Cisplatin restores TRAIL apoptotic pathway in glioblastoma-derived stem cells through up-regulation of DR5 and down-regulation of c-FLIP.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma-derived stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for the cancer resistance to therapies. We show here that GSC-enriched neurospheres are resistant to the treatment of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) due to the insufficient expression of the death receptor DR4 and DR5 and the overexpression of cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1?-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). However, treatment with cisplatin leads to the upregulation of DR5 and downregulation of c-FLIP and restores TRAIL apoptotic pathway in the neurospheres. This study suggests that the combined treatment of TRAIL and cisplatin can induce apoptosis in GSCs and thus provide an effective treatment of glioblastomas.
Project description:Dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, is commonly used as immunosuppressive and chemotherapeutic agent. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of DEX on the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. We found that upregulation of c-FLIP(L) and downregulation of death receptor 5 (DR5; receptor for TRAIL ligand) contribute to the anti-apoptotic effect of DEX on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. DEX increased c-FLIP(L) expression at the transcriptional levels through the GSK-3? signaling pathway. The pharmacological inhibitor and catalytic mutant of GSK-3? suppressed DEX-induced upregulation of c-FLIP(L) expression. Furthermore, GSK-3? specific inhibitor markedly abolished DEX-mediated reduction of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human renal cancer cells (Caki-1 and A498), human lung cancer cells (A549), and human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB361). In addition, DEX decreased protein stability of DR5 via GSK-3?-mediated upregulation of Cbl, an E3 ligase of DR5. Knockdown of Cbl by siRNA markedly inhibited DEX-induced DR5 downregulation. Taken together, these results suggest that DEX inhibits TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via GSK-3?-mediated DR5 downregulation and c-FLIP(L) upregulation in cancer cells.
Project description:The small molecule 4EGI-1 was identified as an inhibitor of cap-dependent translation initiation owing to its disruption of the eIF4E/eIF4G association through binding to eIF4E. 4EGI-1 exhibits growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activity in cancer cells; thus, we were interested in its therapeutic efficacy in human lung cancer cells. 4EGI-1, as a single agent, inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells.When combined with the death ligand tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), enhanced apoptosis-induced activity was observed. As expected, 4EGI-1 inhibited eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and reduced the levels of cyclin D1 and hypoxia-inducing factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), both of which are regulated by a cap-dependent translation mechanism. Moreover, 4EGI-1 induced CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein-dependent DR5 expression and ubiquitin/proteasome- mediated degradation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). Small interfering RNA-mediated blockade of DR5 induction or enforced expression of c-FLIP abrogated 4EGI-1's ability to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating that both DR5 induction and c-FLIP down-regulation contribute to enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by 4EGI-1. However, inhibition of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction by knockdown of eIF4E effectively reduced the levels of cyclin D1 and HIF-1alpha but failed to induce DR5 expression, downregulate c-FLIP levels, or augment TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results collectively suggest that 4EGI-1 augments TRAIL-induced apoptosis through induction of DR5 and down-regulation of c-FLIP, independent of inhibition of cap-dependent protein translation.
Project description:Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene from rosmarinus officinalis, and has multiple functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activity. In this study, we examined whether carnosic acid could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We found that carnosic acid markedly induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (SK-HEP-1), and human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells, but not normal cells (TMCK-1 and HSF). Carnosic acid induced down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression at the post-translational levels, and the over-expression of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 markedly blocked carnosic acid-induced TRAIL sensitization. Furthermore, carnosic acid induced death receptor (DR)5, Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression at the transcriptional levels via CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). Down-regulation of CHOP expression by siRNA inhibited DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression, and attenuated carnosic acid plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that carnosic acid enhances sensitization against TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through the down-regulation of c-FLIP and Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulation of ER stress-mediated DR5, Bim, and PUMA expression at the transcriptional levels.
Project description:TRAIL?R2 (DR5), one of the death receptors, can activate the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, while cellular FLICE?inhibitory protein (c?FLIP) can inhibit this pathway. Both of them play important roles in the occurrence and development of most tumors. To date, there is no relevant report concerning the relationship between expression of DR5 and c?FLIP protein and clinicopathological/prognostic implications in patients with non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with surgical resection and chemotherapy. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential prognostic significance of DR5 and c?FLIP in NSCLC patients and their predictive roles in the chemotherapeutic response. In the present study, DR5 and c?FLIP were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue microarrays of NSCLC. The results showed that the expression levels of DR5 and c?FLIP were significantly higher in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) tissues compared with levels noted in the non?cancerous control lung tissues (all P<0.05). In addition, DR5 expression was significantly increased in lung ADC (P<0.001), whereas, c?FLIP was higher in lung SCC (P<0.001) and smoker patients with clinical stage III (P=0.019, P=0.016, respectively). In addition, NSCLC patients with overexpression of DR5 and loss of c?FLIP expression exhibited a higher overall survival (OS) rate as determined by Kaplan?Meier analysis (P=0.029, P=0.038, respectively). Multivariate analysis confirmed that high expression of DR5 and loss of c?FLIP expression were independent favorable prognostic factors for NSCLC patients (P=0.016, P=0.035, respectively). In conclusion, overexpression of DR5 and loss of c?FLIP expression may serve as novel favorable prognostic biomarkers for NSCLC patients treated with chemotherapy after radical resection and used as predictors for tumor response to chemotherapy drugs.
