A troglomorphic spider from Java (Araneae, Ctenidae, Amauropelma).
ABSTRACT: A new troglomorphic spider from caves in Central Java, Indonesia, is described and placed in the ctenid genus Amauropelma Raven, Stumkat & Gray, until now containing only species from Queensland, Australia. Only juveniles and mature females of the new species are known. We give our reasons for placing the new species in Amauropelma, discuss conflicting characters, and make predictions about the morphology of the as yet undiscovered male that will test our taxonomic hypothesis. The description includes DNA barcode sequence data.
Project description:A new species of Harmonicon F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 (Araneae, Dipluridae) is described, from a medium-sized lateritic cave in Parauapebas, Pará, Brazil. The male holotype and only specimen known of H. cerberus sp. n. was found near the entrance of Pequiá cave. This taxon is the fourth species described and the southernmost record for the genus. The new species displays some troglomorphic characteristics, such as reduction and merging of the posterior median and both pairs of lateral eyes and pale yellow to light brown coloration. Both characters are diagnostic when compared to the normal separated eyes and reddish to dark brown of other Harmonicon species. Other diagnostic characteristics are isolated, long, rigid setae distal to the lyra and the shape of the copulatory bulb. This is the second troglomorphic mygalomorph species from Brazil and the first from the Amazonian region.
Project description:Seven new species of the spider genus Ochyrocera from cave areas in Floresta Nacional de Carajás (state of Pará, northern Brazil) are described: Ochyrocera varyssp. n., Ochyrocera atlachnachasp. n., Ochyrocera laracnasp. n., Ochyrocera aragoguesp. n., Ochyrocera misspidersp. n., Ochyrocera charlottesp. n., and Ochyrocera ungoliantsp. n. Two groups of the species are discussed, the quinquivittata group that include specimens with an apparently bifid retrolateral apophysis in the cymbium of the male palp and the arietina group, here proposed, that include those specimens with an entire cymbium, with no retrolateral apophysis, in the male palp. Although these species were abundant inside caves, the examined specimens do not have troglomorphic characteristics and can be classified as edaphic troglophile species, capable of completing its life cycle in soil, shallow subterranean habitats, or caves.
Project description:Three new species of the genus Plato from caves in the states of Pará and Minas Gerais, Brazil, are described. P. novalimasp. n., from Minas Gerais, is the first record of the genus in the southeastern region of Brazil. P. ferriferussp. n. and P. striatussp. n., from Carajás, Pará, north of Brazil, are also described. The former is an extremely abundant species, whereas the latter has only one known male specimen. Cuacubagen. n. is proposed and represented by two new species, C. marianasp. n. (type species) and C. morrodopilarsp. n., both from the state of Minas Gerais. Morphology of genitalia in Cuacubagen. n. is similar to other Theridiosomatidae genera and is herein discussed. None of the proposed species presents troglomorphic adaptations. They are widespread, abundant inside caves in different and large karst areas, and each genus prefers different lithologies.
Project description:The most highly troglomorphic Collembola of Southeast Asia, Coecobryasirindhornae sp. n., is described from a cave in Satun province, Thai Peninsula. It is characterised by its large size, extremely elongated antennae, relatively long legs and furca, reduced macrochaetotaxy, very long and slender claw, pointed tenent hair, four sublobal hairs on outer maxillary lobe, and the absence of eyes and pigmentation. A checklist of Thai Coecobrya species and a key to the troglomorphic species of Thailand are provided. Troglomorphy and conservation of cave habitats in the area are discussed.
Project description:We describe Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptopsmiersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptopsferrugineusmacrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil.
