Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis W83.
ABSTRACT: High-density tiling microarray and RNA sequencing technologies were used to analyze the transcriptome of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. The compiled P. gingivalis transcriptome profiles were based on total RNA samples isolated from three different laboratory culturing conditions, and the strand-specific transcription profiles generated covered the entire genome, including both protein coding and noncoding regions. The transcription profiles revealed various operon structures, 5'- and 3'-end untranslated regions (UTRs), differential expression patterns, and many novel, not-yet-annotated transcripts within intergenic and antisense regions. Further transcriptome analysis identified the majority of the genes as being expressed within operons and most 5' and 3' ends to be protruding UTRs, of which several 3' UTRs were extended to overlap genes carried on the opposite/antisense strand. Extensive antisense RNAs were detected opposite most insertion sequence (IS) elements. Pairwise comparative analyses were also performed among transcriptome profiles of the three culture conditions, and differentially expressed genes and metabolic pathways were identified. With the growing realization that noncoding RNAs play important biological functions, the discovery of novel RNAs and the comprehensive transcriptome profiles compiled in this study may provide a foundation to further understand the gene regulation and virulence mechanisms in P. gingivalis. The transcriptome profiles can be viewed at and downloaded from the Microbial Transcriptome Database website, http://bioinformatics.forsyth.org/mtd.
Project description:High-density tiling microarray and RNA sequencing technologies were used to analyze the transcriptome of Porphyromonas gingivalis. The compiled P. gingivalis transcriptome were based on total RNA samples isolated from three different laboratory culturing conditions and the strand-specific transcription profiles generated covered the entire genome including both protein coding and non-coding regions. The transcription profiles revealed various operon structures, 5' and 3' end untranslated regions (UTRs), differential expression patterns, and several not-yet annotated transcripts within intergenic and antisense regions. Further transcriptome analysis identified the majority of the genes to be expressed within operons and most 5' and 3' ends to be protruding UTRs of which several 3’ UTRs were extended to overlap genes encoded on the opposite/antisense strand. Extensive antisense RNAs were identified opposite to most of insertion sequence (IS) elements. With the growing realization that non-coding RNAs play important biological functions, the comprehensive transcriptome profiles compiled in this study are of great value for the further understanding of gene regulation and virulence mechanism in this periodontal pathogen. The transcriptome profiles can be viewed at and downloaded from the 'Microbial Transcriptome Database' web site http://bioinformatics.forsyth.org/mtd. 3 total RNA samples from growing P. gingivalis strain W83 under different media conditions subjected to RNA-Seq.
Project description:Dictyostelium discoideum live in the soil as single cells, engulfing bacteria and growing vegetatively. Upon starvation, tens of thousands of amoebae enter a developmental program that includes aggregation, multicellular differentiation, and sporulation. Major shifts across the protein-coding transcriptome accompany these developmental changes. However, no study has presented a global survey of long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in D. discoideum To characterize the antisense and long intergenic noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcriptome, we analyzed previously published developmental time course samples using an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) library preparation method that selectively depletes ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). We detected the accumulation of transcripts for 9833 protein-coding messenger RNAs (mRNAs), 621 lncRNAs, and 162 putative antisense RNAs (asRNAs). The noncoding RNAs were interspersed throughout the genome, and were distinct in expression level, length, and nucleotide composition. The noncoding transcriptome displayed a temporal profile similar to the coding transcriptome, with stages of gradual change interspersed with larger leaps. The transcription profiles of some noncoding RNAs were strongly correlated with known differentially expressed coding RNAs, hinting at a functional role for these molecules during development. Examining the mitochondrial transcriptome, we modeled two novel antisense transcripts. We applied yet another ribosomal depletion method to a subset of the samples to better retain transfer RNA (tRNA) transcripts. We observed polymorphisms in tRNA anticodons that suggested a post-transcriptional means by which D. discoideum compensates for codons missing in the genomic complement of tRNAs. We concluded that the prevalence and characteristics of long ncRNAs indicate that these molecules are relevant to the progression of molecular and cellular phenotypes during development.