Project description:b-AP15 and its derivatives block proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity and have been developed and tested in the clinic as potential cancer therapeutic agents. b-AP15 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. The current study focuses on studying the modulatory effects of b-AP15 on death receptor 5 (DR5) levels and DR5 activation-induced apoptosis as well as on understanding the underlying mechanisms. Treatment with b-AP15 potently increased DR5 levels including cell surface DR5 in different cancer cell lines with limited or no effects on the levels of other related proteins including DR4, c-FLIP, FADD, and caspase-8. b-AP15 substantially slowed the degradation of DR5, suggesting that it stabilizes DR5. Moreover, b-AP15 effectively augmented apoptosis when combined with TRAIL or the DR5 agonistic antibody AMG655; these effects are DR5-dependent because DR5 deficiency abolished the ability of b-AP15 to enhance TRAIL- or AMG655-induced apoptosis. Therefore, it is clear that b-AP15, and possibly its derivatives, can stabilize DR5 and increase functional cell surface DR5 levels, resulting in enhancement of DR5 activation-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that b-AP15 and its derivatives may have potential in sensitizing cancer cells to DR5 activation-based cancer therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces tumour cell apoptosis by binding to death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5. DR4 and DR5 activation however can also induce inflammatory and pro-survival signalling. It is not known how these different cellular responses are regulated and what the individual role of DR4 vs DR5 is in these processes. METHODS: DNA microarray study was carried out to identify genes differentially expressed after DR4 and DR5 activation. RT-PCR and western blotting was used to examine the expression of early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) and the proteins of the TRAIL signalling pathway. The function of Egr-1 was studied by siRNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of a dominant-negative version of Egr-1. RESULTS: We show that the immediate early gene, Egr-1, regulates TRAIL sensitivity. Egr-1 is constitutively expressed in colon cancer cells and further induced upon activation of DR4 or DR5. Our results also show that DR4 mediates a type II, mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic pathway, whereas DR5 induces a mitochondrion-independent, type I apoptosis in HCT15 colon carcinoma cells. Egr-1 drives c-FLIP expression and the short splice variant of c-FLIP (c-FLIP(S)) specifically inhibits DR5 activation. CONCLUSION: Selective knockdown of c-FLIP(S) sensitises cells to DR5-induced but not DR4-induced apoptosis and Egr-1 exerts an effect as an inhibitor of the DR5-induced apoptotic pathway, possibly by regulating the expression of c-FLIP(S).
Project description:To explore the molecular mechanisms by which glioblastomas are resistant to tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), we examined TRAIL signalling pathways in the tumours. TRAIL has four membrane-anchored receptors, death receptor 4/5 (DR4/5) and decoy receptor 1/2 (DcR1/2). Of these receptors, only DR5 was expressed consistently in glioblastoma cell lines and tumour tissues, ruling out the role of DcR1/2 in TRAIL resistance. Upon TRAIL binding, DR5 was homotrimerized and recruited Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and caspase-8 for the assembly of death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) in the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane. In the DISC, caspase-8 was cleaved and initiated apoptosis by cleaving downstream caspases in TRAIL-sensitive glioblastoma cells. In TRAIL-resistant cells, however, DR5-mediated DISC was modified by receptor-interacting protein (RIP), cellular FADD-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes or in astrocyte-15 (PED/PEA-15). This DISC modification occurred in the non-raft fractions of the plasma membrane and resulted in the inhibition of caspase-8 cleavage and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Treatment of resistant cells with parthenolide, an inhibitor of inhibitor of kappaB (I-kappaB), eliminated TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB activity but not TRAIL resistance. In contrast, however, targeting of RIP, c-FLIP or PED/PEA-15 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to the redistribution of the DISC from non-rafts to lipid rafts and eliminated the inhibition of caspase-8 cleavage and thereby TRAIL resistance. Taken together, this study indicates that the DISC modification by RIP, c-FLIP and PED/PEA-15 is the most upstream event in TRAIL resistance in glioblastomas.