ADP-ribose polymers localized on Ctcf-Parp1-Dnmt1 complex prevent methylation of Ctcf target sites.
ABSTRACT: PARylation [poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation] is involved in the maintenance of genomic methylation patterns through its control of Dnmt1 [DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1] activity. Our previous findings indicated that Ctcf (CCCTC-binding factor) may be an important player in key events whereby PARylation controls the unmethylated status of some CpG-rich regions. Ctcf is able to activate Parp1 [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1], which ADP-ribosylates itself and, in turn, inhibits DNA methylation via non-covalent interaction between its ADP-ribose polymers and Dnmt1. By such a mechanism, Ctcf may preserve the epigenetic pattern at promoters of important housekeeping genes. The results of the present study showed Dnmt1 as a new protein partner of Ctcf. Moreover, we show that Ctcf forms a complex with Dnmt1 and PARylated Parp1 at specific Ctcf target sequences and that PARylation is responsible for the maintenance of the unmethylated status of some Ctcf-bound CpGs. We suggest a mechanism by which Parp1, tethered and activated at specific DNA target sites by Ctcf, preserves their methylation-free status.
Project description:Aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands in housekeeping gene promoters and widespread genome hypomethylation are typical events occurring in cancer cells. The molecular mechanisms behind these cancer-related changes in DNA methylation patterns are not well understood. Two questions are particularly important: (i) how are CpG islands protected from methylation in normal cells, and how is this protection compromised in cancer cells, and (ii) how does the genome-wide demethylation in cancer cells occur. The latter question is especially intriguing since so far no DNA demethylase enzyme has been found.Our data show that the absence of ADP-ribose polymers (PARs), caused by ectopic over-expression of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) in L929 mouse fibroblast cells leads to aberrant methylation of the CpG island in the promoter of the Dnmt1 gene, which in turn shuts down its transcription. The transcriptional silencing of Dnmt1 may be responsible for the widespread passive hypomethylation of genomic DNA which we detect on the example of pericentromeric repeat sequences. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results show that in normal cells the Dnmt1 promoter is occupied by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated Parp1, suggesting that PARylated Parp1 plays a role in protecting the promoter from methylation.In conclusion, the genome methylation pattern following PARG over-expression mirrors the pattern characteristic of cancer cells, supporting our idea that the right balance between Parp/Parg activities maintains the DNA methylation patterns in normal cells. The finding that in normal cells Parp1 and ADP-ribose polymers localize on the Dnmt1 promoter raises the possibility that PARylated Parp1 marks those sequences in the genome that must remain unmethylated and protects them from methylation, thus playing a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression.
Project description:Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a potentially oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that establishes a chronic, latent infection in memory B cells. The EBV genome persists in infected host cells as a chromatinized episome and is subject to chromatin-mediated regulation. Binding of the host insulator protein CTCF to the EBV genome has an established role in maintaining viral latency type. CTCF is posttranslationally modified by the host enzyme PARP1. PARP1, or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, catalyzes the transfer of a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) moiety from NAD+ onto acceptor proteins, including itself, histone proteins, and CTCF. PARylation of CTCF by PARP1 can affect CTCF's insulator activity, DNA binding capacity, and ability to form chromatin loops. Both PARP1 and CTCF have been implicated in the regulation of EBV latency and lytic reactivation. Thus, we predicted that pharmacological inhibition with PARP1 inhibitors would affect EBV latency type through a chromatin-specific mechanism. Here, we show that PARP1 and CTCF colocalize at specific sites throughout the EBV genome and provide evidence to suggest that PARP1 acts to stabilize CTCF binding and maintain the open chromatin landscape at the active Cp promoter during type III latency. Further, PARP1 activity is important in maintaining latency type-specific viral gene expression. The data presented here provide a rationale for the use of PARP inhibitors in the treatment of EBV-associated cancers exhibiting type III latency and ultimately could contribute to an EBV-specific treatment strategy for AIDS-related or posttransplant lymphomas.IMPORTANCE EBV is a human gammaherpesvirus that infects more than 95% of individuals worldwide. Upon infection, EBV circularizes as an episome and establishes a chronic, latent infection in B cells. In doing so, the virus utilizes host cell machinery to regulate and maintain the viral genome. In otherwise healthy individuals, EBV infection is typically nonpathological; however, latent infection is potentially oncogenic and is responsible for 1% of human cancers. During latent infection, EBV expresses specific sets of proteins according to the given latency type, each of which is associated with specific types of cancers. For example, type III latency, in which the virus expresses its full repertoire of latent proteins, is characteristic of AIDS-associated and posttransplant lymphomas associated with EBV infection. Understanding how viral latency type is regulated at the chromatin level may reveal potential targets for EBV-specific pharmacological intervention in EBV-associated cancers.
