Differential protein expression during aging in ventricular myocardium of Fischer 344 x Brown Norway hybrid rats.
ABSTRACT: The aging heart undergoes well characterized structural changes associated with functional decline, though the underlying mechanisms are not understood. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent ventricular myocardial protein expression was altered with age and which proteins underwent protein nitration. Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1 hybrid (FBN) rats of four age groups were used, 4, 12, 24, and 34 months. Differential protein expression was determined by 2-DE and proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Altered protein nitration with age was assessed by immunoblotting. Over 1000 protein spots per sample were detected, and 255 were found to be differentially expressed when all aged groups were compared to young rats (4 months) (p0.05). A strong positive correlation between differential protein expression and increasing age (p=0.03, R(2)=0.997) indicated a progressive, rather than abrupt, change with age. Of 46 differentially expressed proteins identified, seventeen have roles in apoptosis, ten in hypertrophy, seven in fibrosis, and three in diastolic dysfunction, aging-associated processes previously reported in both human and FBN rat heart. Protein expression alterations detected here could have beneficial effects on cardiac function; thus, our data indicate a largely adaptive change in protein expression during aging. In contrast, differential protein nitration increased abruptly, rather than progressively, at 24 months of age. Altogether, the results suggest that differential myocardial protein expression occurs in a progressive manner during aging, and that a proteomic-based approach is an effective method for the identification of potential therapeutic targets to mitigate aging-related myocardial dysfunction.
Project description:Aging increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Alterations in epicardial fat play an important pathophysiological role in coronary artery disease and hypertension. We investigated the impact of normal aging on obesity-related genes in epicardial fat. Sex-specific changes in obesity-related genes with aging in epicardial fat (EF) were determined in young (6 months) and old (30/36 months) female and male, Fischer 344 × Brown Norway hybrid (FBN) rats, using a rat obesity RT2 PCR Array. Circulating sex hormone levels, body and heart weights were determined. Statistical significance was determined using two-tailed Student's t test and Pearson's correlation. Our results revealed sex-specific differences in obesity-related genes with aging. Dramatic changes in the expression profile of obesity-related genes in EF with aging in female, but not in male, FBN rats were observed. The older (30 months) female rats had more significant variations in the abundance of obesity-related genes in the EF compared to that seen in younger female rats or both age groups in male rats. A correlation of changes in obesity-related genes in EF to heart weights was observed in female rats, but not in male rats with aging. No correlation was observed to circulating sex hormone levels. Our findings indicate a dysfunctional EF in female rats with aging compared to male rats. These findings, with further functional validation, might help explain the sex differences in cardiovascular risk and mortality associated with aging observed in humans.
Project description:Hypertension is a risk factor for premature death and roughly 50% of hypertensive patients are salt-sensitive. The incidence of salt-sensitive hypertension increases with age. However, the mechanisms of salt-sensitive hypertension are not well understood. We had demonstrated decreased renal sodium?hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) expression in old salt-resistant F344 rats. Based on those studies we hypothesized that NHERF1 expression is required for the development of some forms of salt-sensitive hypertension. To address this hypothesis, we measured blood pressure in NHERF1 expressing salt-sensitive 4-mo and 24-mo-old male and female Fischer Brown Norway (FBN) rats male and female 18-mo-old NHERF1 knock-out (NHERF1-/-) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates on C57BL/6J background after feeding high salt (8% NaCl) diet for 7 days. Our data demonstrate that 8% salt diet increased blood pressure in both male and female 24-mo-old FBN rats but not in 4-mo-old FBN rats and in 18-mo-old male and female WT mice but not in NHERF1-/- mice. Renal dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) expression was decreased in 24-mo-old rats, compared with 4-mo-old FBN rats. However, sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) expression increased in 24-mo-old FBN rats. In FBN rats, age had no effect on NaK ATPase ?1 and NKCC2 expression. By contrast, high salt diet increased the renal expressions of NKCC2, and NCC in 24-mo-old FBN rats. High salt diet also increased NKCC2 and NCC expression in WT mice but not NHERF1-/- mice. Our data suggest that renal NHERF1 expression confers salt sensitivity with aging, associated with increased expression of sodium transporters.
Project description:Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats.
Project description:The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that in vivo post-translational modifications in proteins, induced by the endogenously generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen molecules, can alter protein function and thereby have an effect on metabolic pathways during the aging process. Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT), the mitochondrial enzyme involved in the breakdown of ketone bodies in the extrahepatic tissues, was identified in rat heart to undergo age-associated increase in a novel, nitro-hydroxy, addition to tryptophan 372, located in close proximity ( approximately 10 A) of the enzyme active site. Between 4 and 24 months of age, the molar content of nitration was more than doubled while specific enzyme activity increased significantly. The amount of SCOT protein, however, remained unchanged. In vitro treatment of heart mitochondrial soluble proteins with relatively low concentrations of peroxynitrite enhanced the nitration as well as specific activity of SCOT. Results of this study identify tryptophan to be a specific target of nitration in vivo, for the first time. We hypothesize that increases in tryptophan nitration of SCOT and catalytic activity constitute a plausible mechanism for the age-related metabolic shift toward enhanced ketone body consumption as an alternative source of energy supply in the heart.
