Clinical and laboratory features of 103 patients from 42 Italian families with inherited thrombocytopenia derived from the monoallelic Ala156Val mutation of GPIbα (Bolzano mutation).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bernard-Soulier syndrome is a very rare form of inherited thrombocytopenia that derives from mutations in GPIbα, GPIbβ, or GPIX and is typically inherited as a recessive disease. However, some years ago it was shown that the monoallelic c.515C>T transition in the GPIBA gene (Bolzano mutation) was responsible for macrothrombocytopenia in a few Italian patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Over the past 10 years, we have searched for the Bolzano mutation in all subjects referred to our institutions because of an autosomal, dominant form of thrombocytopenia of unknown origin. RESULTS: We identified 42 new Italian families (103 cases) with a thrombocytopenia induced by monoallelic Bolzano mutation. Analyses of the geographic origin of affected pedigrees and haplotypes indicated that this mutation originated in southern Italy. Although the clinical expression was variable, patients with this mutation typically had a mild form of Bernard-Soulier syndrome with mild thrombocytopenia and bleeding tendency. The most indicative laboratory findings were enlarged platelets and reduced GPIb/IX/V platelet expression; in vitro platelet aggregation was normal in nearly all of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that monoallelic Bolzano mutation is the most frequent cause of inherited thrombocytopenia in Italy, affecting 20% of patients recruited at our institutions during the last 10 years. Because many people from southern Italy have emigrated during the last century, this mutation may have spread to other countries.
Project description:Patients with inherited thrombocytopenias often require platelet transfusions to raise their platelet count before surgery or other invasive procedures; moreover, subjects with clinically significant spontaneous bleeding may benefit from an enduring improvement of thrombocytopenia. The hypothesis that thrombopoietin-mimetics can increase platelet count in inherited thrombocytopenias is appealing, but evidence is scarce. We conducted a prospective, phase II clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of the oral thrombopoietin-mimetic eltrombopag in different forms of inherited thrombocytopenia. We enrolled 24 patients affected by MYH9-related disease, ANKRD26-related thrombocytopenia, X-linked thrombocytopenia/ Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, monoallelic Bernard-Soulier syndrome, or ITGB3-related thrombocytopenia. The average pre-treatment platelet count was 40.4 ×109/L. Patients received a 3- to 6-week course of eltrombopag in a dose-escalated manner. Of 23 patients evaluable for response, 11 (47.8%) achieved a major response (platelet count >100 ×109/L), ten (43.5%) had a minor response (platelet count at least twice the baseline value), and two patients (8.7%) did not respond. The average increase of platelet count compared to baseline was 64.5 ×109/L (P<0.001). Four patients with clinically significant spontaneous bleeding entered a program of long-term eltrombopag administration (16 additional weeks): all of them obtained remission of mucosal hemorrhages, with the remission persisting throughout the treatment period. Treatment was globally well tolerated: five patients reported mild adverse events and one patient a moderate adverse event. In conclusion, eltrombopag was safe and effective in increasing platelet count and reducing bleeding symptoms in different forms of inherited thrombocytopenia. Despite these encouraging results, caution is recommended when using thrombopoietinmimetics in inherited thrombocytopenias predisposing to leukemia. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02422394.
Project description:The human Bernard-Soulier syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of platelet dysfunction presenting with mild thrombocytopenia, circulating "giant" platelets and a bleeding phenotype. The bleeding in patients with the Bernard-Soulier syndrome is disproportionately more severe than suggested by the reduced platelet count and is explained by a defect in primary hemostasis owing to the absence of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V membrane receptor. However, the molecular basis for the giant platelet phenotype and thrombocytopenia have remained unresolved but assumed to be linked to an absent receptor complex. We have disrupted the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of mouse GP Ib-IX-V (GP Ibalpha) and describe a murine model recapitulating the hallmark characteristics of the human Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The results demonstrate a direct link between expression of a GP Ib-IX-V complex and normal megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet morphogenesis. Moreover, using transgenic technology the murine Bernard-Soulier phenotype was rescued by expression of a human GP Ibalpha subunit on the surface of circulating mouse platelets. Thus, an in vivo model is defined for analysis of the human GP Ib-IX-V receptor and its role in the processes performed exclusively by megakaryocytes and platelets.