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells while sparing normal cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. Here, we report that paxilline, an indole alkaloid from Penicillium paxilli, can sensitize various glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. While treatment with TRAIL alone caused partial processing of caspase-3 to its p20 intermediate in TRAIL-resistant glioma cell lines, co-treatment with TRAIL and subtoxic doses of paxilline caused complete processing of caspase-3 into its active subunits. Paxilline treatment markedly upregulated DR5, a receptor of TRAIL, through a CHOP/GADD153-mediated process. In addition, paxilline treatment markedly downregulated the protein levels of the short form of the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPs) and the caspase inhibitor, survivin, through proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results show that paxilline effectively sensitizes glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by modulating multiple components of the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway. Interestingly, paxilline/TRAIL co-treatment did not induce apoptosis in normal astrocytes, nor did it affect the protein levels of CHOP, DR5 or survivin in these cells. Thus, combined treatment regimens involving paxilline and TRAIL may offer an attractive strategy for safely treating resistant gliomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HER3/ErbB3 receptor deletion or blockade leads to tumor cell apoptosis, whereas its overexpression confers anti-cancer drug resistance through upregulation of protective mechanisms against apoptosis. We produced the anti-HER3 antibody 9F7-F11 that promotes HER3 ubiquitination and degradation via JNK1/2-dependent activation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH, and that induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is a key regulator of apoptotic pathways. Here, we wanted to determine the mechanisms underlying the pro-apoptotic effect of 9F7-F11. METHODS:Anti-HER3 antibody-induced apoptosis was assessed by western blot, and by flow cytometry measurement of Annexin V/7-AAD-labelled tumor cells (BxPC3, MDA-MB-468 and DU145 cell lines). c-FLIP/ITCH interaction and subsequent degradation/ubiquitination were investigated by co-immunoprecipitation of ITCH-silenced vs scramble control cells. The relationship between ITCH-mediated c-FLIP degradation and antibody-induced apoptosis was examined by western blot and flow cytometry of tumor cells, after ITCH RNA interference or by pre-treatment with ITCH chemical inhibitor chlorimipramine (CI). RESULTS:Following incubation with 9F7-F11, cancer cell apoptosis occurs through activation of caspase-8, - 9 and - 3 and the subsequent cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Moreover we showed that ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP was mediated by USP8-regulated ITCH recruitment. This effect was abrogated by ITCH- and USP8-specific RNA interference (siRNA), or by the ITCH chemical inhibitor CI. Specifically, ITCH silencing or CI blocked 9F7-F11-induced caspase-8-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells, and restored c-FLIP expression. ITCH-silencing or CI concomitantly abrogated HER3-specific antibody-induced apoptosis of Annexin V/7-AAD-labelled BxPC3 cells. 9F7-F11 favored the extrinsic apoptosis pathway by inducing TRAIL-R2/DR5 upregulation and TRAIL expression that promoted the formation of death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), leading to caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. Incubation with 9F7-F11 also induced BID cleavage, BAX upregulation and BIM expression, which initiated the caspase-9/3-mediated mitochondrial death pathway. The anti-HER3 antibody pro-apoptotic effect occurred concomitantly with downregulation of the pro-survival proteins c-IAP2 and XIAP. CONCLUSIONS:The allosteric non-neuregulin competing modulator 9F7-F11, sensitizes tumor cells to DR5/caspase-8-mediated apoptosis through ITCH-dependent downregulation of c-FLIP.
Project description:Glutamine plays an important role in the metabolism of tumor cells through its contribution to redox homeostasis, bioenergetics, synthesis of macromolecules, and signaling. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are highly metastatic and associated with poor prognosis. TNBC cells show a marked dependence on extracellular glutamine for growth. Herein we demonstrate that TNBC cells are markedly sensitized to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis upon glutamine deprivation. Upregulation of pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2/DR5) and downregulation of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) are observed in glutamine-deprived TNBC cells. Activation of the amino-acid-sensing kinase general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) upon glutamine deprivation is responsible for TRAIL-R2 upregulation through a signaling pathway involving ATF4 and CHOP transcription factors. In contrast, FLIP downregulation in glutamine-deprived TNBC occurs by a GCN2-independent mechanism. Importantly, silencing FLIP expression by RNA interference results in a marked sensitization of TNBC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In addition, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of transaminases increases TRAIL-R2 expression and downregulates FLIP levels, sensitizing TNBC cells to TRAIL. Interestingly, treatment with L-asparaginase markedly sensitizes TNBC cells to TRAIL through its glutaminase activity. Overall, our findings suggest that targeting the glutamine addiction phenotype of TNBC can be regarded as a potential antitumoral target in combination with agonists of proapoptotic TRAIL receptors.