Project description:The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is mediated via two major pathways, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) repair. DSB repair is vital for cell survival, genome stability, and tumor suppression. In contrast to NHEJ, HR relies on extensive homology and templated DNA synthesis to restore the sequence surrounding the break site. We report a new role for the multifunctional protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) in facilitating HR-mediated DSB repair. CTCF is recruited to DSB through its zinc finger domain independently of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers, known as PARylation, catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). CTCF ensures proper DSB repair kinetics in response to ?-irradiation, and the loss of CTCF compromises HR-mediated repair. Consistent with its role in HR, loss of CTCF results in hypersensitivity to DNA damage, inducing agents and inhibitors of PARP. Mechanistically, CTCF acts downstream of BRCA1 in the HR pathway and associates with BRCA2 in a PARylation-dependent manner, enhancing BRCA2 recruitment to DSB. In contrast, CTCF does not influence the recruitment of the NHEJ protein 53BP1 or LIGIV to DSB. Together, our findings establish for the first time that CTCF is an important regulator of the HR pathway.
Project description:Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is a nuclear enzyme involved in DNA repair, chromatin remodeling and gene expression. PARP1 interactions with chromatin architectural multi-protein complexes (i.e. nucleosomes) alter chromatin structure resulting in changes in gene expression. Chromatin structure impacts gene regulatory processes including transcription, splicing, DNA repair, replication and recombination. It is important to delineate whether PARP1 randomly associates with nucleosomes or is present at specific nucleosome regions throughout the cell genome. We performed genome-wide association studies in breast cancer cell lines to address these questions. Our studies show that PARP1 associates with epigenetic regulatory elements genome-wide, such as active histone marks, CTCF and DNase hypersensitive sites. Additionally, the binding of PARP1 to chromatin genome-wide is mutually exclusive with DNA methylation pattern suggesting a functional interplay between PARP1 and DNA methylation. Indeed, inhibition of PARylation results in genome-wide changes in DNA methylation patterns. Our results suggest that PARP1 controls the fidelity of gene transcription and marks actively transcribed gene regions by selectively binding to transcriptionally active chromatin. These studies provide a platform for developing our understanding of PARP1's role in gene regulation.
Project description:Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is a potentially oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that establishes a chronic, latent infection in memory B cells. The EBV genome persists in infected host cells as a chromatinized episome and is subject to chromatin-mediated regulation. Binding of the host insulator protein CTCF to the EBV genome has an established role in maintaining viral latency type. CTCF is post-translationally modified by the host enzyme PARP1. PARP1, or Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, catalyzes the transfer of a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) moiety from NAD+ onto acceptor proteins including itself, histone proteins, and CTCF. PARylation of CTCF by PARP1 can affect CTCF’s insulator activity, DNA binding capacity, and ability to form chromatin loops. Both PARP1 and CTCF have been implicated in the regulation of EBV latency and lytic reactivation. Thus, we predicted that pharmacological inhibition with PARP1 inhibitors would affect EBV latency type through a chromatin-specific mechanism. Here, we show that PARP1 and CTCF colocalize at specific sites throughout the EBV genome, and provide evidence to suggest that PARP1 acts to stabilize CTCF binding and maintain the open chromatin landscape at the active Cp promoter during type III latency. Further, PARP1 activity is important in maintaining latency type-specific viral gene expression. The data presented here provide a rationale for the use of PARP inhibitors in the treatment of EBV-associated cancers exhibiting type III latency, and could ultimately contribute to an EBV-specific treatment strategy for AIDS-related or post-transplant lymphomas. Overall design: Two biological replicates of LCL FAIRE or just sonicate DNA (input) were used to make ChIP-seq libraries. For peak calling we compare the FAIRE enrichment to the input signal. This series includes PARP1 and CTCF ChIP-seq of EBV.
