Effects of human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic complications on myocardial nutrient metabolism, blood flow, and oxygen consumption: a cross-sectional analysis.
ABSTRACT: In the general population, peripheral metabolic complications (MC) increase the risk for left ventricular dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) are associated with MC, left ventricular dysfunction, and a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than the general population. We examined whether myocardial nutrient metabolism and left ventricular dysfunction are related to one another and worse in HIV infected men treated with cART vs. HIV-negative men with or without MC.Prospective, cross-sectional study of myocardial glucose and fatty acid metabolism and left ventricular function in HIV+ and HIV-negative men with and without MC. Myocardial glucose utilization (GLUT), and fatty acid oxidation and utilization rates were quantified using 11C-glucose and 11C-palmitate and myocardial positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in four groups of men: 23 HIV+ men with MC+ (HIV+/MC+, 42 ± 6 yrs), 15 HIV+ men without MC (HIV+/MC-, 41 ± 6 yrs), 9 HIV-negative men with MC (HIV-/MC+, 33 ± 5 yrs), and 22 HIV-negative men without MC (HIV-/MC-, 25 ± 6 yrs). Left ventricular function parameters were quantified using echocardiography.Myocardial glucose utilization was similar among groups, however when normalized to fasting plasma insulin concentration (GLUT/INS) was lower (p < 0.01) in men with metabolic complications (HIV+: 9.2 ± 6.2 vs. HIV-: 10.4 ± 8.1 nmol/g/min/μU/mL) than men without metabolic complications (HIV+: 45.0 ± 33.3 vs. HIV-: 60.3 ± 53.0 nmol/g/min/μU/mL). Lower GLUT/INS was associated with lower myocardial relaxation velocity during early diastole (r = 0.39, p < 0.001).Men with metabolic complications, irrespective of HIV infection, had lower basal myocardial glucose utilization rates per unit insulin that were related to left ventricular diastolic impairments, indicating that well-controlled HIV infection is not an independent risk factor for blunted myocardial glucose utilization per unit of insulin.NIH Clinical Trials NCT00656851.
Project description:The aim of the current study was to assess cardiac structure and function as well as cardiac abnormalities in a large patient-population based multicenter study of HIV-infected subjects.We enrolled 803 HIV-positive adults (83.4% men, mean age: 44.2 ± 10.3 yrs) in this prospective, cross-sectional cohort study. The study protocol included a standardized documentation of patient history, medical treatment and clinical examination. All subjects underwent a standardized transthoracic echocardiographic examination protocol including Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging.Echocardiographic measurements revealed a structural dilatation of the left ventricle in 10.1% of all HIV-infected subjects. Interventricular septum and posterior wall thickness were increased in 18.0% and 11.1%, respectively, with elevated muscle mass in 14.3% male and 19.4% female patients. Of all participants 13.5% exhibited a pathologic contraction characteristic of one or more myocardial segments. Prevalence of systolic and diastolic dysfunction was 34.3% and 48.0%, respectively. However, severe forms of ventricular dysfunction were rare.In conclusion our results demonstrate the relevance of echocardiography in this patient-population in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Above all, left ventricular wall thickness and function should be controlled regularly in HIV-infected subjects. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01119729).
Project description:The heart derives energy from a wide variety of substrates including fatty acids, carbohydrates, ketones, and amino acids. The healthy heart generates up to 30% of its ATP from glucose. Under conditions of cardiac injury or stress, the heart relies even more heavily on glucose as a source of fuel. Glucose is transported into the heart by members of the family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs). While research examining the transport of glucose into the heart has primarily focused on the roles of the classical glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, little is known about the functions of more newly identified GLUT isoforms in the myocardium.In this study the presence and relative RNA message abundance of each of the known GLUT isoforms was determined in left ventricular tissue from two commonly used inbred laboratory mouse strains (C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ) by quantitative real time PCR. Relative message abundance was also determined in GLUT4 null mice and in murine models of dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.GLUT4, GLUT1, and GLUT8 were found to be the most abundant GLUT transcripts in the normal heart, while GLUT3, GLUT10, and GLUT12 are present at relatively lower levels. Assessment of relative GLUT expression in left ventricular myocardium from mice with dilated cardiomyopathy revealed increased expression of GLUT1 with reduced levels of GLUT4, GLUT8, and GLUT12. Compensatory increase in the expression of GLUT12 was observed in genetically altered mice lacking GLUT4.Glucose transporter expression varies significantly among murine models of cardiac dysfunction and involves several of the class III GLUT isoforms. Understanding how these more newly identified GLUT isoforms contribute to regulating myocardial glucose transport will enhance our comprehension of the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the heart.
