Targeted analysis of glycomics liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data.
ABSTRACT: Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is appropriate for all native and reductively aminated glycan classes. HILIC carries the advantage that retention times vary predictably according to oligosaccharide composition. Chromatographic conditions are compatible with sensitive and reproducible glycomics analysis of large numbers of samples. The data are extremely useful for quantitative profiling of glycans expressed in biological tissues. With these analytical developments, the rate-limiting factor for widespread use of HILIC LC/MS in glycomics is the analysis of the data. In order to eliminate this problem, a Java-based open source software tool, Manatee, was developed for targeted analysis of HILIC LC/MS glycan datasets. This tool uses user-defined lists of compositions that specify the glycan chemical space in a given biological context. The program accepts high-resolution LC/MS data using the public mzXML format and is capable of processing a large data file in a few minutes on a standard desktop computer. The program allows mining of HILIC LC/MS data with an output compatible with multivariate statistical analysis. It is envisaged that the Manatee tool will complement more computationally intensive LC/MS processing tools based on deconvolution and deisotoping of LC/MS data. The capabilities of the tool were demonstrated using a set of HILIC LC/MS data on organ-specific heparan sulfates.
Project description:Glycomics quintavariate-informed quantification (GlyQ-IQ) is a biologically guided glycomics analysis tool for identifying N-glycans in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data. Glycomics LC-MS data sets have convoluted extracted ion chromatograms that are challenging to deconvolve with existing software tools. LC deconvolution into constituent pieces is critical in glycomics data sets because chromatographic peaks correspond to different intact glycan structural isomers. The biological targeted analysis approach offers several key advantages to traditional LC-MS data processing. A priori glycan information about the individual target's elemental composition allows for improved sensitivity by utilizing the exact isotope profile information to focus chromatogram generation and LC peak fitting on the isotopic species having the highest intensity. Glycan target annotation utilizes glycan family relationships and in source fragmentation in addition to high specificity feature LC-MS detection to improve the specificity of the analysis. The GlyQ-IQ software was developed in this work and evaluated in the context of profiling the N-glycan compositions from human serum LC-MS data sets. A case study is presented to demonstrate how GlyQ-IQ identifies and removes confounding chromatographic peaks from high mannose glycan isomers from human blood serum. In addition, GlyQ-IQ was used to generate a broad human serum N-glycan profile from a high resolution nanoelectrospray-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nESI-LC-MS/MS) data set. A total of 156 glycan compositions and 640 glycan isomers were detected from a single sample. Over 99% of the GlyQ-IQ glycan-feature assignments passed manual validation and are backed with high-resolution mass spectra.
Project description:A key challenge to investigations into the functional roles of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in biological systems is the difficulty in achieving sensitive, stable, and reproducible mass spectrometric analysis. GAGs are linear carbohydrates with domains that vary in the extent of sulfation, acetylation, and uronic acid epimerization. It is of particular importance to determine spatial and temporal variations of GAG domain structures in biological tissues. In order to analyze GAGs from tissue, it is useful to couple MS with an on-line separation system. The purposes of the separation system are both to remove components that inhibit GAG ionization and to enable the analysis of very complex mixtures. This contribution presents amide-silica hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) in a chip-based format for LC/MS of heparin, heparan sulfate (HS) GAGs. The chip interface yields robust performance in the negative ion mode that is essential for GAGs and other acidic glycan classes while the built-in trapping cartridge reduces background from the biological tissue matrix. The HILIC chromatographic separation is based on a combination of the glycan chain lengths and the numbers of hydrophobic acetate (Ac) groups and acidic sulfate groups. In summary, chip based amide-HILIC LC/MS is an enabling technology for GAG glycomics profiling.
