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Incidence and correlates of HIV-1 RNA detection in the breast milk of women receiving HAART for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission.


ABSTRACT: The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.Women initiated HAART at 34 weeks of pregnancy. Breast milk was collected every 2-5 days during 1 month postpartum for measurements of cell-associated HIV DNA and cell-free HIV RNA. Plasma and breast milk were also collected at 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months for concurrent HIV-1 RNA and DNA measurements. Regression was used to identify cofactors for breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection.Of 259 breast milk specimens from 25 women receiving HAART, 34 had detectable HIV-1 RNA (13%, incidence 1.4 episodes/100 person-days 95% CI?=?0.97-1.9). Fourteen of 25 (56%) women had detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA [mean 2.5 log(10) copies/ml (range 2.0-3.9)] at least once. HIV-1 DNA was consistently detected in breast milk cells despite HAART, and increased slowly over time, at a rate of approximately 1 copy/10(6) cells per day (p?=?0.02). Baseline CD4, plasma viral load, HAART duration, and frequency of breast problems were similar in women with and without detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA. Women with detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA were more likely to be primiparous than women without (36% vs 0%, p?=?0.05). Plasma HIV-1 RNA detection (OR?=?9.0, 95%CI?=?1.8-44) and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (OR?=?12, 95% CI?=?2.5-56) were strongly associated with concurrent detection of breast milk HIV-1 RNA. However, no association was found between breast milk HIV-1 DNA level and concurrent breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection (OR?=?0.96, 95%CI?=?0.54-1.7).The majority of women on HAART had episodic detection of breast milk HIV-1 RNA. Breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection was associated with systemic viral burden rather than breast milk HIV-1 DNA.

SUBMITTER: Slyker JA 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3256181 | BioStudies | 2012-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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