Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order mucorales.
ABSTRACT: The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear ribosomal large subunit to reveal taxon-specific susceptibility profiles. The impressive phylogenetic diversity of the Mucorales was reflected in susceptibilities differing at family, genus, and species levels. Amphotericin B was the most active drug, though somewhat less against Rhizopus and Cunninghamella species. Posaconazole was the second most effective antifungal agent but showed reduced activity in Mucor and Cunninghamella strains, while voriconazole lacked in vitro activity for most strains. Genera attributed to the Mucoraceae exhibited a wide range of MICs for posaconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine and included resistant strains. Cunninghamella also comprised strains resistant to all azoles tested but was fully susceptible to terbinafine. In contrast, the Lichtheimiaceae completely lacked strains with reduced susceptibility for these antifungals. Syncephalastrum species exhibited susceptibility profiles similar to those of the Lichtheimiaceae. Mucor species were more resistant to azoles than Rhizopus species. Species-specific responses were obtained for terbinafine where only Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor circinelloides were resistant. Complete or vast resistance was observed for 5-fluorocytosine, caspofungin, and micafungin. Intraspecific variability of in vitro susceptibility was found in all genera tested but was especially high in Mucor and Rhizopus for azoles and terbinafine. Accurate molecular identification of etiologic agents is compulsory to predict therapy outcome. For species of critical genera such as Mucor and Rhizopus, exhibiting high intraspecific variation, susceptibility testing before the onset of therapy is recommended.
Project description:Recently, the species concept of opportunistic <i>Mucor circinelloides</i> and its relatives has been revised, resulting in the recognition of its classical formae as independent species and the description of new species. In this study, we used isolates of all clinically relevant <i>Mucor</i> species and performed susceptibility testing using the EUCAST reference method to identify potential species-specific susceptibility patterns. <i>In vitro</i> susceptibility profiles of 101 mucoralean strains belonging to the genus <i>Mucor</i> (72), the closely related species <i>Cokeromyces recurvatus</i> (3), <i>Rhizopus</i> (12), <i>Lichtheimia</i> (10), and <i>Rhizomucor</i> (4) to six antifungals (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbina?ne, isavuconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole) were determined. The most active drug for all Mucorales was amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of pathogenic <i>Mucor</i> species were specific for isavuconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole. The species formerly united in <i>M. circinelloides</i> showed clear differences in their antifungal susceptibilities. <i>Cokeromyces recurvatus</i>, <i>Mucor ardhlaengiktus</i>, <i>Mucor lusitanicus</i> (<i>M. circinelloides</i> f. <i>lusitanicus</i>), and <i>Mucor ramosissimus</i> exhibited high MICs to all azoles tested. <i>Mucor indicus</i> presented high MICs for isavuconazole and posaconazole, and <i>Mucor amphibiorum</i> and <i>Mucor irregularis</i> showed high MICs for isavuconazole. MIC values of <i>Mucor</i> spp. for posaconazole, isavuconazole, and itraconazole were high compared to those for <i>Rhizopus</i> and the Lichtheimiaceae (<i>Lichtheimia</i> and <i>Rhizomucor</i>). Molecular identification combined with <i>in vitro</i> susceptibility testing is recommended for <i>Mucor</i> species, especially if azoles are applied in treatment.
Project description:Several members of the order Mucorales (subphylum Mucoromycotina) are important agents of severe human infections. The identification of these fungi by using standard mycologic methods is often difficult and time consuming. Frequently, the etiological agent in clinical cases is reported either as a Mucor sp., which is not the most frequent genus of zygomycetes, or only as a member of the Mucorales. For this reason, the actual spectrum of species of zygomycetes and their incidences in the clinical setting is not well known. The goals of this study were to compare the results of the molecular identification of an important set of clinical isolates, received in a mycological reference center from different regions of the United States, with those obtained by using the traditional morphological methods and to determine the spectrum of species involved. We tested 190 isolates morphologically identified as zygomycetes by using sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. Molecular identification revealed that Rhizopus oryzae represented approximately half (44.7%) of these isolates. The remainder was identified as Rhizopus microsporus (22.1%), Mucor circinelloides (9.5%), Mycocladus corymbifer (formerly Absidia corymbifera) (5.3%), Rhizomucor pusillus (3.7%), Cunninghamella bertholletiae (3.2%), Mucor indicus (2.6%), Cunninghamella echinulata (1%), and Apophysomyces elegans (0.5%). The most common anatomic sites for clinically significant zygomycetes, as determined by isolates sent to the Fungus Testing Laboratory for identification and/or susceptibility testing and included in this study, were the sinuses, lungs, and various cutaneous locations, at 25.8%, 26.8%, and 28%, respectively. These sites represented approximately 80% of the isolates evaluated. A high level of correlation (92.6%) between morphological and molecular identifications was found.
