Pseudo five-component synthesis of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes via a one-pot Sonogashira-Glaser cyclization sequence.
ABSTRACT: Based upon a consecutive one-pot Sonogashira-Glaser coupling-cyclization sequence a variety of 2,5-di(hetero)arylthiophenes were synthesized in moderate to good yields. A single Pd/Cu-catalyst system, without further catalyst addition, and easily available, stable starting materials were used, resulting in a concise and highly efficient route for the synthesis of the title compounds. This novel pseudo five-component synthesis starting from iodo(hetero)arenes is particularly suitable as a direct access to well-defined thiophene oligomers, which are of peculiar interest in materials science.
Project description:2,5-Di(hetero)arylfurans are readily accessible in a pseudo five-component reaction via a Sonogashira-Glaser coupling sequence followed by a superbase-mediated (KOH/DMSO) cyclization in a consecutive one-pot fashion. Besides the straightforward synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules all representatives are particularly interesting due to their bright blue luminescence with remarkably high quantum yields. The electronic structure of the title compounds is additionally studied with DFT computations.
Project description:Transition metal-catalyzed enantioselective Sonogashira-type oxidative C(sp3)-C(sp) coupling of unactivated C(sp3)-H bonds with terminal alkynes has remained a prominent challenge. The difficulties mainly stem from the regiocontrol in unactivated C(sp3)-H bond functionalization and the inhibition of readily occurring Glaser homocoupling of terminal alkynes. Here, we report a copper/chiral cinchona alkaloid-based N,N,P-ligand catalyst for asymmetric oxidative cross-coupling of unactivated C(sp3)-H bonds with terminal alkynes in a highly regio-, chemo-, and enantioselective manner. The use of N-fluoroamide as a mild oxidant is essential to site-selectively generate alkyl radical species while efficiently avoiding Glaser homocoupling. This reaction accommodates a range of (hetero)aryl and alkyl alkynes; (hetero)benzylic and propargylic C(sp3)-H bonds are all applicable. This process allows expedient access to chiral alkynyl amides/aldehydes. More importantly, it also provides a versatile tool for the construction of chiral C(sp3)-C(sp), C(sp3)-C(sp2), and C(sp3)-C(sp3) bonds when allied with follow-up transformations.
Project description:A method for the radical chlorodifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes using chlorodifluoroacetic anhydride is reported. This operationally simple protocol proceeds under mild photochemical conditions with high functional group compatibility and complements the large body of literature for the trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes. Introduction of the chlorodifluoromethyl motif enables rapid diversification to a wide array of aromatic scaffolds. This work showcases the chlorodifluoromethyl group as an attractive entryway to otherwise synthetically challenging electron-rich difluoromethyl(hetero)arenes. Furthermore, facile conversion of the CF2Cl moiety into the corresponding aryl esters, gem-difluoroenones, and ?-keto-esters is demonstrated.
Project description:A Cu-catalyzed strategy has been developed that harnesses a radical relay mechanism to intercept a distal C-centered radical for C-C bond formation. This approach enables selective δ C-H (hetero)arylation of sulfonamides via intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) by an N-centered radical. The radical relay is both initiated and terminated by a Cu catalyst, which enables incorporation of arenes and heteroarenes by cross-coupling with boronic acids. The broad scope and utility of this catalytic method for δ C-H arylation is shown, along with mechanistic probes for selectivity of the HAT mechanism. A catalytic, asymmetric variant is also presented, as well as a method for accessing 1,1-diaryl-pyrrolidines via iterative δ C-H functionalizations.
Project description:DNA-encoded chemical library (DECL) screens are a rapid and economical tool to identify chemical starting points for drug discovery. As a robust transformation for drug discovery, palladium-catalyzed C-N coupling is a valuable synthetic method for the construction of DECL chemical matter; however, currently disclosed methods have only been demonstrated on DNA-attached (hetero)aromatic iodide and bromide electrophiles. We developed conditions utilizing an N-heterocyclic carbene-palladium catalyst that extends this reaction to the coupling of DNA-conjugated (hetero)aromatic chlorides with (hetero)aromatic and select aliphatic amine nucleophiles. In addition, we evaluated steric and electronic effects within this catalyst series, carried out a large substrate scope study on two representative (hetero)aryl bromides, and applied this newly developed method within the construction of a 63 million-membered DECL.
Project description:We developed a one-pot, two-stage synthetic route to substituted 4-aminoquinolines involving an imidoylative Sonogashira coupling followed by acid-mediated cyclization. This three-component reaction affords pharmaceutically valuable 4-aminoquinolines in a one-pot procedure from readily available starting materials. The reaction tolerates various substituents on the arene as well as the use of secondary and even primary isocyanides. Additionally, the wide tolerance for functionalized isocyanides allows for the one-pot synthesis of various substituted chloroquine analogues as well as other medicinally relevant products.
Project description:A short and robust approach for the synthesis of 2-(hetero)aryl substituted thieno[2,3-b]indoles from easily available 1-alkylisatins and acetylated (hetero)arenes has been advanced. The two-step procedure includes the "aldol-crotonic" type of condensation of the starting materials, followed by treatment of the intermediate 3-(2-oxo-2-(hetero)arylethylidene)indolin-2-ones with Lawesson's reagent. The latter process involves two sequential reactions, namely reduction of the C=C ethylidene double bond of the intermediate indolin-2-ones followed by the Paal-Knorr cyclization, thus affording tricyclic thieno[2,3-b]indoles.
Project description:The efficient preparation of protein bioconjugates represents a route to novel materials, diagnostics, and therapeutics. We previously reported a novel bioorthogonal Glaser-Hay reaction for the preparation of covalent linkages between proteins and a reaction partner; however, deleterious protein degradation was observed under extended reaction conditions. Herein, we describe the systematic optimization of the reaction to increase coupling efficiency and decrease protein degradation. Two optimized conditions were identified varying either the pH of the reaction or the bidentate ligand employed, allowing for more rapid conjugations and/or less protein oxidation.
Project description:The Glaser-Hay bioconjugation has recently emerged as an efficient and attractive method to generate stable, useful bioconjugates with numerous applications, specifically in the field of therapeutics. Herein, we investigate the mechanism of the aqueous Glaser-Hay coupling to better understand optimization strategies. In doing so, it was identified that catalase is able to minimize protein oxidation and improve coupling efficiency, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide is produced during the aqueous Glaser-Hay bioconjugation. Further, several new ligands were investigated to minimize protein oxidation and maximize coupling efficiency. Finally, two novel strategies to streamline the Glaser-Hay bioconjugation and eliminate the need for secondary purification have been developed.
Project description:A new catalyst that derives from commercially available precursors for copper-free, Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira reactions at the sustainable ppm level of precious metal palladium under mild aqueous micellar conditions has been developed. Both the palladium pre-catalyst and ligand are commercially available, bench stable, and highly cost-effective. The catalyst is applicable to both aryl- and heteroaryl-bromides as educts. A wide range of functional groups are tolerated and the aqueous reaction medium can be recycled. An application to a key intermediate associated with an active pharmaceutical ingredient (ponatinib) is discussed.