HIV-1 clinical isolates resistant to CCR5 antagonists exhibit delayed entry kinetics that are corrected in the presence of drug.
ABSTRACT: HIV CCR5 antagonists select for env gene mutations that enable virus entry via drug-bound coreceptor. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for viral adaptation to drug-bound coreceptor-mediated entry, we studied viral isolates from three participants who developed CCR5 antagonist resistance during treatment with vicriviroc (VCV), an investigational small-molecule CCR5 antagonist. VCV-sensitive and -resistant viruses were isolated from one HIV subtype C- and two subtype B-infected participants; VCV-resistant isolates had mutations in the V3 loop of gp120 and were cross-resistant to TAK-779, an investigational antagonist, and maraviroc (MVC). All three resistant isolates contained a 306P mutation but had variable mutations elsewhere in the V3 stem. We used a virus-cell β-lactamase (BlaM) fusion assay to determine the entry kinetics of recombinant viruses that incorporated full-length VCV-sensitive and -resistant envelopes. VCV-resistant isolates exhibited delayed entry rates in the absence of drug, relative to pretherapy VCV-sensitive isolates. The addition of drug corrected these delays. These findings were generalizable across target cell types with a range of CD4 and CCR5 surface densities and were observed when either population-derived or clonal envelopes were used to construct recombinant viruses. V3 loop mutations alone were sufficient to restore virus entry in the presence of drug, and the accumulation of V3 mutations during VCV therapy led to progressively higher rates of viral entry. We propose that the restoration of pre-CCR5 antagonist therapy HIV entry kinetics drives the selection of V3 loop mutations and may represent a common mechanism that underlies the emergence of CCR5 antagonist resistance.
Project description:Little is known about the in vivo development of resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CCR5 antagonists. We studied 29 subjects with virologic failure from a phase IIb study of the CCR5 antagonist vicriviroc (VCV) and identified one individual with HIV-1 subtype C who developed VCV resistance. Studies with chimeric envelopes demonstrated that changes within the V3 loop were sufficient to confer VCV resistance. Resistant virus showed VCV-enhanced replication, cross-resistance to another CCR5 antagonist, TAK779, and increased sensitivity to aminooxypentane-RANTES and the CCR5 monoclonal antibody HGS004. Pretreatment V3 loop sequences reemerged following VCV discontinuation, implying that VCV resistance has associated fitness costs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We previously reported vicriviroc (VCV) resistance in an HIV-infected subject and used deep sequencing and clonal analyses to track the evolution of V3 sequence forms over 28 weeks of therapy. Here, we test the contribution of gp120 mutations to CCR5 antagonist resistance and investigate why certain minority V3 variants emerged as the dominant species under drug pressure. METHODS:Nineteen site-directed HIV-1 mutants were generated that contained gp120 VCV resistance mutations. Viral sensitivities to VCV, maraviroc, TAK-779, and HGS004 were determined. RESULTS:Three patterns of susceptibilities were observed as follows: sigmoid inhibition curves with 50% inhibitory concentration similar to pretreatment virus [07J-week 0 (W0)], single mutants with decreased 50% inhibitory concentrations compared with 07J-W0, and mutants that contained ?5 of 7 VCV resistance mutations with flattened inhibition curves and decreased or negative percent maximal inhibition. Substitutions such as S306P, which sensitized virus to CCR5 antagonists when present as single mutations, were not detected in the baseline virus population but were necessary for maximal resistance when incorporated into V3 backbones that included preexisting VCV resistance mutations. CONCLUSIONS:CCR5 antagonist resistance was reproduced only when a majority of V3 mutations were present. Minority V3 loop variants may serve as a scaffold upon which additional mutations lead to complete VCV resistance.
