Mutations in RIPK4 cause the autosomal-recessive form of popliteal pterygium syndrome.
ABSTRACT: The autosomal-recessive form of popliteal pterygium syndrome, also known as Bartsocas-Papas syndrome, is a rare, but frequently lethal disorder characterized by marked popliteal pterygium associated with multiple congenital malformations. Using Affymetrix 250K SNP array genotyping and homozygosity mapping, we mapped this malformation syndrome to chromosomal region 21q22.3. Direct sequencing of RIPK4 (receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase protein 4) showed a homozygous transversion (c.362T>A) that causes substitution of a conserved isoleucine with asparagine at amino acid position 121 (p.Ile121Asn) in the serine/threonine kinase domain of the protein. Additional pathogenic mutations-a homozygous transition (c.551C>T) that leads to a missense substitution (p.Thr184Ile) at a conserved position and a homozygous one base-pair insertion mutation (c.777_778insA) predicted to lead to a premature stop codon (p.Arg260ThrfsX14) within the kinase domain-were observed in two families. Molecular modeling of the kinase domain showed that both the Ile121 and Thr184 positions are critical for the protein's stability and kinase activity. Luciferase reporter assays also demonstrated that these mutations are critical for the catalytic activity of RIPK4. RIPK4 mediates activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and is required for keratinocyte differentiation and craniofacial and limb development. The phenotype of Ripk4(-/-) mice is consistent with the human phenotype presented herein. Additionally, the spectrum of malformations observed in the presented families is similar, but less severe than the conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase (CHUK)-deficient human fetus phenotype; known as Cocoon syndrome; this similarity indicates that RIPK4 and CHUK might function via closely related pathways to promote keratinocyte differentiation and epithelial growth.
Project description:The popliteal pterygia syndromes are a distinct subset of the hundreds of Mendelian orofacial clefting syndromes. Popliteal pterygia syndromes have considerable variability in severity and in the associated phenotypic features but are all characterized by cutaneous webbing across one or more major joints, cleft lip and/or palate, syndactyly, and genital malformations. Heterozygous mutations in IRF6 cause popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) while homozygous mutations in RIPK4 or CHUK (IKKA) cause the more severe Bartsocas-Papas syndrome (BPS) and Cocoon syndrome, respectively. In this study, we report mutations in six pedigrees with children affected with PPS or BPS. Using a combination of Sanger and exome sequencing, we report the first case of an autosomal recessive popliteal pterygium syndrome caused by homozygous mutation of IRF6 and the first case of uniparental disomy of chromosome 21 leading to a recessive disorder. We also demonstrate that mutations in RIPK4 can cause features with a range of severity along the PPS-BPS spectrum and that mutations in IKKA can cause a range of features along the BPS-Cocoon spectrum. Our findings have clinical implications for genetic counseling of families with pterygia syndromes and further implicate IRF6, RIPK4, and CHUK (IKKA) in potentially interconnected pathways governing epidermal and craniofacial development.
Project description:Pterygium syndromes are complex congenital disorders that encompass several distinct clinical conditions characterized by multiple skin webs affecting the flexural surfaces often accompanied by craniofacial anomalies. In severe forms, such as in the autosomal-recessive Bartsocas-Papas syndrome, early lethality is common, complicating the identification of causative mutations. Using exome sequencing in a consanguineous family, we identified the homozygous mutation c.1127C>A in exon 7 of RIPK4 that resulted in the introduction of the nonsense mutation p.Ser376X into the encoded ankyrin repeat-containing kinase, a protein that is essential for keratinocyte differentiation. Subsequently, we identified a second mutation in exon 2 of RIPK4 (c.242T>A) that resulted in the missense variant p.Ile81Asn in the kinase domain of the protein. We have further demonstrated that RIPK4 is a direct transcriptional target of the protein p63, a master regulator of stratified epithelial development, which acts as a nodal point in the cascade of molecular events that prevent pterygium syndromes.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4)-deficient mice have epidermal defects and fusion of all external orifices. These are similar to Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) in humans, for which causative mutations have been documented in the RIPK4 and IRF6 (interferon regulatory factor 6) gene, respectively. Although genetically distinct, these syndromes share the anomalies of marked pterygia, syndactyly, clefting and hypoplastic genitalia. Despite the strong resemblance of these two syndromes, no molecular connection between the transcription factor IRF6 and the kinase RIPK4 was known and the mechanism underlying the phenotype was unclear. Here we describe that RIPK4 deficiency in mice causes epithelial fusions associated with abnormal periderm development and aberrant ectopic localization of E-cadherin on the apical membrane of the outer peridermal cell layers. In Xenopus, RIPK4 depletion causes the absence of ectodermal epiboly and concomitant gastrulation defects that phenocopy ectopic expression of dominant-negative IRF6. We found that IRF6 controls RIPK4 expression and that wild-type, but not kinase-dead, RIPK4 can complement the gastrulation defect in Xenopus caused by IRF6 malfunctioning. In contrast to the mouse, we observed only minor effects on cadherin membrane expression in Xenopus RIPK4 morphants. However, gastrulation defects were associated with a virtual absence of cortical actin in the ectodermal cells that face the blastocoel cavity and this was phenocopied in embryos expressing dominant-negative IRF6. A role for RIPK4 in actin cytoskeleton organization was also revealed in mouse epidermis and in human epithelial HaCaT cells. In conclusion, we showed that in mice RIPK4 is implicated in cortical actin organization and in E-cadherin localization or function, which can explain the characteristic epithelial fusions observed in PPSs. In addition, we provide a novel molecular link between IRF6 and RIPK4 that unifies the different PPSs to a common molecular pathway.