Project description:DNA-dependent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) PARP1, PARP2 and PARP3 act as DNA break sensors signalling DNA damage. Upon detecting DNA damage, these PARPs use nicotine adenine dinucleotide as a substrate to synthesise a monomer or polymer of ADP-ribose (MAR or PAR, respectively) covalently attached to the acceptor residue of target proteins. Recently, it was demonstrated that PARP1-3 proteins can directly ADP-ribosylate DNA breaks by attaching MAR and PAR moieties to terminal phosphates. Nevertheless, little is still known about the mechanisms governing substrate recognition and specificity of PARP1, which accounts for most of cellular PARylation activity. Here, we characterised PARP1-mediated DNA PARylation of DNA duplexes containing various types of breaks at different positions. The 3'-terminal phosphate residue at double-strand DNA break ends served as a major acceptor site for PARP1-catalysed PARylation depending on the orientation and distance between DNA strand breaks in a single DNA molecule. A preference for ADP-ribosylation of DNA molecules containing 3'-terminal phosphate over PARP1 auto-ADP-ribosylation was observed, and a model of DNA modification by PARP1 was proposed. Similar results were obtained with purified recombinant PARP1 and HeLa cell-free extracts. Thus, the biological effects of PARP-mediated ADP-ribosylation may strongly depend on the configuration of complex DNA strand breaks.
Project description:Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) is a fully reversible post-translational modification with key roles in cellular physiology. Due to the multi-domain structure of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) and the highly dynamic nature of the PARylation reaction, studies on the biochemical mechanism and structural dynamics remain challenging. Here, we report label-free, time-resolved monitoring of PARP1-dependent PARylation using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. This includes PARP1 activation by binding to DNA strand break models, NAD+ substrate binding, PAR formation, and dissociation of automodified PARP1 from DNA. Analyses of PARP1 activation at different DNA models demonstrate a strong positive correlation of PARylation and PARP1 dissociation, with the strongest effects observed for DNA nicks and 3' phosphorylated ends. Moreover, by examining dynamic structural changes of PARP1, we reveal changes in the secondary structure of PARP1 induced by NAD+ and PARP inhibitor binding. In summary, this approach enables holistic and dynamic insights into PARP1-dependent PARylation with molecular and temporal resolution.
Project description:Our previous data have shown that in L929 mouse fibroblasts the control of methylation pattern depends in part on poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and that ADP-ribose polymers (PARs), both present on poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP-1 and/or protein-free, have an inhibitory effect on Dnmt1 activity. Here we show that transient ectopic overexpression of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) induces PAR accumulation, PARP-1, and CTCF poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in the same mouse fibroblasts. The persistence in time of a high PAR level affects the DNA methylation machinery; the DNA methyltransferase activity is inhibited with consequences for the methylation state of genome, which becomes diffusely hypomethylated affecting centromeric minor satellite and B1 DNA repeats. In vitro data show that CTCF is able to activate PARP-1 automodification even in the absence of nicked DNA. Our new finding that CTCF is able per se to activate PARP-1 automodification in vitro is of great interest as so far a burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP-1 has generally been found following introduction of DNA strand breaks. CTCF is unable to inhibit DNMT1 activity, whereas poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP-1 plays this inhibitory role. These data suggest that CTCF is involved in the cross-talk between poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and DNA methylation and underscore the importance of a rapid reversal of PARP activity, as DNA methylation pattern is responsible for an important epigenetic code.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation plays important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. It has been challenging to study this key type of enzymatic post-translational modification in particular for protein poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation). Here we explore chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of NAD+ analogues with ribose functionalized by terminal alkyne and azido groups. Our results demonstrate that azido substitution at 3'-OH of nicotinamide riboside enables enzymatic synthesis of an NAD+ analogue with high efficiency and yields. Notably, the generated 3'-azido NAD+ exhibits unexpected high activity and specificity for protein PARylation catalyzed by human poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) and PARP2. And its derived poly-ADP-ribose polymers show increased resistance to human poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase-mediated degradation. These unique properties lead to enhanced labeling of protein PARylation by 3'-azido NAD+ in the cellular contexts and facilitate direct visualization and labeling of mitochondrial protein PARylation. The 3'-azido NAD+ provides an important tool for studying cellular PARylation.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a posttranslational protein modification catalyzed by members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme family. PARylation regulates a wide variety of biological processes in most eukaryotic cells including energy metabolism and cell death, maintenance of genomic stability, chromatin structure and transcription. Inside the nucleus, cross-talk between PARylation and other epigenetic modifications, such as DNA and histone methylation, was already described. In the present work, using PJ34 or ABT888 to inhibit PARP activity or over-expressing poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), we show decrease of global histone H3 and H4 acetylation. This effect is accompanied by a reduction of the steady state mRNA level of p300, Pcaf, and Tnf?, but not of Dnmt1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses, performed at the level of the Transcription Start Site (TSS) of these four genes, reveal that changes in histone acetylation are specific for each promoter. Finally, we demonstrate an increase of global deacetylase activity in nuclear extracts from cells treated with PJ34, whereas global acetyltransferase activity is not affected, suggesting a role for PARP in the inhibition of histone deacetylases. Taken together, these results show an important link between PARylation and histone acetylation regulated transcription.