Project description:We previously described an HIV-1-infected individual who developed resistance to vicriviroc (VCV), an investigational CCR5 antagonist, during 28 weeks of therapy (Tsibris AM et al., J. Virol. 82:8210-8214, 2008). To investigate the decay of VCV resistance mutations, a standard clonal analysis of full-length env (gp160) was performed on plasma HIV-1 samples obtained at week 28 (the time of VCV discontinuation) and at three subsequent time points (weeks 30, 42, and 48). During 132 days, VCV-resistant HIV-1 was replaced by VCV-sensitive viruses whose V3 loop sequences differed from the dominant pretreatment forms. A deep-sequencing analysis showed that the week 48 VCV-sensitive V3 loop form emerged from a preexisting viral variant. Enfuvirtide was added to the antiretroviral regimen at week 30; by week 48, enfuvirtide treatment selected for either the G36D or N43D HR-1 mutation. Growth competition experiments demonstrated that viruses incorporating the dominant week 28 VCV-resistant env were less fit than week 0 viruses in the absence of VCV but more fit than week 48 viruses. This week 48 fitness deficit persisted when G36D was corrected by either site-directed mutagenesis or week 48 gp41 domain swapping. The correction of N43D, in contrast, restored fitness relative to that of week 28, but not week 0, viruses. Virus entry kinetics correlated with observed fitness differences; the slower entry of enfuvirtide-resistant viruses corrected to wild-type rates in the presence of enfuvirtide. These findings suggest that while VCV and enfuvirtide select for resistance mutations in only one env subunit, gp120 and gp41 coevolve to maximize viral fitness under sequential drug selection pressures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Resistance to CCR5 inhibitors, such as maraviroc and vicriviroc is characterized by reduction of maximal percent inhibition which indicates the use of an inhibitor-bound conformation of CCR5 for human immunodeficiency virus-1(HIV-1) entry. It is accompanied by substitutions in gp120 and gp41. Variable domain 3 (V3) plays the most important role, but substitutions outside V3 could also be involved in phenotype resistance. In this work, we investigated how mutations in variable regions of the viral envelope protein gp120 can contribute to CCR5 inhibitor resistance. METHODS: Resistant isolates were selected by passaging CC1/85 and BaL viruses with sub-inhibitory MVC and VCV concentrations. Mutations in gp160 were identified and mutants containing V2 (V169M), V3 (L317W) and V4 (I408T) were constructed. RESULTS: MVC and VCV susceptibility and viral tropism were assessed by single cycle assay. Mutant I408T showed 4-fold change (FC) increase in the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to MVC, followed by L317W (1.52-FC), V169M (1.23-FC), V169M/I408T (4-FC) L317W/I408T (3-FC), V169M/L317W (1.30-FC), and V169M/L317W/I408T (3.31-FC). MPI reduction was observed for mutants I408T (85%), L317W (95%), V169M/I408T (84%), L317W/I408T (85%) and V169M/L317W/I408T (83%). For VCV, I408T increased the IC50 by 2-FC and few mutants showed MPI reduction less than 95%: I408T (94%), L317W/I408T (94%) and V169M/L317W/I408T (94%). All mutants remained R5-tropic and presented decreased infectivity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that mutations in the V4 loop of HIV-1 may contribute to MVC and VCV resistance alone or combined with mutations in V2 and V3 loops.
Project description:Vicriviroc (VCV) is a chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist with potent anti-HIV activity that currently is being evaluated in phase III clinical trials. In the present study, donor CCR5 density (CCR5 receptors/CD4 lymphocytes) inversely correlated with VCV antiviral activity (Spearman's correlation test; r = 0.746, P = 0.0034). Low doses of the transplant drug rapamycin (RAPA) reduced CCR5 density and enhanced VCV antiviral activity. In drug interaction studies, the RAPA/VCV combination had considerable antiviral synergy (combination indexes of 0.1-0.04) in both multicycle and single-cycle infection of lymphocytes. The synergy between RAPA and VCV translated into dose reduction indexes of 8- to 41-fold reductions for RAPA and 19- to 658-fold reductions for VCV. RAPA enhanced VCV antiviral activity against both B and non-B clade isolates, potently suppressing clade G viruses with reported reduced sensitivities to VCV and to the licensed CCR5 antagonist maraviroc. Importantly, RAPA reduction of CCR5 density in lymphocytes sensitized VCV-resistant strains to VCV, inhibiting virus production by approximately 90%. We further demonstrated the role of CCR5 density on VCV activity against resistant virus in donor lymphocytes and in cell lines expressing varying CCR5 densities. Together, these results suggest that low doses of RAPA may increase the durability of VCV-containing regimens in patients by enhancing VCV viral suppression, by allowing the use of lower doses of VCV with reduced potential for toxicity, and by controlling emerging VCV-resistant variants.
