Changes in actin structural transitions associated with oxidative inhibition of muscle contraction.
ABSTRACT: We have used transient phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) to detect changes in actin structural dynamics associated with oxidative inhibition of muscle contraction. Contractility of skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers was inhibited by treatment with 50 mM H 2O 2, which induced oxidative modifications in the myosin head and in actin, as previously reported. Using proteins purified from oxidized and unoxidized muscle, we used TPA to measure the effects of weakly (+ATP) and strongly (no ATP) bound myosin heads (S1) on the microsecond dynamics of actin labeled at Cys374 with erythrosine iodoacetamide. Oxidative modification of S1 had no effect on actin dynamics in the absence of ATP (strong binding complex), but restricted the dynamics in the presence of ATP (weakly bound complex). In contrast, oxidative modification of actin did not have a significant effect on the weak-to-strong transitions. Thus, we concluded that (1) the effects of oxidation on the dynamics of actin in the actomyosin complex are predominantly determined by oxidation-induced changes in S1, and (2) changes in weak-to-strong structural transitions in actin and myosin are coupled to each other and are associated with oxidative inhibition of muscle contractility.
Project description:We have used a bifunctional spin label (BSL) to cross-link Cys(707) (SH1) and Cys(697) (SH2) in the catalytic domain of myosin subfragment 1 (S1). BSL induces the same weakened ATPase activity and actin-binding affinity that is observed when SH1 and SH2 are cross-linked with pPDM, which traps an analog of the post-hydrolysis state A.M.ADP.P. Electron paramagnetic resonance showed that BSL reports the global orientation and dynamics of S1. When bound to actin in oriented muscle fibers in the absence of ATP, BSL-S1 showed almost complete orientational disorder, as reported previously for the weakly bound A.M.ADP. In contrast, helical order is observed for the strongly bound state A.M. Saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance showed that the disorder of cross-linked S1 on actin is nearly static on the microsecond timescale, at least 30 times slower than that of A.M.ADP. We conclude that cross-linked S1 exhibits rotational disorder comparable to that of A.M.ADP, slow rotational mobility comparable to that of A.M, and intermediate actin affinity. These results support the hypothesis that the catalytic domain of myosin is orientationally disordered on actin in a post-hydrolysis state in the early stages of force generation.
Project description:In the catalytic cycle of skeletal muscle, myosin alternates between strongly and weakly bound cross-bridges, with the latter contributing little to sustained tension. Here we describe the action of DMSO, an organic solvent that appears to increase the population of weakly bound cross-bridges that accumulate after the binding of ATP, but before P(i) release. DMSO (5-30%, v/v) reversibly inhibits tension and ATP hydrolysis in vertebrate skeletal muscle myofibrils, and decreases the speed of unregulated F-actin in an in vitro motility assay with heavy meromyosin. In solution, controls for enzyme activity and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) in the presence of different cations indicate that structural changes attributable to DMSO are small and reversible, and do not involve unfolding. Since DMSO depresses S1 and acto-S1 MgATPase activities in the same proportions, without altering acto-S1 affinity, the principal DMSO target apparently lies within the catalytic cycle rather than with actin-myosin binding. Inhibition by DMSO in myofibrils is the same in the presence or the absence of Ca(2+) and regulatory proteins, in contrast with the effects of ethylene glycol, and the Ca(2+) sensitivity of isometric tension is slightly decreased by DMSO. The apparent affinity for P(i) is enhanced markedly by DMSO (and to a lesser extent by ethylene glycol) in skinned fibres, suggesting that DMSO stabilizes cross-bridges that have ADP.P(i) or ATP bound to them.
Project description:We used transient phosphorescence anisotropy to detect the microsecond rotational dynamics of erythrosin-iodoacetamide-labeled actin strongly bound to single-headed fragments of muscle myosin subfragment 1 (S1) and non-muscle myosin V (MV). The conformational dynamics of actin filaments in solution are markedly influenced by the isoform of bound myosin. Both myosins increase the final anisotropy of actin at substoichiometric binding densities, indicating long-range, non-nearest neighbor cooperative restriction of filament rotational dynamics amplitude, but the cooperative unit is larger with MV than with muscle S1. Both myosin isoforms also cooperatively affect the actin filament rotational correlation time, but with opposite effects: muscle S1 decreases rates of intrafilament torsional motion, while binding of MV increases the rates of motion. The cooperative effects on the rates of intrafilament motions correlate with the kinetics of myosin binding to actin filaments such that MV binds more rapidly and muscle myosin binds more slowly to partially decorated filaments than to bare filaments. The two isoforms also differ in their effects on the phosphorescence lifetime of the actin-bound erythrosin iodoacetamide: while muscle S1 increases the lifetime, suggesting decreased aqueous exposure of the probe, MV does not induce a significant change. We conclude that the dynamics and structure of actin in the strongly bound actomyosin complex are determined by the isoform of the bound myosin in a manner likely to accommodate the diverse functional roles of actomyosin in muscle and non-muscle cells.
