Discovery of early-stage biomarkers for diabetic kidney disease using ms-based metabolomics (FinnDiane study).
ABSTRACT: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a devastating complication that affects an estimated third of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). There is no cure once the disease is diagnosed, but early treatment at a sub-clinical stage can prevent or at least halt the progression. DKD is clinically diagnosed as abnormally high urinary albumin excretion rate (AER). We hypothesize that subtle changes in the urine metabolome precede the clinically significant rise in AER. To test this, 52 type 1 diabetic patients were recruited by the FinnDiane study that had normal AER (normoalbuminuric). After an average of 5.5 years of follow-up half of the subjects (26) progressed from normal AER to microalbuminuria or DKD (macroalbuminuria), the other half remained normoalbuminuric. The objective of this study is to discover urinary biomarkers that differentiate the progressive form of albuminuria from non-progressive form of albuminuria in humans. Metabolite profiles of baseline 24 h urine samples were obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to detect potential early indicators of pathological changes. Multivariate logistic regression modeling of the metabolomics data resulted in a profile of metabolites that separated those patients that progressed from normoalbuminuric AER to microalbuminuric AER from those patients that maintained normoalbuminuric AER with an accuracy of 75% and a precision of 73%. As this data and samples are from an actual patient population and as such, gathered within a less controlled environment it is striking to see that within this profile a number of metabolites (identified as early indicators) have been associated with DKD already in literature, but also that new candidate biomarkers were found. The discriminating metabolites included acyl-carnitines, acyl-glycines and metabolites related to tryptophan metabolism. We found candidate biomarkers that were univariately significant different. This study demonstrates the potential of multivariate data analysis and metabolomics in the field of diabetic complications, and suggests several metabolic pathways relevant for further biological studies. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-011-0291-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:Elevated urinary albumin excretion (microalbuminuria) is an early marker of diabetic nephropathy, but there is an unmet need for better biomarkers that capture the individuals at risk with higher accuracy and earlier than the current markers do. We performed an untargeted metabolomic study to assess baseline differences between individuals with type 1 diabetes who either developed microalbuminuria or remained normoalbuminuric. A total of 102 individuals progressed to microalbuminuria during a median follow-up of 3.2 years, whereas 98 sex-, age- and body mass index (BMI) matched non-progressors remained normoalbuminuric during a median follow-up of 7.1 years. Metabolomic screening identified 1,242 metabolites, out of which 111 differed significantly between progressors and non-progressors after adjustment for age of diabetes onset, baseline glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and albumin excretion rate (AER). The metabolites that predicted development of microalbumiuria included several uremic toxins and carnitine metabolism related molecules. Iterative variable selection indicated erythritol, 3-phenylpropionate, and N-trimethyl-5-aminovalerate as the best set of variables to predict development of microalbuminuria. A metabolomic index based on these metabolites improved the prediction of incident microalbuminuria on top of the clinical variables age of diabetes onset, baseline HbA1c and AER (ROCAUC?=?0.842 vs 0.797), highlighting their ability to predict early-phase diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Albuminuria is a measurement and determinant factor for diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is recommended for albuminuria in DKD with variable response. To find surrogate markers to predict the therapeutic effect of ARB, we carried out a prospective study to correlate plasma metabolites and the progression of renal function/albuminuria in DKD patients. A total of 56 type 2 diabetic patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease and albuminuria were recruited. ARB was prescribed once albuminuria was established. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was determined before and six months after ARB treatment, with a ?30% reduction of UACR considered an ARB responder. Plasma levels of 145 metabolites were measured before ARB treatment; only those associated with albuminuria were selected and compared between ARB responders and non-responders. Both lower tryptophan (Trp ? 46.75 ?mol/L) levels and a higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR ? 68.5 × 10-3) were significantly associated with macroalbuminuria (MAU), but only KTR (?54.7 × 10-3) predicts ARB responsiveness (sensitivity 90.0%, specificity 50%) in MAU. Together, these data suggest that the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio predicts angiotensin receptor blocker responsiveness in patients with diabetic kidney disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the absence of a histological diagnosis, persistent albuminuria is globally accepted as the main diagnostic criteria for diabetic kidney disease (DKD). METHODS:In the present retrospective study, we evaluated data from an Italian cohort of 42 deceased diabetic donors (mainly with type 2 diabetes). Using the kidney biopsies obtained at the time of donation to evaluate single or double allocation based on Karpinski score, we determined the prevalence of histological lesions attributable to diabetes. RESULTS:All 42 donors presented with proteinuria in the normal range and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (chronic kidney disease [CKD]-EPI) >60 mL/min/1.73 m2. A kidney biopsy was available for 36 patients; of these, one was not interpretable and 32 showed histopathological lesions consistent with DKD and encompassing all histological classes. Thus, we found a relatively high proportion of histologically proven DKD that had been clinically undiagnosed, as none of the patient had significant proteinuria and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSIONS:The data we present here support the need to implement routine kidney biopsies in normoalbuminuric diabetic subjects in the early stages of CKD. Such strategy may help to improve risk stratification in diabetic patients and guide therapeutic decisions during the early stages of the disease.