Project description:The in vitro activities of 11 antifungal drugs against 68 Scopulariopsis and Microascus strains were investigated. Amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, and ciclopirox showed no or poor antifungal effect. The best activities were exhibited by terbinafine and caspofungin, where the MIC and MEC (minimal effective concentration) ranges were 0.0313 to >16 ?g/ml and 0.125 to 16 ?g/ml, respectively. The MIC and MEC modes were both 1 µg/ml for terbinafine and caspofungin; the MIC50 and MEC50 were 1 µg/ml for both drugs, whereas the MIC90 and MEC90 were 4 µg/ml and 16 µg/ml, respectively.
Project description:The in vitro activity of isavuconazole against Mucorales isolates measured by EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 methodologies was investigated in comparison with those of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Seventy-two isolates were included: 12 of Lichtheimia corymbifera, 5 of Lichtheimia ramosa, 5 of group I and 9 of group II of Mucor circinelloides, 9 of Rhizomucor pusillus, 26 of Rhizopus microsporus, and 6 of Rhizopus oryzae. Species identification was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. EUCAST MICs were read on day 1 (EUCAST-d1) and day 2 (EUCAST-d2), and CLSI MICs were read on day 2 (CLSI-d2). Isavuconazole MIC50s (range) (mg/liter) by EUCAST-d1, CLSI-d2, and EUCAST-d2 were 1 (0.125 to 16), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to >16), respectively, across all isolates. The similar values for comparator drugs were as follows: posaconazole, 0.25 (? 0.03 to >16), 0.25 (0.06 to >16), and 1 (0.06 to >16); amphotericin, 0.06 (? 0.03 to 0.5), 0.06 (? 0.03 to 0.25), and 0.125 (? 0.03 to 1); voriconazole, 16 (2 to >16), 8 (1 to >16), and >16 (8 to >16), respectively. Isavuconazole activity varied by species: Lichtheimia corymbifera, 1 (0.5 to 2), 1 (1 to 2), and 2 (1 to 4); Lichtheimia ramosa, 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5), 1 (0.5 to 2), and 2 (0.5 to 4); Rhizomucor pusillus, 0.5 (0.5 to 1), 1 (0.125 to 1), and 2 (1 to 2); Rhizopus microsporus, 1 (0.5 to 4), 0.5 (0.125 to 1), and 4 (1 to 8); and Rhizopus oryzae, 1 (0.5 to 4), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to 8), respectively, were more susceptible than Mucor circinelloides: group I, 8 (4 to 8), 4 (2 to 4), and 16 (2 to 16), respectively, and group II, 8 (1 to 16), 8 (1 to 8), and 16 (4 to >16), respectively. This was also observed for posaconazole. The essential agreement was best between EUCAST-d1 and CLSI-d2 (75% to 83%). Isavuconazole displayed in vitro activity against Mucorales isolates with the exception of Mucor circinelloides. The MICs were in general 1 to 3 steps higher than those for posaconazole. However, in the clinical setting this may be compensated for by the higher exposure at standard dosing.