Project description:The Mus musculus myosin-18A gene is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms, ? and ?, with reported roles in Golgi localization, in maintenance of cytoskeleton, and as receptors for immunological surfactant proteins. Both myosin-18A isoforms feature a myosin motor domain, a single predicted IQ motif, and a long coiled-coil reminiscent of myosin-2. The myosin-18A? isoform, additionally, has an N-terminal PDZ domain. Recombinant heavy meromyosin- and subfragment-1 (S1)-like constructs for both myosin-18A? and -18? species were purified from the baculovirus/Sf9 cell expression system. These constructs bound both essential and regulatory light chains, indicating an additional noncanonical light chain binding site in the neck. Myosin-18A?-S1 and -18A?-S1 molecules bound actin weakly with Kd values of 4.9 and 54 ?m, respectively. The actin binding data could be modeled by assuming an equilibrium between two myosin conformations, a competent and an incompetent form to bind actin. Actin binding was unchanged by presence of nucleotide. Both myosin-18A isoforms bound N-methylanthraniloyl-nucleotides, but the rate of ATP hydrolysis was very slow (<0.002 s(-1)) and not significantly enhanced by actin. Phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain had no effect on ATP hydrolysis, and neither did the addition of tropomyosin or of GOLPH3, a myosin-18A binding partner. Electron microscopy of myosin-18A-S1 showed that the lever is strongly angled with respect to the long axis of the motor domain, suggesting a pre-power stroke conformation regardless of the presence of ATP. These data lead us to conclude that myosin-18A does not operate as a traditional molecular motor in cells.
Project description:In order to understand the mechanism of muscle contraction at the atomic level, it is necessary to understand how myosin binds to actin in a reversible way. We have used a novel molecular dynamics technique constrained by an EM map of the actin-myosin complex at 13-A resolution to obtain an atomic model of the strong-binding (rigor) actin-myosin interface. The constraining force resulting from the EM map during the molecular dynamics simulation was sufficient to convert the myosin head from the initial weak-binding state to the strong-binding (rigor) state. Our actin-myosin model suggests extensive contacts between actin and the myosin head (S1). S1 binds to two actin monomers. The contact surface between actin and S1 has increased dramatically compared with previous models. A number of loops in S1 and actin are involved in establishing the interface. Our model also suggests how the loop carrying the critical Arg 405 Glu mutation in S1 found in a familial cardiomyopathy might be functionally involved.
Project description:We have trapped the catalytic domain of Dictyostelium (Dicty) myosin II in a weak actin-binding conformation by chemically crosslinking two engineered cysteines across the actin-binding cleft, using a bifunctional spin label (BSL). By connecting the lower and upper 50 kDa domains of myosin, the crosslink restricts the conformation of the actin-binding cleft. Crosslinking has no effect on the basal ATPase activity of isolated myosin, but it impairs rigor actin binding and actin-activation of myosin ATPase. EPR spectra of BSL provide insight into actomyosin structural dynamics. BSL is highly immobilized within the actin-binding cleft and is thus exquisitely sensitive to the global orientation and rotational motions of the myosin head. Conventional EPR shows that myosin heads bound to oriented actin filaments are highly disordered with respect to the actin filament axis, in contrast to the nearly crystalline order of myosin heads in rigor. This disorder is similar to that of weakly bound heads induced by ATP, but saturation transfer EPR shows that the disorder of crosslinked myosin is at least 100 times slower. Thus this cleft-crosslinked myosin is remarkably similar, in both actin affinity and rotational dynamics, to SH1-SH2 crosslinked BSL-myosin S1. We conclude that, whether myosin is trapped at the actin-myosin interface or in the force-generating region between the active site and lever arm, the structural state of myosin is intermediate between the weak-binding state preceding phosphate release and the strong-binding state that succeeds it. We propose that it represents the threshold of force generation.
