Duck Hepatitis A virus possesses a distinct type IV internal ribosome entry site element of picornavirus.
ABSTRACT: Sequence analysis of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) led to its classification as the only member of a new genus, Avihepatovirus, of the family Picornaviridae, and so was renamed duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV). The 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) plays an important role in translation initiation and RNA synthesis of the picornavirus. Here, we provide evidence that the 651-nucleotide (nt)-long 5' UTR of DHAV genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently in vitro and within BHK cells. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the 3' part of the DHAV 5' UTR is similar to the porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1) IRES in sequence and predicted secondary structure. Further mutational analyses of the predicted domain IIId, domain IIIe, and pseudoknot structure at the 3' end of the DHAV IRES support our predicted secondary structure. However, unlike the case for the PTV-1 IRES element, analysis of various deletion mutants demonstrated that the optimally functional DHAV IRES element with a size of approximately 420 nt is larger than that of PTV-1 and contains other peripheral domains (Id and Ie) that do not exist within the type IV IRES elements. The domain Ie, however, could be removed without significant loss of activity. Surprisingly, like the hepatitis A virus (HAV) IRES element, the activity of DHAV IRES could be eliminated by expression of enterovirus 2A protease. These findings indicate that the DHAV IRES shares common features with type IV picornavirus IRES elements, whereas it exhibits significant differences from type IV IRESs. Therefore, we propose that DHAV possesses a distinct type IV IRES element of picornavirus.
Project description:As a disease characterized by severe liver necrosis and hemorrhage, duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is mainly caused by duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV). The positive-strand RNA genome of DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element within the 5' untranslated region (UTR), structured sequence elements within the 3' UTR, and a poly(A) tail at the 3' terminus. In this study, we first examined that insulin-like growth factor-2 mRNA-binding protein-1 (IGF2BP1) specifically interacted with the DHAV-1 3' UTR by RNA pull-down assay. The interaction between IGF2BP1 and DHAV-1 3' UTR strongly enhanced IRES-mediated translation efficiency but failed to regulate DHAV-1 replication in a duck embryo epithelial (DEE) cell line. The viral propagation of DHAV-1 strongly enhanced IGF2BP1 expression level, and viral protein accumulation was identified as the key point to this increment. Collectively, our data demonstrated the positive role of IGF2BP1 in DHAV-1 viral proteins translation and provided data support for the replication mechanism of DHAV-1.
Project description:The duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is a member of Picornaviridae family, the genome of the virus contains a 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), a large open reading frame that encodes a polyprotein precursor and a 3' UTR followed by a poly(A) tail. The translation initiation of virus proteins depends on the internal ribosome-entry site (IRES) element within the 5' UTR. So far, little information is known about the role of the 3' UTR and poly(A) tail during the virus proliferation. In this study, the function of the 3' UTR and poly(A) tail of DHAV-1 in viral replication and IRES-mediated translation was investigated. The results showed that both 3' UTR and poly(A) tail are important for maintaining viral genome RNA stability and viral genome replication. During DHAV-1 proliferation, at least 20 adenines were required for the optimal genome replication and the virus replication could be severely impaired when the poly (A) tail was curtailed to 10 adenines. In addition to facilitating viral genome replication, the presence of 3' UTR and poly(A) tail significantly enhance IRES-mediated translation efficiency. Furthermore, 3' UTR or poly(A) tail could function as an individual element to enhance the DHAV-1 IRES-mediated translation, during which process, the 3' UTR exerts a greater initiation efficiency than the poly(A)25 tail.
Project description:Duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) is a worldwide distributed picornavirus that causes acute and fatal disease in young ducklings. Recently, the complete genome of DHV-1 has been determined and comparative sequence analysis has shown that possesses the typical picornavirus organization but exhibits several unique features. For the first time, we provide evidence that the 626-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of the DHV-1 genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently both in vitro and in mammalian cells. The prediction of the secondary structure of the DHV-1 IRES shows significant similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES. Moreover, similarly to HCV IRES, DHV-1 IRES can direct translation initiation in the absence of a functional eIF4F complex. We also demonstrate that the activity of the DHV-1 IRES is modulated by a viral coding sequence located downstream of the DHV-1 5'-UTR, which enhances DHV-1 IRES activity both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, mutational analysis of the predicted pseudo-knot structures at the 3'-end of the putative DHV-1 IRES supported the presence of conserved domains II and III and, as it has been previously described for other picornaviruses, these structures are essential for keeping the normal internal initiation of translation of DHV-1.