Project description:Mucormycoses are emerging and potentially lethal infections. An increase of breakthrough infections has been found in cohorts receiving short-tailed azoles prophylaxis (e.g. voriconazole (VCZ)). Although VCZ is ineffective in vitro and in vivo, long-tailed triazoles such as posaconazole remain active against mucormycetes. Our goal was to validate the molecular mechanism of resistance to short-tailed triazoles in Mucorales. The paralogous cytochrome P450 genes (CYP51 F1 and CYP51 F5) of Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, and Mucor circinelloides were amplified and sequenced. Alignment of the protein sequences of the R. arrhizus, R. microsporus, and M. circinelloides CYP51 F1 and F5 with additional Mucorales species (n?=?3) and other fungi (n?=?16) confirmed the sequences to be lanosterol 14?-demethylases (LDMs). Sequence alignment identified a pan-Mucorales conservation of a phenylalanine129 substitution in all CYP51 F5s analyzed. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae LDM in complex with VCZ was used for generating a homology model of R. arrhizus CYP51 F5. Structural and functional knowledge of S. cerevisiae CYP51 shows that the F129 residue in Mucorales CYP51 F5 is responsible for intrinsic resistance of Mucorales against short-tailed triazoles, with a V to A substitution in Helix I also potentially playing a role.
Project description:Mucorales comprises fungi commonly isolated as saprobes from soil, dung, stored grains and plants. Although these fungi have been studied in several countries, there are relatively a few reports of them in semi-arid areas. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess and compare the Mucorales communities in dung from different species and breeds of herbivores in the semi-arid of Pernambuco, based on the frequency of occurrence and species richness of these fungi. Samples of dung collected in the cities of Arcoverde, Serra Talhada and Sertânia were incubated in moist chambers in triplicate. Altogether, 24 taxa of Mucorales distributed in the genera Absidia, Circinella, Cunninghamella, Lichtheimia, Mucor, Pilobolus, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were identified. The highest species richness was found in sheep excrement. Mucor circinelloides f. griseo-cyanus was the most common taxon, followed by M. ramosissimus. The similarity of the composition of Mucorales species was greatest between the excrements of Guzerá and Sindi breeds (bovine). All mucoralean species isolated are being cited for the first time from animal dung found in Caatinga and a new species of Mucor was recorded. An identification key for species of Mucorales from dung in the semi-arid region of Brazil is provided.
Project description:This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales. A total of 111 isolates covering six genera preserved at the Research Center for Medical Mycology of Peking University were selected for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. We emphasized the study of 23 strains of Mucor irregularis predominantly isolated from patients in China. We first used the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library (v1.0) to identify all 111 isolates. To increase the identification rate, we created a compensatory in-house database, the Beijing Medical University (BMU) database, using 13 reference strains covering 6 species, including M. irregularis, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor racemosus, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Cunninghamella phaeospora, and Cunninghamella echinulata All 111 isolates were then identified by MALDI-TOF MS using a combination of the Bruker library and BMU database. MALDI-TOF MS identified 55 (49.5%) and 74 (66.7%) isolates at the species and genus levels, respectively, using the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library v1.0 alone. A combination of the Bruker library and BMU database allowed MALDI-TOF MS to identify 90 (81.1%) and 111 (100%) isolates at the species and genus levels, respectively, with a significantly increased accuracy rate. MALDI-TOF MS poorly identified Mucorales when the Bruker library was used alone due to its lack of some fungal species. In contrast, this technique perfectly identified M. irregularis after main spectrum profiles (MSPs) of relevant reference strains were added to the Bruker library. With an expanded Bruker library, MALDI-TOF MS is an effective tool for the identification of pathogenic Mucorales.