Project description:Cyanobacteria are potential sources of renewable chemicals and biofuels and serve as model organisms for bacterial photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and responses to environmental changes. Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. strain PCC 7120 (hereafter Anabaena) is a multicellular filamentous cyanobacterium that can "fix" atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia when grown in the absence of a source of combined nitrogen. Because the nitrogenase enzyme is oxygen sensitive, Anabaena forms specialized cells called heterocysts that create a microoxic environment for nitrogen fixation. We have employed directional RNA-seq to map the Anabaena transcriptome during vegetative cell growth and in response to combined-nitrogen deprivation, which induces filaments to undergo heterocyst development. Our data provide an unprecedented view of transcriptional changes in Anabaena filaments during the induction of heterocyst development and transition to diazotrophic growth.Using the Illumina short read platform and a directional RNA-seq protocol, we obtained deep sequencing data for RNA extracted from filaments at 0, 6, 12, and 21 hours after the removal of combined nitrogen. The RNA-seq data provided information on transcript abundance and boundaries for the entire transcriptome. From these data, we detected novel antisense transcripts within the UTRs (untranslated regions) and coding regions of key genes involved in heterocyst development, suggesting that antisense RNAs may be important regulators of the nitrogen response. In addition, many 5' UTRs were longer than anticipated, sometimes extending into upstream open reading frames (ORFs), and operons often showed complex structure and regulation. Finally, many genes that had not been previously identified as being involved in heterocyst development showed regulation, providing new candidates for future studies in this model organism.Directional RNA-seq data were obtained that provide comprehensive mapping of transcript boundaries and abundance for all transcribed RNAs in Anabaena filaments during the response to nitrogen deprivation. We have identified genes and noncoding RNAs that are transcriptionally regulated during heterocyst development. These data provide detailed information on the Anabaena transcriptome as filaments undergo heterocyst development and begin nitrogen fixation.
Project description:Long-lived monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) are Toll-like receptor-expressing, antigen-presenting cells derived from a common myeloid lineage that play key roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. Based on immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of inflamed tissues from patients with chronic destructive periodontal disease, these cells, found in the inflammatory infiltrate, may drive the progressive periodontal pathogenesis. To investigate early transcriptional signatures and subsequent proteomic responses to the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, donor-matched human blood monocytes, differentiated DCs, and macrophages were exposed to P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gene expression levels were measured by oligonucleotide microarrays. In addition to striking differences in constitutive transcriptional profiles between these myeloid populations, we identify a P. gingivalis LPS-inducible convergent, transcriptional core response of more than 400 annotated genes/ESTs among these populations, reflected by a shared, but quantitatively distinct, proteomic response. Nonetheless, clear differences emerged between the monocytes, DCs, and macrophages. The finding that long-lived myeloid inflammatory cells, particularly DCs, rapidly and aggressively respond to P. gingivalis LPS by generating chemokines, proteases, and cytokines capable of driving T-helper cell lineage polarization without evidence of corresponding immunosuppressive pathways highlights their prominent role in host defense and progressive tissue pathogenesis. The shared, unique, and/or complementary transcriptional and proteomic profiles may frame the context of the host response to P. gingivalis, contributing to the destructive nature of periodontal inflammation.
Project description:The 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of mRNAs play important roles in the regulation of mRNA localization, translation, and stability. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) generates mRNAs with different 3' UTRs, but the involvement of this process in stress response has not yet been clarified. Here, we report that a subset of stress-related genes exhibits 3' UTR extensions of their mRNAs during dehydration stress. These extended 3' UTRs have characteristics of long noncoding RNAs and likely do not interact with miRNAs. Functional studies using T-DNA insertion mutants reveal that they can act as antisense transcripts to repress expression levels of sense genes from the opposite strand or can activate the transcription or lead to read-through transcription of their downstream genes. Further analysis suggests that transcripts with 3' UTR extensions have weaker poly(A) signals than those without 3' UTR extensions. Finally, we show that their biogenesis is partially dependent on a trans-acting factor FPA. Taken together, we report that dehydration stress could induce transcript 3' UTR extensions and elucidate a novel function for these stress-induced 3' UTR extensions as long noncoding RNAs in the regulation of their neighboring genes.
Project description:Genomewide analyses of the mammalian transcriptome have revealed that large tracts of sequence previously annotated as noncoding are frequently transcribed and give rise to stable RNA. Although the transcription of individual genes of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been well studied, little is known of the architecture of the viral transcriptome on a genomewide scale. Here we have employed a genomewide tiling array to examine the lytic transcriptome of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, KSHV. Our results reveal that during lytic growth (but not during latency), there is extensive transcription from noncoding regions, including both intergenic regions and, especially, noncoding regions antisense to known open reading frames (ORFs). Several of these transcripts have been characterized in more detail, including (i) a 10-kb RNA antisense to the major latency locus, including many of its microRNAs as well as its ORFs; (ii) a 17-kb RNA antisense to numerous ORFs at the left-hand end of the genome; and (iii) a 0.7-kb RNA antisense to the viral homolog of interleukin-6 (vIL-6). These studies indicate that the lytic herpesviral transcriptome resembles a microcosm of the host transcriptome and provides a useful system for the study of noncoding RNAs.