Project description:A new geophilomorph centipede, Geophilushadesi sp. n., is described from caves in the Velebit Mountain, central Croatia. Together with Geophiluspersephones Foddai & Minelli, 1999, described from Pierre Saint-Martin cave in France, they are the only two remarkably troglomorphic geophilomorphs hitherto known. The new species apparently belongs to a group of Geophilus species inhabiting mainly Western and Southern Europe, with a uniquely modified pretarsus in the second maxillae. Geophilushadesi sp. n. shows unusual traits, some of which commonly found in troglobitic arthropods, including exceptionally elongated antennae, trunk segments and leg claws. The species is described upon specimens found in two caves at a depth below -250 m. Another two specimens apparently belonging to the same species have been recorded in another deep vertical cave at -980 m and -1100 m. The latter represents the world's deepest record of Chilopoda as a whole.
Project description:The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011) and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM) and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR's) in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: Tayshaneta archambaultisp. n., Tayshaneta emeraldaesp. n., Tayshaneta fawcettisp. n., Tayshaneta grubbsisp. n., Tayshaneta madlasp. n., Tayshaneta oconnoraesp. n., Tayshaneta sandersisp. n., Tayshaneta sprouseisp. n., Tayshaneta vidriosp. n. and Tayshaneta whiteisp. n. The males for three species, Tayshaneta anopica (Gertsch, 1974), Tayshaneta devia (Gertsch, 1974) and Tayshaneta microps (Gertsch, 1974) are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974) and Tayshaneta uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974) are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling.
Project description:This study revises centipede fauna found in Brazilian caves, focusing on troglomorphic taxa and emphasizing conservation status. We present 563 centipede specimens from 274 caves across eleven Brazilian states. Of these, 22 records were derived from existing literature and 252 are newly collected. Specimens represent four orders, ten families, 18 genera, and 47 morphospecies. Together, the cave records represent 21 % of Brazil's centipede fauna. Scolopendromorpha was the most representative order (41 %), followed by Geophilomorpha (26 %), Scutigeromorpha (23 %), and Lithobiomorpha (10 %). Six species were found only in caves, with four considered troglobitic. The distribution of Cryptops iporangensis, the first Brazilian troglobitic centipede species to be discovered, was expanded to other three caves. Cryptops spelaeoraptor and Cryptops iporangensis are two troglobitic species considered Vulnerable and Endangered, respectively, according to the IUCN Red List. Main threats to Brazilian caves are mining, hydroelectric projects, water pollution, and unregulated tourism.
Project description:Hitherto, 24 species of the Glyphiulus javanicus group have been recorded, all endemic to Southeast Asia, including 14 in China. Nevertheless, this species group needs further exploration. In this context, four new species of this group are described, all collected from limestone caves in Southern China: G. calceussp. n., G. foetidussp. n., G. guangnanensissp. n., and G. impletussp. n. They can be separated easily from each other and other congeners by their carinotaxic formulae, the structures of male legs I, and the gonopods. Due to the absence of any troglomorphic traits in our specimens, they may be troglophilic only.
Project description:The troglomorphic harvestman Otilioleptes marcelae gen. nov., sp. nov. from the basaltic cave Doña Otilia, Payunia region, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is described. Its systematic affinities were studied through cladistic and Bayesian analyses that included representatives of Gonyleptoidea; it was determined to represent a new monotypic family, Otilioleptidae fam. nov., occupying a basal position within the clade Laminata. This species shows accentuated troglomorphic traits, typical for troglobitic harvestmen: elongated appendages, depigmentation, reduction of eyes and fading of scutal sulci. Additionally, it almost lacks sexual dimorphism, the distal portion of coxa IV is not completely fused to the stigmatic segment, and penis morphology is remarkably divergent with other Laminata; these features cannot be attributed to cave adaptation and may reflect early lineage divergence. Otilioleptes marcelae is the first troglobitic gonyleptoid known from a lava tube. The xeric environments around the cave (Patagonian ecoregion) and the paleoenvironmental history of the area suggest the relictual character of O. marcelae. Scattered evidence supports a long time evolutionary scenario and a presumable relationship with the Chilean opiliofauna (especially with genus Osornogyndes). A comparative overview of all known troglobitic gonyleptoids is provided. The urgent need to protect this new species and its unique cave environment is emphasized.