Project description:Platelet glycoprotein GPIbα mutations are the basic defect behind Bernard-Soulier syndrome, a rare inherited macrothrombocytopenia characterized by anomalies of the GPIbα, GPIbβ and GPIX subunits of von Willebrand factor receptor. A 32-year old man was investigated for suspected Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Ristocetin induced agglutination was absent. Flow cytometry and Western blot analysis showed a severe reduction in GPIbα, but sequencing revealed only a biallelic c.386A>G substitution, theoretically leading to a p.Asn110Glu variation. To further clarify the data, megakaryocyte cultures were set. Though the maturation of megakaryocytes was normal, proplatelet formation was defective and GPIbα mRNA was not detectable. GPIX protein was slightly reduced and GPIbβ polypeptide almost absent. Computational analysis showed that the c.386A>G mutation disrupted an exon splicing enhancer motif involved in the proper maturation of the GPIbα transcript. The c.386A>G mutation suggests a unique mutational mechanism causing the virtual absence of GPIbα without creating a stop codon.
Project description:We need to be aware of rare causes of persistent thrombocytopenia as Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS). When BSS is suspected based on family history and giant platelets, genetic test for mutations of GPIbIXV is necessary. Management varies once you recognize the cause. Platelets transfusion and antifibrinolytics are the mainstay of therapy.
Project description:Essentials How thrombocytopenia relates to bleeding in 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is not clear. Bleeding severity, platelet count and volume, and GPIBB were examined in patients with 22q11DS. Macrothrombocytopenia and bleeding typified imperfectly overlapping subsets of 22q11DS patients. GPIBB hemizygosity does not cause macrothrombocytopenia or bleeding in patients with 22q11DS. SUMMARY: Background and objectives Macrothrombocytopenia and bleeding are frequently associated with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). GPIBB, which encodes the glycoprotein (GP) Ib? subunit of GPIb-IX-V, is commonly deleted in patients with 22q11DS. Absence of functional GPIb-IX-V causes Bernard-Soulier syndrome, which is a severe bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia. Patients with 22q11DS are often obligate hemizygotes for GPIBB, and those with only a pathogenically disrupted copy of GPIBB present with Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine how GPIBB hemizygosity and sequence variation relate to macrothrombocytopenia and bleeding in patients with 22q11DS who do not have Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Patients/methods We thoroughly characterized bleeding severity, mean platelet volume, platelet count and GPIBB copy number and sequence in patients with 22q11DS. Results and conclusions Macrothrombocytopenia and mild bleeding were observed in incompletely overlapping subsets of patients, and GPIBB copy number and sequence variation did not correlate with either macrothrombocytopenia or bleeding in patients with 22q11DS. These findings indicate that GPIBB hemizygosity does not result in either macrothrombocytopenia or bleeding in these patients. Alternative genetic causes of macrothrombocytopenia, potential causes of acquired thrombocytopenia and bleeding and ways in which platelet size, platelet count and GPIBB sequence information can be used to aid in the diagnosis and management of patients with 22q11DS are discussed.
Project description:Deletions of 16p13.11 have been associated with a variety of phenotypes, and have also been found in normal individuals. We report on two unrelated patients with severe microcephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, scalp rugae, and a fetal brain disruption (FBD)-like phenotype with inherited deletions of 16p13.11. The first patient was subsequently found on whole exome sequencing to have a nonsense mutation (p.R44X) in NDE1 on the non-deleted chromosome 16 homolog. We then undertook copy number studies of 16p13.11 and sequencing of NDE1 in nine additional patients with a similar severe microcephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and FBD-like phenotype. The second patient was found to have an inherited deletion of the entire NDE1 gene combined with a frameshift mutation (c.1020-1021het_delGA) in the non-deleted NDE1. These observations broaden the phenotype seen in NDE1-related microcephaly to include FBD. These data also represent the second described syndrome, after Bernard-Soulier syndrome, where an autosomal recessive condition combines an inherited segmental duplication mediated deletion with a mutation in a gene within the non-deleted homolog. Finally, we performed informatics analysis of the 16p13.11 gene content, and found that there are many genes within the region with evidence for role(s) in brain development. Sequencing of other candidate genes in this region in patients with deletion 16p13.11 and more severe neurophenotypes may be warranted.