Project description:The order Mucorales comprises predominantly fast-growing saprotrophic fungi, some of which are used for the fermentation of foodstuffs but it also includes species known to cause infections in patients with severe immune or metabolic impairments. To inventory biodiversity in Mucorales ITS barcodes of 668 strains in 203 taxa were generated covering more than two thirds of the recognised species. Using the ITS sequences, Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units were defined by a similarity threshold of 99 %. An LSU sequence was generated for each unit as well. Analysis of the LSU sequences revealed that conventional phenotypic classifications of the Mucoraceae are highly artificial. The LSU- and ITS-based trees suggest that characters, such as rhizoids and sporangiola, traditionally used in mucoralean taxonomy are plesiomorphic traits. The ITS region turned out to be an appropriate barcoding marker in Mucorales. It could be sequenced directly in 82 % of the strains and its variability was sufficient to resolve most of the morphospecies. Molecular identification turned out to be problematic only for the species complexes of Mucor circinelloides, M. flavus, M. piriformis and Zygorhynchus moelleri. As many as 12 possibly undescribed species were detected. Intraspecific variability differed widely among mucorealean species ranging from 0 % in Backusella circina to 13.3 % in Cunninghamella echinulata. A high proportion of clinical strains was included for molecular identification. Clinical isolates of Cunninghamella elegans were identified molecularly for the first time. As a result of the phylogenetic analyses several taxonomic and nomenclatural changes became necessary. The genus Backusella was emended to include all species with transitorily recurved sporangiophores. Since this matched molecular data all Mucor species possessing this character were transferred to Backusella. The genus Zygorhynchus was shown to be polyphyletic based on ITS and LSU data. Consequently, Zygorhynchus was abandoned and all species were reclassified in Mucor. Our phylogenetic analyses showed, furthermore, that all non-thermophilic Rhizomucor species belong to Mucor. Accordingly, Rhizomucor endophyticus was transferred to Mucor and Rhizomucor chlamydosporus was synonymised with Mucor indicus. Lecto-, epi- or neotypes were designated for several taxa.
Project description:Herein we describe the changes in the gene expression profile of Candida parapsilosis associated with the acquisition of experimentally induced resistance to azole antifungal drugs. Three resistant strains of C. parapsilosis were obtained following prolonged in vitro exposure of a susceptible clinical isolate to constant concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole. We found that after incubation with fluconazole or voriconazole, strains became resistant to both azoles but not to posaconazole, although susceptibility to this azole decreased, whereas the strain incubated with posaconazole displayed resistance to the three azoles. The resistant strains obtained after exposure to fluconazole and to voriconazole have increased expression of the transcription factor MRR1, the major facilitator transporter MDR1, and several reductases and oxidoreductases. Interestingly, and similarly to what has been described in C. albicans, upregulation of MRR1 and MDR1 is correlated with point mutations in MRR1 in the resistant strains. The resistant strain obtained after exposure to posaconazole shows upregulation of two transcription factors (UPC2 and NDT80) and increased expression of 13 genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. This is the first study addressing global molecular mechanisms underlying azole resistance in C. parapsilosis; the results suggest that similarly to C. albicans, tolerance to azoles involves the activation of efflux pumps and/or increased ergosterol synthesis.
Project description:The calcineurin pathway regulates antifungal drug resistance and the virulence of several major human-pathogenic fungi, including the recalcitrant Mucorales. We hypothesized that the fungistatic triazoles posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) become fungicidal in the setting of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (TCR) and that such an effect is mediated through apoptosis. Fungicidal activity and apoptosis were studied using standard microbiological techniques and hyphal metabolic and vital dye reduction assays at 37°C in RPMI 1640. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting intracellular Ca(2+), phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, DNA fragmentation, plasma membrane integrity, chromatin condensation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase-like activity, ATP, and cytochrome c release. MICs for PCZ and ICZ alone were significantly higher (8 to 128 ?g/ml) than those of PCZ or ICZ plus TCR (0.25 to 4 ?g/ml) for Rhizopus oryzae, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, and Mucor circinelloides. Both PCZ and ICZ in combination with TCR became fungicidal, and their activity was mediated through increased apoptotic cell death of R. oryzae (10 to 50%), C. bertholletiae (5 to 50%), and M. circinelloides (5 to 55%) germlings, with morphological apoptotic changes characterized by externalization of PS, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, activation of the caspase-like activity was correlated with cell death induced by TCR plus PCZ or ICZ. These changes correlated with elevated intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS levels and disturbance of mitochondrial potential. We found that PCZ or ICZ in combination with TCR renders Mucorales sensitive to triazoles via apoptotic death. These observations could serve as a new paradigm for the development of new therapeutic strategies.