3 × 10(7) to 2.3 × 10(6) cells/ml and caused the number of bacteria to increase from 78 to 764 colony-forming units/ml. Suppression of bacterial growth using oxytetracycline and kanamycin showed improvement in mortality, suggesting that shrimp mortality post- dsLYZ injection can be attributed to bacterial growth in the shrimp hemolymph. The majority of the bacteria, identified by 16 S rRNA analysis, were Gram-negative species such as Vibrio and Pseudomonas. Furthermore, PKH26 staining showed that the dsLYZ-injected shrimp were unable to eliminate non pathogenic Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus in 24 h. These data suggest that c-type lysozyme in shrimp serves to regulate the growth of bacterial communities, particularly Gram-negative bacteria, in the hemolymph.
Project description:Some aquatic invertebrates such as shrimp contain low albeit stable numbers of bacteria in the circulating hemolymph. The proliferation of this hemolymph microbiota in such a nutrient-rich environment is tightly controlled in healthy animals, but the mechanisms responsible had remained elusive. In the present study, we report a C-type lectin (MjHeCL) from the kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) that participates in restraining the hemolymph microbiota. Although the expression of MjHeCL did not seem to be modulated by bacterial challenge, the down-regulation of its expression by RNA interference led to proliferation of the hemolymph microbiota, ultimately resulting in shrimp death. This phenotype was rescued by the injection of recombinant MjHeCL, which restored the healthy status of the knockdown shrimp. A mechanistic analysis revealed that MjHeCL inhibited bacterial proliferation by modulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides. The key function of MjHeCL in the shrimp immune homeostasis might be related to its broader recognition spectrum of the hemolymph microbiota components than other lectins. Our study demonstrates the role of MjHeCL in maintaining the healthy status of shrimp and provides new insight into the biological significance of C-type lectins, a diversified and abundant lectin family in invertebrate species.
Project description:In mammals, the intestine harbors numerous bacteria that play an important role in health. Intestinal microbiota have also been thought to be an important factor in the health of shrimp. However, the barrier systems of the digestive tracts of shrimp seem to be different from those of mammals. In this study, we analyzed the bacterial composition in the stomach and midgut of two species of shrimp during administration of a probiotic, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain TOA5001 by analysis of 16S rRNA genes with Illumina sequencing technology. Whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were observed under laboratory conditions and kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus were observed in an aquaculture farm. The diversities of bacteria in the stomachs of both shrimps were significantly higher than those in the midgut. Also, the microbiota changed during probiotic feeding. Feeding whiteleg shrimp the probiotic after being challenged with an acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND)-causing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus increased their survival compared to the control group, which suggested that the probiotic prevented AHPND. These results appear to show that a probiotic can affect the microbiota throughout digestive tract of penaeid shrimps and that probiotic can have a role in preventing disease.
Project description:The Toll pathway is essential for inducing an immune response to defend against bacterial invasion in vertebrates and invertebrates. Although Toll receptors and the transcription factor Dorsal were identified in different shrimp, relatively little is known about how the Toll pathway is activated or the function of the pathway in shrimp antibacterial immunity. In this study, three Tolls (Toll1-3) and the Dorsal were identified in Marsupenaeus japonicus. The Toll pathway can be activated by Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacterial infection. Unlike Toll binding to Spätzle in Drosophila, shrimp Tolls could directly bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns from G+ and G- bacteria, resulting in Dorsal translocation into nucleus to regulate the expression of different antibacterial peptides (AMPs) in the clearance of infected bacteria. These findings suggest that shrimp Tolls are pattern recognition receptors and the Toll pathway in shrimp is different from the Drosophila Toll pathway but identical with the mammalian Toll-like receptor pathway in its activation and antibacterial functions.