Project description:Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) is a rare bleeding disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by macrothrombocytopenia. We report the case of a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with BSS who is a fourth-generation Brazilian of Japanese descent and has a compound heterozygote mutation as the responsible gene. The compound heterozygosity would have occurred from the global and long-term racial migration that brought about an accidental encounter of two rare mutant alleles of different origins.
Project description:Inherited bleeding disorders including abnormalities of platelet number and function rarely occur in a variety of dog breeds, but are probably underdiagnosed. Genetically characterized canine forms of platelet disorders provide valuable large animal models for understanding similar platelet disorders in people. Breed-specific disease associated genetic variants in only eight different genes are known to cause intrinsic platelet disorders in dogs. However, the causative genetic variant in many dog breeds has until now remained unknown. Four cases of a mild to severe bleeding disorder in Cocker Spaniel dogs are herein presented. The affected dogs showed a platelet adhesion defect characterized by macrothrombocytopenia with variable platelet counts resembling human Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS). Furthermore, the lack of functional GPIb-IX-V was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog and visual inspection of the candidate genes identified a deletion in the glycoprotein IX platelet (GP9) gene. The GP9 gene encodes a subunit of a platelet surface membrane glycoprotein complex; this functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor, which initiates the maintenance of hemostasis after injury. Variants in human GP9 are associated with Bernard-Soulier syndrome, type C. The deletion spanned 2460 bp, and included a significant part of the single coding exon of the canine GP9 gene on dog chromosome 20. The variant results in a frameshift and premature stop codon which is predicted to truncate almost two-thirds of the encoded protein. PCR-based genotyping confirmed recessive inheritance. The homozygous variant genotype seen in affected dogs did not occur in 98 control Cocker Spaniels. Thus, it was concluded that the structural variant identified in the GP9 gene was most likely causative for the BSS-phenotype in the dogs examined. These findings provide the first large animal GP9 model for this group of inherited platelet disorders and greatly facilitate the diagnosis and identification of affected and/or normal carriers in Cocker Spaniels.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) is a severe congenital bleeding disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy and decreased platelet adhesion. BSS results from genetic alterations of the glycoprotein (GP) Ib/IX/V complex. METHODS: We report on a patient demonstrating typical BSS phenotype (thrombocytopenia with giant platelets, bleeding symptoms). However, BSS was not diagnosed until he reached the age of 39 years. RESULTS: Flow cytometry of the patient's platelets revealed absence of GPIb/IX/V receptor surface expression. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis of patient's platelets demonstrated very faint staining of GPIX. A novel homozygous deletion comprising 11 nucleotides starting at position 1644 of the GPIX gene was identified using molecular genetic analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The novel 11-nucleotide deletion (g.1644_1654del11) was identified as causing the bleeding disorder in the BSS patient. This homozygous deletion includes the last 4 nucleotides of the Kozak sequence as well as the start codon and the following 4 nucleotides of the coding sequence. The Kozak sequence is a region indispensable for the initiation of the protein translation process, thus preventing synthesis of functional GPIX protein in the case of deletion.
Project description:Blood platelets are produced by large bone marrow (BM) precursor cells, megakaryocytes (MKs), which extend cytoplasmic protrusions (proplatelets) into BM sinusoids. The molecular cues that control MK polarization towards sinusoids and limit transendothelial crossing to proplatelets remain unknown. Here, we show that the small GTPases Cdc42 and RhoA act as a regulatory circuit downstream of the MK-specific mechanoreceptor GPIb to coordinate polarized transendothelial platelet biogenesis. Functional deficiency of either GPIb or Cdc42 impairs transendothelial proplatelet formation. In the absence of RhoA, increased Cdc42 activity and MK hyperpolarization triggers GPIb-dependent transmigration of entire MKs into BM sinusoids. These findings position Cdc42 (go-signal) and RhoA (stop-signal) at the centre of a molecular checkpoint downstream of GPIb that controls transendothelial platelet biogenesis. Our results may open new avenues for the treatment of platelet production disorders and help to explain the thrombocytopenia in patients with Bernard-Soulier syndrome, a bleeding disorder caused by defects in GPIb-IX-V.