Project description:Maraviroc is a CCR5 antagonist in clinical development as one of a new class of antiretrovirals targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor binding. We investigated the mechanism of HIV resistance to maraviroc by using in vitro sequential passage and site-directed mutagenesis. Serial passage through increasing maraviroc concentrations failed to select maraviroc-resistant variants from some laboratory-adapted and clinical isolates of HIV-1. However, high-level resistance to maraviroc was selected from three of six primary isolates passaged in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The SF162 strain acquired resistance to maraviroc in both treated and control cultures; all resistant variants were able to use CXCR4 as a coreceptor. In contrast, maraviroc-resistant virus derived from isolates CC1/85 and RU570 remained CCR5 tropic, as evidenced by susceptibility to the CCR5 antagonist SCH-C, resistance to the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, and an inability to replicate in CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 PBL. Strain-specific mutations were identified in the V3 loop of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 and RU570. The envelope-encoding region of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 was inserted into an NL4-3 background. This recombinant virus was completely resistant to maraviroc but retained susceptibility to aplaviroc. Reverse mutation of gp120 residues 316 and 323 in the V3 loop (numbering from HXB2) to their original sequence restored wild-type susceptibility to maraviroc, while reversion of either mutation resulted in a partially sensitive virus with reduced maximal inhibition (plateau). The plateaus are consistent with the virus having acquired the ability to utilize maraviroc-bound receptor for entry. This hypothesis was further corroborated by the observation that a high concentration of maraviroc blocks the activity of aplaviroc against maraviroc-resistant virus.
Project description:Here, we describe the genetic pathways taken by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate, D101.12, to become resistant to the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, vicriviroc (VCV), in vitro. Resistant D101.12 variants contained at least one substitution in the gp120 V3 region (H308P), plus one of two patterns of gp41 sequence changes involving the fusion peptide (FP) and a downstream residue: G514V+V535M or M518V+F519L+V535M. Studies of Env-chimeric and point-substituted viruses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TZM-bl cells showed that resistance can arise from the cooperative action of gp120 and gp41 changes, while retaining CCR5 usage. Modeling the VCV inhibition data from the two cell types suggests that D101.12 discriminates between high- and low-VCV affinity forms of CCR5 less than D1/85.16, a resistant virus with three FP substitutions.
Project description:The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) V3 loop is essential for coreceptor binding and principally determines tropism for the CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors. Using the dual-tropic virus HIV-1(R3A), we previously made an extensive panel of V3 deletions and identified subdomains within V3 that could differentially mediate R5 and X4 tropism. A deletion of residues 9 to 12 on the N-terminal side of the V3 stem ablated X4 tropism while leaving R5 tropism intact. This mutation also resulted in complete resistance to several small-molecule CCR5 inhibitors. Here, we extend these studies to further characterize a variant of this mutant, Delta9-12a, adapted for growth in CCR5(+) SupT1 cells. Studies using coreceptor chimeras, monoclonal antibodies directed against the CCR5 amino terminus (NT) and extracellular loops, and CCR5 point mutants revealed that, relative to parental R3A, R5-tropic Delta9-12a was more dependent on the CCR5 NT, a region that contacts the gp120 bridging sheet and V3 base. Neutralization sensitivity assays showed that, compared to parental R3A, Delta9-12a was more sensitive to monoclonal antibodies b12, 4E10, and 2G12. Finally, cross-antagonism assays showed that Delta9-12a could use aplaviroc-bound CCR5 for entry. These studies indicate that increased dependence on the CCR5 NT represents a mechanism by which HIV envelopes acquire resistance to CCR5 antagonists and may have more general implications for mechanisms of drug resistance that arise in vivo. In addition, envelopes such as Delta9-12a may be useful for developing new entry inhibitors that target the interaction of gp120 and the CCR5 NT.