Project description:GLUT transgenic and knockout mice have provided valuable insight into the role of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, but compensatory physiological changes can hinder interpretation of these models. To determine whether adaptations occur in response to GLUT inhibition in the failing adult heart, we chronically treated TG9 mice, a transgenic model of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, with the GLUT inhibitor ritonavir. Glucose tolerance was significantly improved with chronic treatment and correlated with decreased adipose tissue retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and resistin. A modest improvement in lifespan was associated with decreased cardiomyocyte brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression, a marker of heart failure severity. GLUT1 and -12 protein expression was significantly increased in left ventricular (LV) myocardium in ritonavir-treated animals. Supporting a switch from fatty acid to glucose utilization in these tissues, fatty acid transporter CD36 and fatty acid transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) mRNA were also decreased in LV and soleus muscle. Chronic ritonavir also increased cardiac output and dV/dt-d in C57Bl/6 mice following ischemia-reperfusion injury. Taken together, these data demonstrate compensatory metabolic adaptation in response to chronic GLUT blockade as a means to evade deleterious changes in the failing heart.
Project description:Estrogen regulation of myocardial chymase and chymase effects on cardiac remodeling are unknown. To test the hypothesis that estrogen prevents pressure overload-induced adverse cardiac remodeling by inhibiting mast cell (MC) chymase release, transverse aortic constriction or sham surgery was performed in 7-week-old intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three days before creating the constriction, additional groups of OVX rats began receiving 17?-estradiol, a chymase inhibitor, or a MC stabilizer. Left ventricular function, cardiomyocyte size, collagen volume fraction, MC density and degranulation, and myocardial and plasma chymase levels were assessed 18 days postsurgery. Aortic constriction resulted in ventricular hypertrophy in intact and OVX groups, whereas collagen volume fraction was increased only in OVX rats. Chymase protein content was increased by aortic constriction in the intact and OVX groups, with the magnitude of the increase being greater in OVX rats. MC density and degranulation, plasma chymase levels, and myocardial active transforming growth factor-?1 levels were increased by aortic constriction only in OVX rats. Estrogen replacement markedly attenuated the constriction-increased myocardial chymase, MC density and degranulation, plasma chymase, and myocardial active transforming growth factor-?1, as well as prevented ventricular hypertrophy and increased collagen volume fraction. Chymostatin attenuated the aortic constriction-induced ventricular hypertrophy and collagen volume fraction in the OVX rats similar to that achieved by estrogen replacement. Nedocromil yielded similar effects, except for the reduction of chymase content. We conclude that the estrogen-inhibited release of MC chymase is responsible for the cardioprotection against transverse aortic constriction-induced adverse cardiac remodeling.
