In vitro and in vivo aggregation of a fragment of huntingtin protein directly causes free radical production.
ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by intra- and/or extracellular protein aggregation and oxidative stress. Intense attention has been paid to whether protein aggregation itself contributes to abnormal production of free radicals and ensuing cellular oxidative damage. Although this question has been investigated in the context of extracellular protein aggregation, it remains unclear whether protein aggregation inside cells alters the redox homeostasis. To address this, we have used in vitro and in vivo (cellular) models of Huntington disease, one of nine polyglutamine (poly(Q)) disorders, and examined the causal relationship among intracellular protein aggregation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and toxicity. Live imaging of cells expressing a fragment of huntingtin (httExon1) with a poly(Q) expansion shows increased ROS production preceding cell death. ROS production is poly(Q) length-dependent and not due to the httExon 1 flanking sequence. Aggregation inhibition by the MW7 intrabody and Pgl-135 treatment abolishes ROS production, showing that increased ROS is caused by poly(Q) aggregation itself. To examine this hypothesis further, we determined whether aggregation of poly(Q) peptides in vitro generated free radicals. Monitoring poly(Q) protein aggregation using atomic force microscopy and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production over time in parallel we show that oligomerization of httEx1Q53 results in early generation of H(2)O(2). Inhibition of poly(Q) oligomerization by the single chain antibody MW7 abrogates H(2)O(2) formation. These results demonstrate that intracellular protein aggregation directly causes free radical production, and targeting potentially toxic poly(Q) oligomers may constitute a therapeutic target to counteract oxidative stress in poly(Q) diseases.
Project description:Aggregation of the misfolded proteins ?-amyloid, tau, huntingtin, and ?-synuclein is one of the most important steps in the pathology underlying a wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders, including the two most common ones-Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Activity and toxicity of these proteins depends on the stage and form of aggregates. Excessive production of free radicals, including reactive oxygen species which lead to oxidative stress, is proven to be involved in the mechanism of pathology in most of neurodegenerative disorders. Both reactive oxygen species and misfolded proteins play a physiological role in the brain, and only deregulation in redox state and aggregation of the proteins leads to pathology. Here, we review the role of misfolded proteins in the activation of ROS production from various sources in neurons and glia. We discuss if free radicals can influence structural changes of the key toxic intermediates and describe the putative mechanisms by which oxidative stress and oligomers may cause neuronal death.
Project description:The free-radical-operated mechanism of death of activated macrophages at sites of inflammation is unclear, but it is important to define it in order to find targets to prevent further tissue dysfunction. A well-defined model of macrophage activation at sites of inflammation is the treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with the resulting production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS and other free radicals can be trapped with the nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), a cell-permeable probe with antioxidant properties, which thus interferes with free-radical-operated oxidation processes. Here we have used immuno-spin trapping to investigate the role of free-radical-operated protein oxidation in LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS resulted in increased ROS production, oxidation of proteins, cell morphological changes and cytotoxicity. DMPO was found to trap protein radicals to form protein-DMPO nitrone adducts, to reduce protein carbonyls, and to block LPS-induced cell death. N-Acetylcysteine (a source of reduced glutathione), diphenyleneiodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase), and 2,2'-dipyridyl (a chelator of Fe(2+)) prevented LPS-induced oxidative stress and cell death and reduced DMPO-nitrone adduct formation, suggesting a critical role of ROS, metals, and protein-radical formation in LPS-induced cell cytotoxicity. We also determined the subcellular localization of protein-DMPO nitrone adducts and identified some candidate proteins for DMPO attachment by LC-MS/MS. The LC-MS/MS data are consistent with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, one of the most abundant, sensitive, and ubiquitous proteins in the cell, becoming labeled with DMPO when the cell is primed with LPS. This information will help find strategies to treat inflammation-associated tissue dysfunction by focusing on preventing free radical-operated proteotoxic stress and death of macrophages.
Project description:We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.