Project description:Maraviroc, an (HIV-1) entry inhibitor, binds to CCR5 and efficiently prevents R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from using CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry into CD4(+) cells. However, HIV-1 can elude maraviroc by using the drug-bound form of CCR5 as a coreceptor. This property is known as noncompetitive resistance. HIV-1(V3-M5) derived from HIV-1(JR-FLan) is a noncompetitive-resistant virus that contains five mutations (I304V/F312W/T314A/E317D/I318V) in the gp120 V3 loop alone. To obtain genetic and structural insights into maraviroc resistance in HIV-1, we performed here mutagenesis and computer-assisted structural study. A series of site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that combinations of V3 mutations are required for HIV-1(JR-FLan) to replicate in the presence of 1 µM maraviroc, and that a T199K mutation in the C2 region increases viral fitness in combination with V3 mutations. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of the gp120 outer domain V3 loop with or without the five mutations showed that the V3 mutations induced (i) changes in V3 configuration on the gp120 outer domain, (ii) reduction of an anti-parallel ?-sheet in the V3 stem region, (iii) reduction in fluctuations of the V3 tip and stem regions, and (iv) a shift of the fluctuation site at the V3 base region. These results suggest that the HIV-1 gp120 V3 mutations that confer maraviroc resistance alter structure and dynamics of the V3 loop on the gp120 outer domain, and enable interactions between gp120 and the drug-bound form of CCR5.
Project description:BMS-626529 is a novel small-molecule HIV-1 attachment inhibitor active against both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic viruses. BMS-626529 functions by preventing gp120 from binding to CD4. A prodrug of this compound, BMS-663068, is currently in clinical development. As a theoretical resistance pathway to BMS-663068 could be the development of a CD4-independent phenotype, we examined the activity of BMS-626529 against CD4-independent viruses and investigated whether resistance to BMS-626529 could be associated with a CD4-independent phenotype. Finally, we evaluated whether cross-resistance exists between BMS-626529 and other HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Two laboratory-derived envelopes with a CD4-independent phenotype (one CXCR4 tropic and one CCR5 tropic), five envelopes from clinical isolates with preexisting BMS-626529 resistance, and several site-specific mutant BMS-626529-resistant envelopes were examined for their dependence on CD4 for infectivity or susceptibility to BMS-626529. Viruses resistant to other entry inhibitors (enfuvirtide, maraviroc, and ibalizumab) were also examined for susceptibility to BMS-626529. Both CD4-independent laboratory isolates retained sensitivity to BMS-626529 in CD4(-) cells, while HIV-1 envelopes from viruses resistant to BMS-626529 exhibited no evidence of a CD4-independent phenotype. BMS-626529 also exhibited inhibitory activity against ibalizumab- and enfuvirtide-resistant envelopes. While there appeared to be some association between maraviroc resistance and reduced susceptibility to BMS-626529, an absolute correlation cannot be presumed, since some CCR5-tropic maraviroc-resistant envelopes remained sensitive to BMS-626529. Clinical use of the prodrug BMS-663068 is unlikely to promote resistance via generation of CD4-independent virus. No cross-resistance between BMS-626529 and other HIV entry inhibitors was observed, which could allow for sequential or concurrent use with different classes of entry inhibitors.