Project description:Invertebrates rely on innate immunity, including humoral and cellular immunity, to resist pathogenic infection. Previous studies showed that forkhead box transcription factor O (FOXO) participates in mucosal immune responses of mammals and the gut humoral immune regulation of invertebrates. However, whether FOXO is involved in systemic and cellular immunity regulation in invertebrates remains unknown. In the present study, we identified a FOXO from shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) and found that it was expressed at relatively basal levels in normal shrimp, but was upregulated significantly in shrimp challenged by Vibrio anguillarum. FOXO played a critical role in maintaining hemolymph and intestinal microbiota homeostasis by promoting the expression of Relish, the transcription factor of the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway for expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in shrimp. We also found that pathogen infection activated FOXO and induced its nuclear translocation by reducing serine/threonine kinase AKT activity. In the nucleus, activated FOXO directly regulated the expression of its target Amp and Relish genes against bacterial infection. Furthermore, FOXO was identified as being involved in cellular immunity by promoting the phagocytosis of hemocytes through upregulating the expression of the phagocytotic receptor scavenger receptor C (Src), and two small GTPases, Rab5 and Rab7, which are related to phagosome trafficking to the lysosome in the cytoplasm. Taken together, our results indicated that FOXO exerts its effects on homeostasis of hemolymph and the enteric microbiota by activating the IMD pathway in normal shrimp, and directly or indirectly promoting AMP expression and enhancing phagocytosis of hemocytes against pathogens in bacteria-infected shrimp. This study revealed the different functions of FOXO in the mucosal (local) and systemic antibacterial immunity of invertebrates.
Project description:Galectins are a lectin family characterized by a conserved sequence motif in the carbohydrate recognition domain, which preferential binds to galactosyl moieties. However, few studies about the biological roles of galectins in invertebrates have been reported except for the galectin (CvGal1) from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Furthermore, galectins have been described in only a few crustacean species, and no functional studies have been reported so far. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized a galectin from the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus, which we designated MjGal. Upon Vibrio anguillarum challenge, expression of MjGal was up-regulated mostly in hemocytes and hepatopancreas, and the protein bound to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through the recognition of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively. By also binding to the shrimp hemocyte surface, MjGal functions as an opsonin for microbial pathogens, promoting their phagocytosis. Further, as shown by RNA interference, MjGal participates in clearance of bacteria from circulation, and thereby contributes to the shrimp's immune defense against infectious challenge. Elucidation of functional and mechanistic aspects of shrimp immunity will enable the development of novel strategies for intervention in infectious diseases currently affecting the shrimp farming industry worldwide.
Project description:Crustacean aquaculture is expected to be a major source of fishery commodities in the near future. Hemocytes are key players of the immune system in shrimps; however, their classification, maturation, and differentiation are still under debate. To date, only discrete and inconsistent information on the classification of shrimp hemocytes has been reported, showing that the morphological characteristics are not sufficient to resolve their actual roles. Our present study using single-cell RNA sequencing revealed six types of hemocytes of <i>Marsupenaeus japonicus</i> based on their transcriptional profiles. We identified markers of each subpopulation and predicted the differentiation pathways involved in their maturation. We also predicted cell growth factors that might play crucial roles in hemocyte differentiation. Different immune roles among these subpopulations were suggested from the analysis of differentially expressed immune-related genes. These results provide a unified classification of shrimp hemocytes, which improves the understanding of its immune system.
Project description:Lysozyme is a key effector molecule of the innate immune system in both vertebrate and invertebrate. It is classified into six types, one of which is the goose-type (g-type). To date, no study on g-type lysozyme in crustacean has been documented. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a g-type lysozyme (named LysG1) from the shrimp inhabiting a deep-sea hydrothermal vent in Manus Basin. LysG1 possesses conserved structural features of g-type lysozymes. The recombinant LysG1 (rLysG1) exhibited no muramidase activity and killed selectively Gram-negative bacteria in a manner that depended on temperature, pH, and metal ions. rLysG1 bound target bacteria via interaction with bacterial cell wall components, notably lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and induced cellular membrane permeabilization, which eventually caused cell lysis. The endotoxin-binding capacity enabled rLysG1 to alleviate the inflammatory response induced by LPS. Mutation analysis showed that the bacterial binding and killing activities of rLysG1 required the integrity of the conserved α3 and 4 helixes of the protein. Together, these results provide the first insight into the activity and working mechanism of g-type lysozyme in crustacean and deep-sea organisms.