Project description:Large scale biopharmaceutical production of biologics relies on the overexpression of foreign proteins by cells cultivated in stirred tank bioreactors. It is well recognized and documented fact that protein overexpression may impact host cell metabolism and that factors associated with large scale culture, such as the hydrodynamic forces and inhomogeneities within the bioreactors, may promote cellular stress. The metabolic adaptations required to support the high-level expression of recombinant proteins include increased energy production and improved secretory capacity, which, in turn, can lead to a rise of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated through the respiration metabolism and the interaction with media components. Oxidative stress is defined as the imbalance between the production of free radicals and the antioxidant response within the cells. Accumulation of intracellular ROS can interfere with the cellular activities and exert cytotoxic effects via the alternation of cellular components. In this context, strategies aiming to alleviate oxidative stress generated during the culture have been developed to improve cell growth, productivity, and reduce product microheterogeneity. In this review, we present a summary of the different approaches used to decrease the oxidative stress in Chinese hamster ovary cells and highlight media development and cell engineering as the main pathways through which ROS levels may be kept under control.
Project description:The increased expression of genes induced by type I interferon (IFN) is characteristic of viral infections and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We showed that mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, which normally forms a complex with retinoic acid gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases during viral infection, was activated by oxidative stress independently of RIG-I helicases. We found that chemically generated oxidative stress stimulated the formation of MAVS oligomers, which led to mitochondrial hyperpolarization and decreased adenosine triphosphate production and spare respiratory capacity, responses that were not observed in similarly treated cells lacking MAVS. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of SLE patients also showed spontaneous MAVS oligomerization that correlated with the increased secretion of type I IFN and mitochondrial oxidative stress. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ prevented MAVS oligomerization and type I IFN production. ROS-dependent MAVS oligomerization and type I IFN production were reduced in cells expressing the MAVS-C79F variant, which occurs in 30% of sub-Saharan Africans and is linked with reduced type I IFN secretion and milder disease in SLE patients. Patients expressing the MAVS-C79F variant also had reduced amounts of oligomerized MAVS in their plasma compared to healthy controls. Together, our findings suggest that oxidative stress-induced MAVS oligomerization in SLE patients may contribute to the type I IFN signature that is characteristic of this syndrome.
Project description:The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a tryptophan-derived metabolite from gut microbiota, attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. The present study was to unearth the protective effect and underlying mechanism of IAA against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response and free radical generation in RAW264.7 macrophages. IAA significantly ameliorated LPS-induced expression of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as well as generation of reactive oxidative species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). LPS-triggered nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p65 was mitigated by IAA treatment. Further, an up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was observed in IAA-treated cells in dose-dependent manner under both normal and LPS-stimulated condition. Interference of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP) impeded the alleviative effects of IAA on expression of IL-1? and IL-6 induced by LPS, whereas demonstrated no effect on its suppression of ROS and NO production. This result suggests a HO-1-dependent anti-inflammatory effect of IAA and its direct scavenging action on free radicals. Treatment with CH-223191, a specific antagonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), showed no significant effects on the beneficial role of IAA against inflammation and free radical generation. In summary, our findings indicate that IAA alleviates LPS-elicited inflammatory response and free radical generation in RAW264.7 macrophages by induction of HO-1 and direct neutralization of free radicals, a mechanism independent of AhR.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of disability in individuals aged >65 years worldwide. AD is characterized by the abnormal deposition of amyloid ? (A?) peptide, and intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated ? protein and dementia. The neurotoxic oligomer A? peptide, which is the neuropathological diagnostic criterion of the disease, together with ? protein, are mediators of the neurodegeneration that is among the main causative factors. However, these phenomena are mainly initiated and enhanced by oxidative stress, a process referring to an imbalance between antioxidants and oxidants in favour of oxidants. This imbalance can occur as a result of increased free radicals or a decrease in antioxidant defense, free radicals being a species that contains one or more unpaired electrons in its outer shell. The major source of potent free radicals is the reduction of molecular oxygen in water, that initially yields the superoxide radical, which produces hydrogen peroxide by the addition of an electron. The reduction of hydrogen peroxide produces highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, termed reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can react with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules and may also alter their structures and functions. Thus, tissues and organs, particularly the brain, a vulnerable organ, are affected by ROS due to its composition. The brain is largely composed of easily oxidizable lipids while featuring a high oxygen consumption rate. The current review examined the role of oxidative stress in AD.