Project description:Background:Metabolic remodeling plays a vital role in the development of heart failure. The trimetazidine can optimize fatty acid and glucose oxidation via inhibition of long-chain 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase in the heart. So, trimetazidine commonly used in cardiovascular therapy as a myocardial metabolic drug. This study was conducted to assess the effects and mechanisms of trimetazidine on ketone body metabolism in heart failure rats. Methods:A rat model of heart failure was established by continuous subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol in 10 mg/kg/d. We examined body weight, heart weight index, and tested B-type natriuretic peptide by kit. We detected the structure and function of the heart. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining was performed to assess myocardial tissue morphology. To evaluate apoptosis, we used Tunel staining. Metabolic substrate contents of glucose, free fatty acid, ketone bodies, lactic acid, and pyruvate and ATP levels in myocardial tissues were measured with the corresponding kit. We detected the levels of protein expressions related to myocardial substrate uptake and utilization by Western blot. Results:Trimetazidine remarkably reduced the heart weight index and B-type natriuretic peptide levels. Besides, trimetazidine increased the level of blood pressure and decreased heart rate. Moreover, trimetazidine inhibited decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening. Further, trimetazidine decreased the levels of collagen volume fraction and promoted ATP production in myocardial tissues. Trimetazidine also reduced the levels of free fatty acid, ketone bodies, lactic acid, and increased glucose and pyruvate levels in myocardial tissues. Furthermore, trimetazidine markedly inhibited apoptosis. More importantly, the protein expression levels related to myocardial substrate uptake and utilization increased dramatically in the trimetazidine group. In particular, the protein expressions related to ketone body utilization were prominent. Conclusions:Trimetazidine could attenuate metabolic remodeling and improve cardiac function in heart failure rats. The potential mechanism for the cardioprotective effect of trimetazidine may be highly associated with its regulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? expressions. Along with the regulation, myocardial substrate utilization was improved, especially the utilization of ketone bodies.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits myocardial glucose transport and metabolism, although the underlying mechanism(s) and functional consequences of this effect are not clearly understood. We tested the hypothesis that NO inhibits the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and translocation of cardiac glucose transporters (GLUTs; GLUT-4) and reduces lactate production. Ischemia was induced in open-chest dogs by a 66% flow reduction in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). During ischemia, dogs were untreated (control) or treated by direct LAD infusion of (i) nitroglycerin (NTG) (0.5 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)); (ii) 8-Br-cGMP (50 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)); or (iii) NO synthase inhibitor L-nitro-argininemethylester (40 microg.kg(-1).min(-1); n = 9 per group). Cardiac substrate oxidation was measured with isotopic tracers. There were no differences in myocardial blood flow or oxygen delivery among groups; however, at 45 min of ischemia, the activation of AMPK was significantly less in NTG (77 +/- 12% vs. nonischemic myocardium) and 8-Br-cGMP (104 +/- 13%), compared with control (167 +/- 17%). Similarly, GLUT-4 translocation was significantly reduced in NTG (74 +/- 7%) and 8-Br-cGMP (120 +/- 11%), compared with control (165 +/- 17%). Glucose uptake and lactate output were 30% and 60% lower in NTG compared with control. Inhibition of NO synthesis stimulated glucose oxidation (67% increase compared with control) but did not affect AMPK phosphorylation, GLUT-4 translocation and glucose uptake. Contractile function in the ischemic region was significantly improved by NTG and L-nitro-argininemethylester. In conclusion, in ischemic myocardium an NO donor inhibits glucose uptake and lactate production via a reduction in AMPK stimulation of GLUT-4 translocation, revealing a mechanism of metabolic modulation and myocardial protection activated by NO donors.
Project description:The cardiac expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 is increased in patients with heart failure. However, the underlying causes as well as the possible consequences of these alterations during the transition from hypertrophy to heart failure are still unclear. To investigate the role of UCP-2 mechanistically, expression of UCP-2 was silenced by small interfering RNA in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate that a downregulation of UCP-2 by siRNA in cardiomyocytes preserves contractile function in the presence of angiotensin II. Furthermore, silencing of UCP-2 was associated with an upregulation of glucose transporter type (Glut)-4, increased glucose uptake, and reduced intracellular lactate levels, indicating improvement of the oxidative glucose metabolism. To study this adaptation in vivo, spontaneously hypertensive rats served as a model for cardiac hypertrophy due to pressure overload. During compensatory hypertrophy, we found low UCP-2 levels with an upregulation of Glut-4, while the decompensatory state with impaired function was associated with an increase of UCP-2 and reduced Glut-4 expression. By blocking the aldosterone receptor with spironolactone, both cardiac function as well as UCP-2 and Glut-4 expression levels of the compensated phase could be preserved. Furthermore, we were able to confirm this by left ventricular (LV) biopsies of patients with end-stage heart failure. The results of this study show that UCP-2 seems to impact the cardiac glucose metabolism during the transition from hypertrophy to failure by affecting glucose uptake through Glut-4. We suggest that the failing heart could benefit from low UCP-2 levels by improving the efficiency of glucose oxidation. For this reason, UCP-2 inhibition might be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent the development of heart failure.