Project description:The myosin isoform composition of the heart is dynamic in health and disease and has been shown to affect contractile velocity and force generation. While different mammalian species express different proportions of ? and ? myosin heavy chain, healthy human heart ventricles express these isoforms in a ratio of about 1:9 (?:?) while failing human ventricles express no detectable ?-myosin. We report here fast-kinetic analysis of recombinant human ? and ? myosin heavy chain motor domains. This represents the first such analysis of any human muscle myosin motor and the first of ?-myosin from any species. Our findings reveal substantial isoform differences in individual kinetic parameters, overall contractile character, and predicted cycle times. For these parameters, ?-subfragment 1 (S1) is far more similar to adult fast skeletal muscle myosin isoforms than to the slow ? isoform despite 91% sequence identity between the motor domains of ?- and ?-myosin. Among the features that differentiate ?- from ?-S1: the ATP hydrolysis step of ?-S1 is ~ten-fold faster than ?-S1, ?-S1 exhibits ~five-fold weaker actin affinity than ?-S1, and actin·?-S1 exhibits rapid ADP release, which is >ten-fold faster than ADP release for ?-S1. Overall, the cycle times are ten-fold faster for ?-S1 but the portion of time each myosin spends tightly bound to actin (the duty ratio) is similar. Sequence analysis points to regions that might underlie the basis for this finding.
Project description:We have determined the effects of myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) and its domains on the microsecond rotational dynamics of actin, detected by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA). MyBP-C is a multidomain modulator of striated muscle contraction, interacting with myosin, titin, and possibly actin. Cardiac and slow skeletal MyBP-C are known substrates for protein kinase-A (PKA), and phosphorylation of the cardiac isoform alters contractile properties and myofilament structure. To determine the effects of MyBP-C on actin structural dynamics, we labeled actin at C374 with a phosphorescent dye and performed TPA experiments. The interaction of all three MyBP-C isoforms with actin increased the final anisotropy of the TPA decay, indicating restriction of the amplitude of actin torsional flexibility by 15-20° at saturation of the TPA effect. PKA phosphorylation of slow skeletal and cardiac MyBP-C relieved the restriction of torsional amplitude but also decreased the rate of torsional motion. In the case of fast skeletal MyBP-C, its effect on actin dynamics was unchanged by phosphorylation. The isolated C-terminal half of cardiac MyBP-C (C5-C10) had effects similar to those of the full-length protein, and it bound actin more tightly than the N-terminal half (C0-C4), which had smaller effects on actin dynamics that were independent of PKA phosphorylation. We propose that these MyBP-C-induced changes in actin dynamics play a role in the functional effects of MyBP-C on the actin-myosin interaction.
Project description:The binding of actin to myosin subfragment 1 (S1) has been shown to occur as a two-step reaction [Coates, Criddle & Geeves (1985) Biochem. J. 232, 351-356]. In the first step actin is weakly bound and the second step involves the complex isomerizing to a more tightly bound state. This isomerization can be followed specifically by monitoring the fluorescence of actin that has been covalently labelled with N-(pyren-1-yl)-iodoacetamide at Cys-374 [Geeves, Jeffries & Millar (1986) Biochemistry 25, 8454-8458]. We report here that the presence of nucleotides and nucleotide analogues affects the equilibrium between the strongly bound and weakly bound states (referred to as K2). In the presence of ATP, [gamma-thio]ATP or ADP and vanadate a value of approx. less than 10(-2) was estimated for K2. In the presence of PPi or ADP a value of approx. 2.3 or 10 respectively was obtained. An increase in KCl concentration or the presence of 40% ethylene glycol was found to decrease K2 in the presence of ADP. The data presented here are consistent with the two-step binding model proposed by Geeves, Goody & Gutfreund [(1984) J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 5, 351-361], where it was suggested that the transition between weakly bound and strongly bound states is closely associated with the force-generating event in whole muscle.
Project description:Calponin is a thin-filament-associated protein that has been implicated in the regulation of smooth-muscle contractility. It binds to F-actin and inhibits the MgATPase activity of actomyosin. In the present work we have examined the effect of recombinant chicken gizzard alpha-calponin (R alpha CaP) on the binding of rabbit skeletal-muscle myosin subfragment 1 (S1) to F-actin and on the inhibition of its actin-activated MgATPase. We have found that binding of one R alpha CaP molecule to every three to four actin monomers is sufficient for maximal inhibition of acto-S1 ATPase. At this R alpha CaP/actin ratio R alpha CaP does not interfere with S1 binding to F-actin. At higher concentrations, R alpha CaP displaces S1 from F-actin and a 1:1 R alpha CaP-actin monomer complex is formed. R alpha CaP is also able to displace troponin I from its complex with F-actin which may reflect the amino acid sequence similarity between R alpha CaP and troponin I in their actin-binding regions.