Project description:The epidermis, the outer layer of the skin, is formed by stratified keratinocyte layers. The self-renewal of the epidermis is provided by sustained proliferation and differentiation of the keratinocyte stem cells localized to the basal layer of the epidermis. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) is an important regulator of keratinocyte differentiation, mutations of which are associated with congenital ectodermal malformations. In an attempt to identify the molecular basis of RIPK4's function, we applied yeast two-hybrid screen (Y2H) and found basal layer-specific keratin filament component keratin 14 (KRT14) as a novel RIPK4-interacting partner. During keratinocyte differentiation, layer-specific keratin composition is tightly regulated. Likewise, the basal layer specific KRT14/keratin 5 (KRT5) heterodimers are replaced by keratin 1 (KRT1)/keratin 10 (KRT10) in suprabasal layers. The regulation of keratin turnover is under the control of signaling associated with posttranslational modifications in which phosphorylation plays a major role. In this study, we verified the KRT14-RIPK4 interaction, which was identified with Y2H, in mammalian cells and showed that the interaction was direct by using proteins expressed in bacteria. According to our results, the N-terminal kinase domain of RIPK4 is responsible for KRT14-RIPK4 interaction; however, the RIPK4 kinase activity is dispensable for the interaction. In accordance with their interaction, RIPK4 and KRT14 colocalize within the cells, particularly at keratin filaments associated with perinuclear ring-like structures. Moreover, RIPK4 did not show any effect on KRT14/KRT5 heterodimer formation. Our results suggest that RIPK4 may regulate the keratin turnover required for keratinocyte differentiation through interacting with KRT14.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling plays vital roles in bladder urothelial carcinoma (BC) progression. We investigate the effect of receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) on NF-κB activation and BC progression. METHODS:The expression of RIPK4 was examined in 25 cryopreserved paired bladder samples and 112 paraffin BC specimens. In vivo and in vitro assays were performed to validate effect of RIPK4 on NF-κB pathway-mediated BC progression. RESULTS:High expression of RIPK4 was observed in BC tissues and was an independent predictor for poor overall survival. Up or downregulating the expression of RIPK4 enhanced or inhibited, respectively, the migration and invasion of BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, RIPK4 promoted K63-linked polyubiquitination of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), receptor-interacting protein (RIP) and NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO). RIPK4 also promoted nuclear localisation of NF-κB-p65, and maintained activation of NF-κB substantially, leading to upregulation of VEGF-A, ultimately promoting BC cell aggressiveness. CONCLUSIONS:Our data highlighted the molecular aetiology and clinical significance of RIPK4 in BC: upregulation of RIPK4 contributes to NF-κB activation, and upregulates VEGF-A, and BC progression. Targeting RIPK4 might represent a new therapeutic strategy to improve survival for patients with BC.