Project description:Survival after acute myocardial infarction is decreased in elderly patients. The enhanced rates of apoptosis in the aging heart exacerbate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. We have recently demonstrated that the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the most potent endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis, was decreased in aging rats' hearts. XIAP was balanced by two mitochondria proteins, Omi/HtrA2 and Smac/DIABLO. However, the implicative role of XIAP, Omi/HtrA2, and Smac/DIABLO to aging-related MI/R injury has not been previously investigated. In our study, male aging rats (20-24 months) or young adult rats (4-6 months) were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. MI/R-induced cardiac injury was enhanced in aging rats, as evidenced by aggravated cardiac dysfunction, enlarged infarct size, and increased myocardial apoptosis (TUNEL and caspase-3 activity). Then, the XIAP, Omi/HtrA2, and Smac/DIABLO protein and mRNA expression was detected. XIAP protein and mRNA expression was decreased in both aging hearts and aging hearts subjected to MI/R. Meanwhile, myocardial XIAP protein expression was correlated to cardiac function after MI/R. However, Omi/HtrA2, but not Smac/DIABLO, expression was increased in aging hearts. Moreover, the translocation of Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondria to cytosol was increased in both aging hearts and aging hearts subjected to MI/R. Treatment with ucf-101 (a novel and specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor) attenuated XIAP degradation and caspase-3 activity and exerted cardioprotective effects. Taken together, these results demonstrated that increased expression and leakage of Omi/HtrA2 enhanced MI/R injury in aging hearts via degrading XIAP and promoting myocardial apoptosis.
Project description:Arterial aging is a predominant risk factor for the onset of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Aging is associated with intravascular renin-angiotensin system activation, increased vascular stiffness, intima-media thickening, and a proinflammatory phenotype. Little is known about the influence of aldosterone on arterial aging. Hence, we hypothesized that aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation might contribute to and possibly accelerate the arterial aging process. We demonstrate increased MR expression in whole aortae and early passage aortic vascular smooth muscle cells from aged (30 months) compared with adult (8 months) F344XBN rats. Sensitivity to aldosterone-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity is increased in aged cells. MR blockade and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition prevent age-associated increases of transforming growth factor-beta, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and procollagen 1. Aldosterone increases expression of proinflammatory marker proteins, shifting the phenotype of adult vascular smooth muscle cells toward the proinflammatory phenotype of aged rats. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression is increased with age and by aldosterone, and inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase decreases age-associated proinflammatory marker expression. Our data support the hypothesis that increased constitutive MR signaling may promote and amplify age-associated inflammation that accompanies arterial aging through increased angiotensin II-stimulated expression of MR and enhanced sensitivity to aldosterone-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation, likely related to increased epidermal growth factor receptor expression.
Project description:The presence of novel or degraded communication sounds likely results in activation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons increasing release of ACh onto presynaptic and postsynaptic nAChRs in primary auditory cortex (A1). nAChR subtypes include high-affinity heteromeric nAChRs commonly composed of ?4 and ?2 subunits and low-affinity homomeric nAChRs composed of ?7 subunits. In young male FBN rats, we detail the following: (1) the distribution/expression of nAChR subunit transcripts in excitatory (VGluT1) and inhibitory (VGAT) neurons across A1 layers; (2) heteromeric nAChR binding across A1 layers; and (3) nAChR excitability in A1 layer (L) 5 cells. In aged rats, we detailed the impact of aging on A1 nAChR subunit expression across layers, heteromeric nAChR receptor binding, and nAChR excitability of A1 L5 cells. A majority of A1 cells coexpressed transcripts for ?2 and ?4 with or without ?7, while dispersed subpopulations expressed ?2 and ?7 or ?7 alone. nAChR subunit transcripts were expressed in young excitatory and inhibitory neurons across L2-L6. Transcript abundance varied across layers, and was highest for ?2 and ?4. Significant age-related decreases in nAChR subunit transcript expression (message) and receptor binding (protein) were observed in L2-6, most pronounced in infragranular layers. <i>In vitro</i> patch-clamp recordings from L5B pyramidal output neurons showed age-related nAChR subunit-selective reductions in postsynaptic responses to ACh. Age-related losses of nAChR subunits likely impact ways in which A1 neurons respond to ACh release. While the elderly require additional resources to disambiguate degraded speech codes, resources mediated by nAChRs may be compromised with aging.<b>SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT</b> When attention is required, cholinergic basal forebrain neurons may trigger increased release of ACh onto auditory neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Laminar and phenotypic differences in neuronal nAChR expression determine ways in which A1 neurons respond to release of ACh in challenging acoustic environments. This study detailed the distribution and expression of nAChR subunit transcript and protein across A1 layers in young and aged rats. Results showed a differential distribution of nAChR subunits across A1 layers. Age-related decreases in transcript/protein expression were reflected in age-related subunit specific functional loss of nAChR signaling to ACh application in A1 layer 5. Together, these findings could reflect the age-related decline in selective attention observed in the elderly.