Project description:Objectives:As a screening index of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), urinary albumin/creatine ratio (UACR) is commonly used. However, approximately 23.3%-56.6% of DKD patients with estimated?glomerular?filtration?rate?(eGFR) < 60?ml/min per 1.73?m2 are normoalbuminuric. Thus, urinary biomarkers of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are urgently needed. Methods:This cross-sectional study enrolled 209 T2DM patients with normoalbuminuria whose diabetes duration was more than 5 years. The patients were classified into two groups, NO-CKD (eGFR ? 60?ml/min per 1.73?m2, n = 165) and NA-DKD (eGFR < 60?ml/min per 1.73?m2, n = 44). Levels of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), retinol-binding protein (RBP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-cadherin were detected, and their correlations with eGFR, plasma TNF-?, IL-6, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were assessed. Results:Among patients with renal insufficiency, 26.0% was normoalbuminuric. Compared to the NO-CKD group, the NA-DKD group was older with lower hemoglobin (HB) levels and higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma TNF-?, IL-6, and 8-OHdG levels. Logistic regression analysis suggested that age, TNF-?, and 8-OHdG were independent risk factors for nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency. Compared to the NO-CKD group, the NA-DKD group exhibited significant increases in urinary NGAL and RBP levels but not PAI-1, VCAM-1, and E-cadherin. Urinary NGAL and RBP both correlated negatively with eGFR and positively with plasma IL-6 and 8-OHdG. Multiple linear regression indicated NGAL (? = -0.287, p = 0.008) and RBP (? = -44.545, p < 0.001) were independently correlated with eGFR. Conclusion:Age, plasma TNF-?, and 8-OHdG are independent risk factors for renal insufficiency in T2DM patients with normoalbuminuria. Urinary NGAL and RBP can serve as noninvasive biomarkers of normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency in T2DM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the world. Emerging evidence has shown that urinary mRNAs may serve as early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of DKD. In this article, we aimed to first establish a novel bioinformatics-based methodology for analyzing the "urinary kidney-specific mRNAs" and verify their potential clinical utility in DKD. METHODS:To select candidate mRNAs, a total of 127 Affymetrix microarray datasets of diabetic kidney tissues and other tissues from humans were compiled and analyzed using an integrative bioinformatics approach. Then, the urinary expression of candidate mRNAs in stage 1 study (n = 82) was verified, and the one with best performance moved on to stage 2 study (n = 80) for validation. To avoid potential detection bias, a one-step Taqman PCR assay was developed for quantification of the interested mRNA in stage 2 study. Lastly, the in situ expression of the selected mRNA was further confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay and bioinformatics analysis. RESULTS:Our bioinformatics analysis identified sixteen mRNAs as candidates, of which urinary BBOX1 (uBBOX1) levels were significantly upregulated in the urine of patients with DKD. The expression of uBBOX1 was also increased in normoalbuminuric diabetes subjects, while remained unchanged in patients with urinary tract infection or bladder cancer. Besides, uBBOX1 levels correlated with glycemic control, albuminuria and urinary tubular injury marker levels. Similar results were obtained in stage 2 study. FISH assay further demonstrated that BBOX1 mRNA was predominantly located in renal tubular epithelial cells, while its expression in podocytes and urothelium was weak. Further bioinformatics analysis also suggested that tubular BBOX1 mRNA expression was quite stable in various types of kidney diseases. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provided a novel methodology to identify and analyze urinary kidney-specific mRNAs. uBBOX1 might serve as a promising biomarker of DKD. The performance of the selected urinary mRNAs in monitoring disease progression needs further validation.