Project description:Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is currently considered to be a conventional glycomics analysis strategy due to the high sensitivity and ability to handle complex biological samples. Interpretation of LC/MS data is a major bottleneck in high-throughput glycomics LC/MS-based analysis. The complexity of LC/MS data associated with biological samples prompts the needs to develop computational tools capable of facilitating automated data annotation and quantitation.An LC/MS-based automated data annotation and quantitation software, MultiGlycan-ESI, was developed and utilized for glycan quantitation. Data generated by the software from LC/MS analysis of permethylated N-glycans derived from fetuin were initially validated by manual integration to assess the performance of the software. The performance of MultiGlycan-ESI was then assessed for the quantitation of permethylated fetuin N-glycans analyzed at different concentrations or spiked with permethylated N-glycans derived from human blood serum.The relative abundance differences between data generated by the software and those generated by manual integration were less than 5%, indicating the reliability of MultiGlycan-ESI in quantitation of permethylated glycans analyzed by LC/MS. Automated quantitation resulted in a linear relationship for all six N-glycans derived from 50 ng to 400 ng fetuin with correlation coefficients (R(2) ) greater than 0.93. Spiking of permethylated fetuin N-glycans at different concentrations in permethylated N-glycan samples derived from a 0.02 ?L of HBS also exhibited linear agreement with R(2) values greater than 0.9.With a variety of options, including mass accuracy, merged adducts, and filtering criteria, MultiGlycan-ESI allows automated annotation and quantitation of LC/ESI-MS N-glycan data. The software allows the reliable quantitation of glycan LC/MS data. The software is reliable for automated glycan quantitation, thus facilitating rapid and reliable high-throughput glycomics studies.
Project description:Glycosylation modifies the physicochemical properties and protein binding functions of glycoconjugates. These modifications are biosynthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus by a series of enzymatic transformations that are under complex control. As a result, mature glycans on a given site are heterogeneous mixtures of glycoforms. This gives rise to a spectrum of adhesive properties that strongly influences interactions with binding partners and resultant biological effects. In order to understand the roles glycosylation plays in normal and disease processes, efficient structural analysis tools are necessary. In the field of glycomics, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is used to profile the glycans present in a given sample. This technology enables comparison of glycan compositions and abundances among different biological samples, i.e. normal versus disease, normal versus mutant, etc. Manual analysis of the glycan profiling LC/MS data is extremely time-consuming and efficient software tools are needed to eliminate this bottleneck. In this work, we have developed a tool to computationally model LC/MS data to enable efficient profiling of glycans. Using LC/MS data deconvoluted by Decon2LS/DeconTools, we built a list of unique neutral masses corresponding to candidate glycan compositions summarized over their various charge states, adducts and range of elution times. Our work aims to provide confident identification of true compounds in complex data sets that are not amenable to manual interpretation. This capability is an essential part of glycomics work flows. We demonstrate this tool, GlycReSoft, using an LC/MS dataset on tissue derived heparan sulfate oligosaccharides. The software, code and a test data set are publically archived under an open source license.
Project description:Low molecular heparins (LMWHs) are structurally complex, heterogeneous, polydisperse, and highly negatively charged mixtures of polysaccharides. The direct characterization of LMWH is a major challenge for currently available analytical technologies. Electrospray ionization (ESI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful tool for the characterization complex biological samples in the fields of proteomics, metabolomics, and glycomics. LC-MS has been applied to the analysis of heparin oligosaccharides, separated by size exclusion, reversed phase ion-pairing chromatography, and chip-based amide hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). However, there have been limited applications of ESI-LC-MS for the direct characterization of intact LMWHs (top-down analysis) due to their structural complexity, low ionization efficiency, and sulfate loss. Here we present a simple and reliable HILIC-Fourier transform (FT)-ESI-MS platform to characterize and compare two currently marketed LMWH products using the top-down approach requiring no special sample preparation steps. This HILIC system relies on cross-linked diol rather than amide chemistry, affording highly resolved chromatographic separations using a relatively high percentage of acetonitrile in the mobile phase, resulting in stable and high efficiency ionization. Bioinformatics software (GlycReSoft 1.0) was used to automatically assign structures within 5-ppm mass accuracy.
Project description:The Human Proteome Organisation Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative recently coordinated a multi-institutional study that evaluated methodologies that are widely used for defining the N-glycan content in glycoproteins. The study convincingly endorsed mass spectrometry as the technique of choice for glycomic profiling in the discovery phase of diagnostic research. The present study reports the extension of the Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative's activities to an assessment of the methodologies currently used for O-glycan analysis. Three samples of IgA1 isolated from the serum of patients with multiple myeloma were distributed to 15 laboratories worldwide for O-glycomics analysis. A variety of mass spectrometric and chromatographic procedures representative of current methodologies were used. Similar to the previous N-glycan study, the results convincingly confirmed the pre-eminent performance of MS for O-glycan profiling. Two general strategies were found to give the most reliable data, namely direct MS analysis of mixtures of permethylated reduced glycans in the positive ion mode and analysis of native reduced glycans in the negative ion mode using LC-MS approaches. In addition, mass spectrometric methodologies to analyze O-glycopeptides were also successful.