Project description:Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) is a picornavirus that causes disease in poultry worldwide, and flocks must be vaccinated for protection. AEV is currently classified within the hepatovirus genus, since its proteins are most closely related to those of hepatitis A virus (HAV). We now provide evidence that the 494-nucleotide-long 5' untranslated region of the AEV genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently in vitro and in mammalian cells. Unlike the HAV IRES, the AEV IRES is relatively short and functions in the presence of cleaved eIF4G and it is also resistant to an inhibitor of eIF4A. These properties are reminiscent of the recently discovered class of IRES elements within certain other picornaviruses, such as porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1). Like the PTV-1 IRES, the AEV IRES shows significant similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES in sequence, function, and predicted secondary structure. Furthermore, mutational analysis of the predicted pseudoknot structure at the 3' end of the AEV IRES lends support to the secondary structure we present. AEV is therefore another example of a picornavirus harboring an HCV-like IRES element within its genome, and thus, its classification within the hepatovirus genus may need to be reassessed in light of these findings.
Project description:The teschoviruses constitute a recently defined picornavirus genus. Most of the genome sequence of the porcine teschovirus-1 (PTV) Talfan and several other strains is known. We now demonstrate that initiation of protein synthesis occurs at nucleotide (nt) 412 on the PTV Talfan RNA and that nt 1 to 405 contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that functions efficiently in vitro and within mammalian cells. In comparison with other picornavirus IRES elements, the PTV IRES is relatively short and lacks a significant polypyrimidine tract near the 3' end. Expression of an enterovirus 2A protease, which induces cleavage of eIF4G within the translation initiation complex eIF4F, has little effect on the PTV IRES activity within BHK cells. The PTV IRES has a unique set of properties and represents a new class of picornavirus IRES element.
Project description:The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is quite distinct from other well-characterized picornavirus IRES elements, but it displays functional similarities to the IRES from hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. In particular, a dominant negative mutant form of eIF4A does not inhibit the activity of the PTV-1 IRES. Furthermore, there is a high level (ca. 50%) of identity between the PTV-1 and HCV IRES sequences. A secondary-structure model of the whole PTV-1 IRES has been derived which includes a pseudoknot. Validation of specific features within the model has been achieved by mutagenesis and functional assays. The differences and similarities between the PTV-1 and HCV IRES elements should assist in defining the critical features of this type of IRES.
Project description:As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1) containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1) and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3) between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as 3 days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as 1 week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3.
Project description:We report here the complete genomic sequence of a novel duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) isolated from mixed infections with DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) and DHAV-3 in ducklings in Southern China. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homology with the sequence of DHAV-3 (GenBank accession number DQ812093) (96.2%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of gene rearrangement between DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and it will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of duck hepatitis A virus in Southern China.
Project description:The 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5' UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5' UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently.
Project description:This study reports the metagenomic detection and complete genome characterization of a novel turkey picornavirus from faecal samples of healthy (1/3) and affected (6/8) commercial turkeys with enteric and/or stunting syndrome in Hungary. The virus was detected at seven of the eight farms examined. The turkey/M176-TuASV/2011/HUN genome (KC465954) was genetically different from the currently known picornaviruses of turkey origin (megriviruses and galliviruses), and showed distant phylogenetic relationship and common genomic features (e.g. uncleaved VP0 and three predicted and unrelated 2A polypeptides) to duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) of the genus Avihepatovirus. The complete genome analysis revealed multiple distinct genome features like the presence of two in-tandem aphthovirus 2A-like sequence repeats with DxExNPG/P 'ribosome-skipping' sites (76?%, 23/30 amino acids identical), with the first aphthovirus 2A-like sequence being located at the end of the VP1 capsid protein (VP1/2A1 'ribosome-skipping' site). The phylogenetic analyses, low sequence identity (33, 32 and 36?% amino acid identity in P1, P2 and P3 regions) to DHAV, and the type II-like internal ribosome entry site suggests that this turkey picornavirus is related to, but distinct from the genus Avihepatovirus and it could be the founding member of a novel Avihepatovirus sister-clade genus. This is the third, taxonomically highly distinct picornavirus clade identified from turkeys exhibiting varied symptoms.