Project description:Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are a group of immune proteins that exhibit strong antibiotic properties against numerous infectious bacterial strains. They are evolutionarily conserved and present in every kingdom and phylum, ranging from prokaryotes to humans. We analyzed the transciptome from the larvae of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and identified several putative AMP transcripts, OfgLys5, OfgLys6, OfgLys10, OfgAtt, and OfgIID. OfgLys5, OfgLys6, and OfgLys10 are all highly homologous with c-type lysozymes, and OfgAtt shows significant identities with Lepidoptera attacin. The amino acid sequence of OfgLys5 and OfgLys6 possessed all conserved features critical for fundamental structure and function of c-type lysozyme, including the two catalytic sites, Glu(32) and Asp(50). OfgAtt is a typical glycine-rich protein. The antimicrobial activity of O. furnacalis hemolymph increased significantly after injection with Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, or Beauveria bassiana. OfgAtt, IDD, and Lys6 are expressed at low level prior to the challenge, but strongly induced against Gram-positive and negative bacteria, and fungi. Under the same inducement conditions, the transcripts of these three genes elevated most when fifth instar larvae were injected. Therefore, O. furnacalis larvae are induced to produce antimicrobial materials in the hemolymph after the infection, and increase of lysozyme and attacin may contribute to the antimicrobial activity.
Project description:Lysozyme is one of the most abundant antimicrobial proteins in the airspaces of the lung. Mice express two lysozyme genes, lysozyme M and P, but only the M enzyme is detected in abundance in lung tissues. Disruption of the lysozyme M locus significantly increased bacterial burden and mortality following intratracheal infection with a Gram-negative bacterium. Unexpectedly, significant lysozyme enzyme activity (muramidase activity) was detected in the airspaces of uninfected lysozyme M-/- mice, amounting to 25% of the activity in wild-type mice. Muramidase activity in lysozyme M-/- mice was associated with increased lysozyme P mRNA and protein in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid respectively. The muramidase activity of recombinant lysozyme P was less than that of recombinant M lysozyme. Recombinant P lysozyme was also less effective in killing selected Gram-negative bacteria, requiring higher concentrations than lysozyme M to achieve the same level of killing. The lower antimicrobial activity of P lysozyme, coupled with incomplete compensation by P lysozyme in lysozyme M-/- mice, probably accounts for the increased susceptibility of null mice to infection. Recombinant lysozyme M and P were equally effective in killing selected Gram-positive organisms. This outcome suggests that disruption of both M and P loci would significantly increase susceptibility to airway infections, particularly those associated with colonization by Gram-positive organisms.
Project description:Lysozyme is a cornerstone of innate immunity. The canonical mechanism for bacterial killing by lysozyme occurs through the hydrolysis of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG). Conventional type (c-type) lysozymes are also highly cationic and can kill certain bacteria independently of PG hydrolytic activity. Reflecting the ongoing arms race between host and invading microorganisms, both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have evolved mechanisms to thwart killing by lysozyme. In addition to its direct antimicrobial role, more recent evidence has shown that lysozyme modulates the host immune response to infection. The degradation and lysis of bacteria by lysozyme enhance the release of bacterial products, including PG, that activate pattern recognition receptors in host cells. Yet paradoxically, lysozyme is important for the resolution of inflammation at mucosal sites. This review will highlight recent advances in our understanding of the diverse mechanisms that bacteria use to protect themselves against lysozyme, the intriguing immunomodulatory function of lysozyme, and the relationship between these features in the context of infection.