Project description:The 42-mer amyloid ?-protein (A?42) aggregates to form soluble oligomers that cause memory loss and synaptotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress is closely related to the pathogenesis of AD. We previously identified the toxic conformer of A?42 with a turn at positions 22 and 23 ("toxic turn") by solid-state NMR and demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody (11A1) against the toxic turn in A?42 mainly detected the oligomer in the brains of AD patients. Our recent study suggested that oxidative stress is a key factor of the oligomerization and cognitive impairment induced by A? overproduction in vivo. However, the involvement of the toxic conformer in A?42-induced oxidative damage remains unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we examined the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neurotoxicity in rat primary neurons using E22P-A?42, a mutant that induces a turn at positions 22 and 23, and E22V-A?42, a turn-preventing mutant. E22P-A?42, but not E22V-A?42, induced greater ROS production than Wt-A?42 in addition to potent neurotoxicity. Interestingly, the formation of the toxic conformer in both E22P-A?42 and Wt-A?42 probed by the 11A1 antibody preceded A?42-induced neurotoxicity. Trolox (a radical scavenger) and Congo red (an aggregation inhibitor) significantly prevented the neurotoxicity and intracellular ROS induced by E22P-A?42 and Wt-A?42, respectively. These results suggest that A?42-mediated toxicity is caused by the turn that favors toxic oligomers, which increase generation of ROS.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically active free radicals produced by partial reduction of oxygen that can activate discrete signaling pathways or disrupt redox homeostasis depending on their concentration. ROS interacts with biomolecules, including DNA, and can cause mutations that can transform normal cells into cancer cells. Furthermore, certain cancer-causing mutations trigger alterations in cellular metabolism that can increase ROS production, resulting in genomic instability, additional DNA mutations, and tumor evolution. To prevent excess ROS-mediated toxicity, cancer-causing mutations concurrently activate pathways that manage this oxidative burden. Hence, an understanding of the metabolic pathways that regulate ROS levels is imperative for devising therapies that target tumor cells. In this review, we summarize the dual role of metabolism as a generator and inhibitor of ROS in cancer and discuss current strategies to target the ROS axis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Increasing clinical epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that excess of production of reactive oxygen free radicals (ROS) induced by an oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human airway disorders, as well as equine recurrent airway obstruction. Free-radicals modulate the activation of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-(NF)-kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1, in several different cells. This activation leads to expression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1beta. We have hypothesized that equine airway sensitization might induce an oxidative stress and increase the ROS production, which in turn might enhance a production of IL-1beta and airway hyperresponsiveness. METHODS: We have examined the effect of passive sensitization on IL-1beta mRNA expression and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contraction in equine isolated bronchi, and the potential interference of reduced-glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant, with these responses. Bronchi passively sensitized with serum from animals suffering from heaves and having high total level of IgE, and control tissues, either pretreated or not with GSH (100 microM), were used to quantify IL-1beta mRNA. Other tissues were used to study the effect of EFS (3-10-25 Hz). RESULTS: Mean IL-1beta mRNA expression was higher in passively sensitized than in control rings. GSH significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the IL-1beta mRNA expression only in passively sensitized bronchi. ELF induced a frequency-dependent contraction in both non-sensitized and passively sensitized tissues, with a significantly greater response always observed in sensitized tissues. GSH did not modify the EFS-induced contraction in non-sensitized bronchi, but significantly (p < 0.05) decreased it in passively sensitized tissues. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the passive sensitization of equine bronchi induces inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. These effects might be due to an oxidative stress because a pretreatment with GSH decreased the increased IL-1beta mRNA expression and responsiveness to EFS of passively sensitized bronchi.