Project description:The occurrence of numerous structural isomers in glycans from biological sources presents a severe challenge for structural glycomics. The subtle differences among isomeric structures demand analytical methods that can provide structural details while working efficiently with on-line glycan separation methods. Although liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a powerful tool for mixture analysis, the commonly utilized collision-induced dissociation (CID) method often does not generate a sufficient number of fragments at the MS2 level for comprehensive structural characterization. Here, we studied the electronic excitation dissociation (EED) behaviors of metal-adducted, permethylated glycans, and identified key spectral features that could facilitate both topology and linkage determinations. We developed an EED-based, nanoscale, reversed phase (RP)LC-MS/MS platform, and demonstrated its ability to achieve complete structural elucidation of up to five structural isomers in a single LC-MS/MS analysis. Graphical Abstract.
Project description:In this work, the capability of newly developed hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) platform for quantitative analysis of N-glycans has been demonstrated. As a proof-of-principle experiment, heavy and light stable-isotope labeled hydrazide reagents labeled maltodextrin ladder were used to demonstrate the feasibility of the HILIC-MALDI-MSI platform for reliable quantitative analysis of N-glycans. MALDI-MSI analysis by an Orbitrap mass spectrometer enabled high-resolution and high-sensitivity detection of N-glycans eluted from HILIC column, allowing the re-construction of LC chromatograms as well as accurate mass measurements for structural inference. MALDI-MSI analysis of the collected LC traces showed that the chromatographic resolution was preserved. The N-glycans released from human serum was used to demonstrate the utility of this novel platform in quantitative analysis of N-glycans from a complex sample. Benefiting from the minimized ion suppression provided by HILIC separation, comparison between MALDI-MS and the newly developed platform HILIC-MALDI-MSI revealed that HILIC-MALDI-MSI provided higher N-glycan coverage as well as better quantitation accuracy in the quantitative analysis of N-glycans released from human serum. Graphical abstract Reconstructed chromatograms based on HILIC-MALDI-MSI results of heavy and light labeled maltodextrin enabling quantitative glycan analysis.
Project description:Analysis of the glycosylation of proteins is a challenge that requires orthogonal methods to achieve separation of the diverse glycoforms. A combination of reversed phase chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC-MS/MS) is one of the most powerful tools for glycopeptide analysis. In this work, we developed and compared RP-LC and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) in nanoscale on a chip combined with MS/MS in order to separate glycoforms of two peptides obtained from the tryptic digest of hemopexin. We observed reduction of the retention time with decreasing polarity of glycans attached to the same peptide backbone in HILIC. The opposite effect was observed for RP-LC. The presence of sialic acids prolonged the retention of glycopeptides in both chromatographic modes. The nanoHILIC method provided higher selectivity based on the composition of glycan, compared to nanoRP-LC but a lower sensitivity. The nanoHILIC method was able to partially separate linkage isomers of fucose (core and outer arm) on bi-antennary glycoform of SWPAVGDCSSALR glycopeptide, which is beneficial in the elucidation of the structure of the fucosylated glycoforms.
Project description:The mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis of free polysaccharides and glycans released from proteins, lipids and proteoglycans increasingly relies on databases and software. Here, we review progress in the bioinformatics analysis of protein-released N- and O-linked glycans (N- and O-glycomics) and propose an e-infrastructure to overcome current deficits in data and experimental transparency. This workflow enables the standardized submission of MS-based glycomics information into the public repository UniCarb-DR. It implements the MIRAGE (Minimum Requirement for A Glycomics Experiment) reporting guidelines, storage of unprocessed MS data in the GlycoPOST repository and glycan structure registration using the GlyTouCan registry, thereby supporting the development and extension of a glycan structure knowledgebase.