Project description:Purpose:Transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of expression patterns associated with development and disease. However, most transcribed sequences do not encode proteins, and little is known about the functional relevance of noncoding (nc) transcriptome in neuronal subtypes. The goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of long noncoding (lncRNAs) and antisense (asRNAs) RNAs expressed in mouse retinal photoreceptors. Methods:Transcriptomic profiles were generated at six developmental time points from flow-sorted Nrlp-GFP (rods) and Nrlp-GFP;Nrl-/- (S-cone like) mouse photoreceptors. Bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify novel noncoding transcripts and assess their regulation by rod differentiation factor neural retina leucine zipper (NRL). In situ hybridization (ISH) was used for validation and cellular localization. Results:NcRNA profiles demonstrated dynamic yet specific expression signature and coexpression clusters during rod development. In addition to currently annotated 586 lncRNAs and 454 asRNAs, we identified 1037 lncRNAs and 243 asRNAs by de novo assembly. Of these, 119 lncRNAs showed altered expression in the absence of NRL and included NRL binding sites in their promoter/enhancer regions. ISH studies validated the expression of 24 lncRNAs (including 12 previously unannotated) and 4 asRNAs in photoreceptors. Coexpression analysis demonstrated 63 functional modules and 209 significant antisense-gene correlations, allowing us to predict possible role of these lncRNAs in rods. Conclusions:Our studies reveal coregulation of coding and noncoding transcripts in rod photoreceptors by NRL and establish the framework for deciphering the function of ncRNAs during retinal development.
Project description:Whole-transcriptome sequencing studies from recent years revealed an unexpected complexity in transcriptomes of bacteria and archaea, including abundant non-coding RNAs, cis-antisense transcription and regulatory untranslated regions (UTRs). Understanding the functional relevance of the plethora of non-coding RNAs in a given organism is challenging, especially since some of these RNAs were attributed to 'transcriptional noise'. To allow the search for conserved transcriptomic elements we produced comparative transcriptome maps for multiple species across the microbial tree of life. These transcriptome maps are detailed in annotations, comparable by gene families, and BLAST-searchable by user provided sequences. Our transcriptome collection includes 18 model organisms spanning 10 phyla/subphyla of bacteria and archaea that were sequenced using standardized RNA-seq methods. The utility of the comparative approach, as implemented in our web server, is demonstrated by highlighting genes with exceptionally long 5'UTRs across species, which correspond to many known riboswitches and further suggest novel putative regulatory elements. Our study provides a standardized reference transcriptome to major clinically and environmentally important microbial phyla. The viewer is available at http://exploration.weizmann.ac.il/TCOL, setting a framework for comparative studies of the microbial non-coding genome.
Project description:We have determined the high-resolution strand-specific transcriptome of the fission yeast S. pombe under multiple growth conditions using a novel RNA-DNA hybridization mapping (HybMap) technique. HybMap uses an antibody against an RNA-DNA hybrid to detect RNA molecules hybridized to a high-density DNA oligonucleotide tiling microarray. HybMap showed exceptional dynamic range and reproducibility, and allowed us to identify strand-specific coding, noncoding and structural RNAs, as well as previously unknown RNAs conserved in distant yeast species. Notably, we found that virtually the entire euchromatic genome (including intergenics) is transcribed, with heterochromatin dampening intergenic transcription. We identified features including large numbers of condition-specific noncoding RNAs, extensive antisense transcription, new properties of antisense transcripts and induced divergent transcription. Furthermore, our HybMap data informed the efficiency and locations of RNA splicing genome-wide. Finally, we observed strand-specific transcription islands around tRNAs at heterochromatin boundaries inside centromeres. Here, we discuss these new features in terms of organism fitness and transcriptome evolution.
Project description:Deep sequencing was implemented to study the transcriptional landscape of Mycobacterium avium. High-resolution transcriptome analysis identified the transcription start points for 652 genes. One third of these genes represented leaderless transcripts, whereas the rest of the transcripts had 5' UTRs with the mean length of 83 nt. In addition, the 5' UTRs of 6 genes contained SAM-IV and Ykok types of riboswitches. 87 antisense RNAs and 10 intergenic small RNAs were mapped. 6 intergenic small RNAs, including 4.5S RNA and rnpB, were transcribed at extremely high levels. Although several intergenic sRNAs are conserved in M. avium and M. tuberculosis, both of these species have unique intergenic sRNAs. Moreover, we demonstrated that even conserved small RNAs are regulated differently in these species. Different sets of intergenic sRNAs may underlie differences in physiology between conditionally pathogenic M. avium and highly specialized pathogen M. tuberculosis.