Project description:Cyclosporin A (CsA) is known to preserve cardiac contractile function during endotoxemia, but the mechanism is unclear. Increased nitric oxide (NO) production and altered mitochondrial function are implicated as mechanisms contributing to sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, and CsA has the capacity to reduce NO production and inhibit mitochondrial dysfunction relating to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT).We hypothesized that CsA would protect against endotoxin-mediated cardiac contractile dysfunction by attenuating NO production and preserving mitochondrial function.Left ventricular function was measured continuously over 4 h in cats assigned as follows: control animals (n = 7); LPS alone (3 mg/kg, n = 8); and CsA (6 mg/kg, n = 7), a calcineurin inhibitor that blocks the MPT, or tacrolimus (FK506, 0.1 mg/kg, n = 7), a calcineurin inhibitor lacking MPT activity, followed in 30 min by LPS. Myocardial tissue was then analyzed for NO synthase-2 expression, tissue nitration, protein carbonylation, and mitochondrial morphology and function.LPS treatment resulted in impaired left ventricular contractility, altered mitochondrial morphology and function, and increased protein nitration. As hypothesized, CsA pretreatment normalized cardiac performance and mitochondrial respiration and reduced myocardial protein nitration. Unexpectedly, FK506 pretreatment had similar effects, normalizing both cardiac and mitochondrial parameters. However, CsA and FK506 pretreatments markedly increased protein carbonylation in the myocardium despite elevated manganese superoxide dismutase activity during endotoxemia.Our data indicate that calcineurin is a critical regulator of mitochondrial respiration, tissue nitration, protein carbonylation, and contractile function in the heart during acute endotoxemia.
Project description:Post-translational modifications of α-synuclein occur in the brain of patients affected by Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathies, as indicated by the accumulation of Lewy inclusions containing phosphorylated (at serine 129) and nitrated α-synuclein. Here we found that phospho-Ser 129 and nitrated α-synuclein are also formed within dopaminergic neurons of the monkey substantia nigra as a result of normal aging. Dopaminergic cell bodies immunoreactive for phospho-Ser 129 and nitrated α-synuclein were rarely seen in adult mature animals but became significantly more frequent in the substantia nigra of old primates. Dual labeling with antibodies against phospho-Ser 129 and nitrated α-synuclein revealed only limited colocalization and mostly stained distinct sub-populations of dopaminergic neurons. Age-related elevations of modified protein paralleled an increase in the number of neurons immunoreactive for unmodified α-synuclein, supporting a relationship between higher levels of normal protein and enhanced phosphorylation/nitration. Other mechanisms were also identified that likely contribute to α-synuclein modifications. In particular, increased expression of Polo-like kinase 2 within neurons of older animals could contribute to phospho-Ser 129 α-synuclein production. Data also indicate that a pro-oxidant environment characterizes older neurons and favors α-synuclein nitration. Aging is an unequivocal risk factor for human α-synucleinopathies. These findings are consistent with a mechanistic link between aging, α-synuclein abnormalities and enhanced vulnerability to neurodegenerative processes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Despite major recent advances in the understanding of peroxisomal functions and how peroxisomes arise, only scant information is available regarding this organelle in cellular aging. The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in the protein expression profile of aged versus young liver and kidney peroxisome-enriched fractions from mouse and to suggest possible mechanisms underlying peroxisomal aging. Peroxisome-enriched fractions from 10 weeks, 18 months and 24 months C57bl/6J mice were analyzed by quantitative proteomics.<h4>Results</h4>Peroxisomal proteins were enriched by differential and density gradient centrifugation and proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), quantified and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). In total, sixty-five proteins were identified in both tissues. Among them, 14 proteins were differentially expressed in liver and 21 proteins in kidney. The eight proteins differentially expressed in both tissues were involved in beta-oxidation, alpha-oxidation, isoprenoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, and stress response. Quantitative proteomics, clustering methods, and prediction of transcription factors, all indicated that there is a decline in protein expression at 18 months and a recovery at 24 months.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results indicate that some peroxisomal proteins show a tissue-specific functional response to aging. This response is probably dependent on their differential regeneration capacity. The differentially expressed proteins could lead several cellular effects: such as alteration of fatty acid metabolism that could alert membrane protein functions, increase of the oxidative stress and contribute to decline in bile salt synthesis. The ability to detect age-related variations in the peroxisomal proteome can help in the search for reliable and valid aging biomarkers.