Project description:Interferon regulatory factor 6 encodes a member of the IRF family of transcription factors. Mutations in interferon regulatory factor 6 cause Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndrome, two related orofacial clefting disorders. Here, we compared and contrasted the frequency and distribution of exonic mutations in interferon regulatory factor 6 between two large geographically distinct collections of families with Van der Woude and between one collection of families with popliteal pterygium syndrome.We performed direct sequence analysis of interferon regulatory factor 6 exons on samples from three collections, two with Van der Woude and one with popliteal pterygium syndrome.We identified mutations in interferon regulatory factor 6 exons in 68% of families in both Van der Woude collections and in 97% of families with popliteal pterygium syndrome. In sum, 106 novel disease-causing variants were found. The distribution of mutations in the interferon regulatory factor 6 exons in each collection was not random; exons 3, 4, 7, and 9 accounted for 80%. In the Van der Woude collections, the mutations were evenly divided between protein truncation and missense, whereas most mutations identified in the popliteal pterygium syndrome collection were missense. Further, the missense mutations associated with popliteal pterygium syndrome were localized significantly to exon 4, at residues that are predicted to bind directly to DNA.The nonrandom distribution of mutations in the interferon regulatory factor 6 exons suggests a two-tier approach for efficient mutation screens for interferon regulatory factor 6. The type and distribution of mutations are consistent with the hypothesis that Van der Woude is caused by haploinsufficiency of interferon regulatory factor 6. On the other hand, the distribution of popliteal pterygium syndrome-associated mutations suggests a different, though not mutually exclusive, effect on interferon regulatory factor 6 function.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Popliteal pterygium syndrome is a congenital malformation that includes orofacial, musculoskeletal and genitourinary anomalies. It is a rare autosomal dominant disorder due to a mutation of the IRF6 gene on 1q32.2. CASE PRESENTATION: A one-month-old Moroccan baby boy was diagnosed with typical features of popliteal pterygium syndrome and carried the c.250C>T; p.Arg84Cys mutation of the IRF6 gene. CONCLUSIONS: We report on the first description of a Moroccan popliteal pterygium syndrome patient. This diagnosis allowed us to provide an appropriate course of management to the patient and offer genetic counseling to his family.
Project description:Mutations in the transcription factor IRF6 cause allelic autosomal dominant clefting syndromes, Van der Woude syndrome, and popliteal pterygium syndrome. We compared the distribution of IRF6 coding and splice-site mutations from 549 families with Van der Woude syndrome or popliteal pterygium syndrome with that of variants from the 1000 Genomes and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Projects.We compiled all published pathogenic IRF6 mutations and performed direct sequencing of IRF6 in families with Van der Woude syndrome or popliteal pterygium syndrome.Although mutations causing Van der Woude syndrome or popliteal pterygium syndrome were nonrandomly distributed with significantly increased frequencies in the DNA-binding domain (P = 0.0001), variants found in controls were rare and evenly distributed in IRF6. Of 194 different missense or nonsense variants described as potentially pathogenic, we identified only two in more than 6,000 controls. PolyPhen and SIFT (sorting intolerant from tolerant) reported 5.9% of missense mutations in patients as benign, suggesting that use of current in silico prediction models to determine function can have significant false negatives.Mutation of IRF6 occurs infrequently in controls, suggesting that for IRF6 there is a high probability that disruption of the coding sequence, particularly the DNA-binding domain, will result in syndromic features. Prior associations of coding sequence variants in IRF6 with clefting syndromes have had few false positives.
Project description:Impaired fetal movement causes malformations, summarized as fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS), and is triggered by environmental and genetic factors. Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) components are suspects because mutations in the fetally expressed gamma subunit (CHRNG) of AChR were found in two FADS disorders, lethal multiple pterygium syndrome (LMPS) and Escobar syndrome. Other AChR subunits alpha1, beta1, and delta (CHRNA1, CHRNB1, CHRND) as well as receptor-associated protein of the synapse (RAPSN) previously revealed missense or compound nonsense-missense mutations in viable congenital myasthenic syndrome; lethality of homozygous null mutations was predicted but never shown. We provide the first report to our knowledge of homozygous nonsense mutations in CHRNA1 and CHRND and show that they were lethal, whereas novel recessive missense mutations in RAPSN caused a severe but not necessarily lethal phenotype. To elucidate disease-associated malformations such as frequent abortions, fetal edema, cystic hygroma, or cardiac defects, we studied Chrna1, Chrnb1, Chrnd, Chrng, and Rapsn in mouse embryos and found expression in skeletal muscles but also in early somite development. This indicates that early developmental defects might be due to somite expression in addition to solely muscle-specific effects. We conclude that complete or severe functional disruption of fetal AChR causes lethal multiple pterygium syndrome whereas milder alterations result in fetal hypokinesia with inborn contractures or a myasthenic syndrome later in life.