Project description:Diabetic kidney disease, diagnosed by urinary albumin excretion rate (AER), is a critical symptom of chronic vascular injury in diabetes, and is associated with dyslipidemia and increased mortality. We investigated serum lipids in 326 subjects with type 1 diabetes: 56% of patients had normal AER, 17% had microalbuminuria (20 ? AER < 200 ?g/min or 30 ? AER < 300 mg/24 h) and 26% had overt kidney disease (macroalbuminuria AER ? 200 ?g/min or AER ? 300 mg/24 h). Lipoprotein subclass lipids and low-molecular-weight metabolites were quantified from native serum, and individual lipid species from the lipid extract of the native sample, using a proton NMR metabonomics platform. Sphingomyelin (odds ratio 2.53, P < 10(-7)), large VLDL cholesterol (odds ratio 2.36, P < 10(-10)), total triglycerides (odds ratio 1.88, P < 10(-6)), omega-9 and saturated fatty acids (odds ratio 1.82, P < 10(-5)), glucose disposal rate (odds ratio 0.44, P < 10(-9)), large HDL cholesterol (odds ratio 0.39, P < 10(-9)) and glomerular filtration rate (odds ratio 0.19, P < 10(-10)) were associated with kidney disease. No associations were found for polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids. Sphingomyelin was a significant regressor of urinary albumin (P < 0.0001) in multivariate analysis with kidney function, glycemic control, body mass, blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Kidney injury, sphingolipids and excess fatty acids have been linked in animal models-our exploratory approach provides independent support for this relationship in human patients with diabetes. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-011-0343-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases have been implicated in diabetic microvascular complications. However, little is known about the pathophysiological links between MMP-10 and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). We tested the hypothesis that MMP-10 may be up-regulated in early stage DKD, and could be down-regulated by angiotensin II receptor blockade (telmisartan). Serum MMP-10 and TIMP-1 levels were measured in 268 type 2 diabetic subjects and 111 controls. Furthermore, histological and molecular analyses were performed to evaluate the renal expression of Mmp10 and Timp1 in a murine model of early type 2 DKD (db/db) after telmisartan treatment. MMP-10 (473?±?274?pg/ml vs. 332?±?151; p?=?0.02) and TIMP-1 (573?±?296?ng/ml vs. 375?±?317; p?<?0.001) levels were significantly increased in diabetic patients as compared to controls. An early increase in MMP-10 and TIMP-1 was observed and a further progressive elevation was found as DKD progressed to end-stage renal disease. Diabetic mice had 4-fold greater glomerular Mmp10 expression and significant albuminuria compared to wild-type, which was prevented by telmisartan. MMP-10 and TIMP-1 are increased from the early stages of type 2 diabetes. Prevention of MMP-10 upregulation observed in diabetic mice could be another protective mechanism of RAS blockade in DKD.
Project description:The NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoform NOX4 has been linked with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, a mechanistic understanding of the downstream effects of NOX4 remains to be established. We report that podocyte-specific induction of NOX4 in vivo was sufficient to recapitulate the characteristic glomerular changes noted with DKD, including glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix accumulation, glomerular basement membrane thickening, albuminuria, and podocyte dropout. Intervention with a NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor reduced albuminuria, glomerular hypertrophy, and mesangial matrix accumulation in the F1 Akita model of DKD. Metabolomic analyses from these mouse studies revealed that tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related urinary metabolites were increased in DKD, but fumarate levels were uniquely reduced by the NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor. Expression of fumarate hydratase (FH), which regulates urine fumarate accumulation, was reduced in the diabetic kidney (in mouse and human tissue), and administration of the NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor increased glomerular FH levels in diabetic mice. Induction of Nox4 in vitro and in the podocyte-specific NOX4 transgenic mouse led to reduced FH levels. In vitro, fumarate stimulated endoplasmic reticulum stress, matrix gene expression, and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and TGF-?. Similar upregulation of renal HIF-1? and TGF-? expression was observed in NOX4 transgenic mice and diabetic mice and was attenuated by NOX1/NOX4 inhibition in diabetic mice. In conclusion, NOX4 is a major mediator of diabetes-associated glomerular dysfunction through targeting of renal FH, which increases fumarate levels. Fumarate is therefore a key link connecting metabolic pathways to DKD pathogenesis, and measuring urinary fumarate levels may have application for monitoring renal NOX4 activity.
Project description:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains one of the leading causes of reduced lifespan in diabetes. The quest for both prognostic and surrogate endpoint biomarkers for advanced DKD and end-stage renal disease has received major investment and interest in recent years. However, at present no novel biomarkers are in routine use in the clinic or in trials. This review focuses on the current status of prognostic biomarkers. First, we emphasise that albuminuria and eGFR, with other routine clinical data, show at least modest prediction of future renal status if properly used. Indeed, a major limitation of many current biomarker studies is that they do not properly evaluate the marginal increase in prediction on top of these routinely available clinical data. Second, we emphasise that many of the candidate biomarkers for which there are numerous sporadic reports in the literature are tightly correlated with each other. Despite this, few studies have attempted to evaluate a wide range of biomarkers simultaneously to define the most useful among these correlated biomarkers. We also review the potential of high-dimensional panels of lipids, metabolites and proteins to advance the field, and point to some of the analytical and post-analytical challenges of taking initial studies using these and candidate approaches through to actual clinical biomarker use.
Project description:Despite considerable advancements in medicine, the optimal treatment for chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially diabetic kidney disease (DKD), remains a major challenge. More patients with DKD succumb to death due to cardiovascular events than due to progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Moreover, patients with DKD and ESRD have remarkably poor prognosis. Current studies have appreciated the contribution of inflammation and inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related biomarkers, on the development/progression of DKD. The present review focuses on molecular roles, serum concentrations of TNF receptors (TNFRs), and their association with increased albuminuria, eGFR decline, and all-cause mortality in diabetes. Experimental studies have suggested that DKD progression occurs through the TNF?-TNFR2 inflammatory pathway. Moreover, serum TNFR levels were positively associated with albuminuria and negatively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), while circulating levels of TNFRs exhibited an independent effect on all-cause mortality and eGFR decline, including ESRD, even after adjusting for existing risk factors. However, their precise function has yet to be elucidated and requires further studies.