Project description:Starvation (48 h) decreases fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) concentrations and the ratio of free to acylated carnitine in hearts of euthyroid rats. These decreases, which are indicative of increased lipid fuel oxidation, are accompanied by decreased rates of glucose uptake and phosphorylation, assessed by using radioactive 2-deoxyglucose. Cardiac concentrations of acylated carnitines were increased at the expense of free carnitine even in the fed state in response to experimental hyperthyroidism, but neither Fru-2,6-P2 concentrations nor rates of glucose utilization were suppressed. Starvation (48 h) did not further increase the proportion of acylated carnitine in the heart in hyperthyroidism, and suppression of Fru-2,6-P2 concentrations and glucose utilization rates by starvation was attenuated. Although glucose utilization rates were decreased, starvation did not decrease immunoreactive GLUT 4 protein concentrations. Furthermore, although hyperthyroidism was associated with a statistically significant (30-40%) increase in relative abundance of GLUT 4 mRNA, the amount of GLUT 4 protein was not increased by hyperthyroidism in either the fed or the starved state. The results demonstrate a significant effect of hyperthyroidism to enhance cardiac glucose utilization in starvation by a mechanism which does not involve changes in GLUT 4 expression but may be secondary to changes in glucose-lipid interactions at the tissue level.
Project description:The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SGLT2i on cardiac contractile function, substrate utilization, and efficiency before and during regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in normal, metabolically healthy swine. Lean swine received placebo or canagliflozin (300 mg PO) 24 h prior to and the morning of an invasive physiologic study protocol. Hemodynamic and cardiac function measurements were obtained at baseline, during a 30-min complete occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery, and during a 2-h reperfusion period. Blood pressure, heart rate, coronary flow, and myocardial oxygen consumption were unaffected by canagliflozin treatment. Ventricular volumes remained unchanged in controls throughout the protocol. At the onset of ischemia, canagliflozin produced acute large increases in left ventricular end-diastolic and systolic volumes which returned to baseline with reperfusion. Canagliflozin-mediated increases in end-diastolic volume were directly associated with increases in stroke volume and stroke work relative to controls during ischemia. Canagliflozin also increased cardiac work efficiency during ischemia relative to control swine. No differences in myocardial uptake of glucose, lactate, free fatty acids or ketones, were noted between treatment groups at any time. In separate experiments using a longer 60 min coronary occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion, canagliflozin increased end-diastolic volume and stroke volume and significantly diminished myocardial infarct size relative to control swine. These data demonstrate that SGLT2i with canagliflozin preserves cardiac contractile function and efficiency during regional myocardial ischemia and provides ischemia protection independent of alterations in myocardial substrate utilization.
Project description:Background Sustained pressure overload leads to changes in cardiac metabolism, function, and structure. Both time course and causal relationships between these changes are not fully understood. Therefore, we studied spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) during early hypertension development and compared them to control Wistar Kyoto rats. Methods and Results We serially evaluated myocardial glucose uptake rates (Ki) with dynamic 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography, and ejection fraction and left ventricular mass to body weight ratios with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in vivo, determined glucose uptake and oxidation rates in isolated perfused hearts, and analyzed metabolites, mammalian target of rapamycin activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress in dissected hearts. When compared with Wistar Kyoto rats, SHR demonstrated increased glucose uptake rates (Ki) in vivo, and reduced ejection fraction as early as 2 months of age when hypertension was established. Isolated perfused SHR hearts showed increased glucose uptake and oxidation rates starting at 1 month. Cardiac metabolite analysis at 2 months of age revealed elevated pyruvate, fatty acyl- and branched chain amino acid-derived carnitines, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Mammalian target of rapamycin activity increased in SHR beginning at 2 months. Left ventricular mass to body weight ratios and endoplasmic reticulum stress were elevated in 5 month-old SHR. Conclusions Thus, in a genetic hypertension model, chronic cardiac pressure overload promptly leads to increased myocardial glucose uptake and oxidation, and to metabolite abnormalities. These coincide with, or precede, cardiac dysfunction while left ventricular hypertrophy develops only later. Myocardial metabolic changes may thus serve as early diagnostic markers for hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy.