Football- and bullet-shaped GroEL-GroES complexes coexist during the reaction cycle.
ABSTRACT: GroEL is an Escherichia coli chaperonin that is composed of two heptameric rings stacked back-to-back. GroEL assists protein folding with its cochaperonin GroES in an ATP-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. However, it is still unclear whether GroES binds to both rings of GroEL simultaneously under physiological conditions. In this study, we monitored the GroEL-GroES interaction in the reaction cycle using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. We found that nearly equivalent amounts of symmetric GroEL-(GroES)(2) (football-shaped) complex and asymmetric GroEL-GroES (bullet-shaped) complex coexist during the functional reaction cycle. We also found that D398A, an ATP hydrolysis defective mutant of GroEL, forms a football-shaped complex with ATP bound to the two rings. Furthermore, we showed that ADP prevents the association of ATP to the trans-ring of GroEL, and as a consequence, the second GroES cannot bind to GroEL. Considering the concentrations of ADP and ATP in E. coli, ADP is expected to have a small effect on the inhibition of GroES binding to the trans-ring of GroEL in vivo. These results suggest that we should reconsider the chaperonin-mediated protein-folding mechanism that involves the football-shaped complex.
Project description:The Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL is a double-ring chaperone that assists protein folding with the aid of GroES and ATP. Asp-398 in GroEL is known as one of the critical residues on ATP hydrolysis because GroEL(D398A) mutant is deficient in ATP hydrolysis (<2% of the wild type) but not in ATP binding. In the archaeal Group II chaperonin, another aspartate residue, Asp-52 in the corresponding E. coli GroEL, in addition to Asp-398 is also important for ATP hydrolysis. We investigated the role of Asp-52 in GroEL and found that ATPase activity of GroEL(D52A) and GroEL(D52A/D398A) mutants was ∼ 20% and <0.01% of wild-type GroEL, respectively, indicating that Asp-52 in E. coli GroEL is also involved in the ATP hydrolysis. GroEL(D52A/D398A) formed a symmetric football-shaped GroEL-GroES complex in the presence of ATP, again confirming the importance of the symmetric complex during the GroEL ATPase cycle. Notably, the symmetric complex of GroEL(D52A/D398A) was extremely stable, with a half-time of ∼ 150 h (∼ 6 days), providing a good model to characterize the football-shaped complex.
Project description:The Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL is a double-ring chaperone that assists in protein folding with the aid of GroES and ATP. It is believed that GroEL alternates the folding-active rings and that the substrate protein (and GroES) can bind to the open trans-ring only after ATP in the cis-ring is hydrolyzed. However, we found that a substrate protein prebound to the trans-ring remained bound during the first ATP cycle, and this substrate was assisted by GroEL-GroES when the second cycle began. Moreover, a slow ATP-hydrolyzing GroEL mutant (D398A) in the ATP-bound form bound a substrate protein and GroES to the trans-ring. The apparent discrepancy with the results from an earlier study (Rye, H. S., Roseman, A. M., Chen, S., Furtak, K., Fenton, W. A., Saibil, H. R., and Horwich, A. L. (1999) Cell 97, 325-338) can be explained by the previously unnoticed fact that the ATP-bound form of the D398A mutant exists as a symmetric 1:2 GroEL-GroES complex (the "football"-shaped complex) and that the substrate protein (and GroES) in the medium is incorporated into the complex only after the slow turnover. In light of these results, the current model of the GroEL-GroES reaction cycle via the asymmetric 1:1 GroEL-GroES complex deserves reexamination.
Project description:Two heptamer rings of chaperonin GroEL undergo opening-closing conformational transition in the reaction cycle with the aid of GroES and ATP. We introduced Cys into the GroEL subunit at Ala-384 and Ser-509, which are very close between adjacent GroEL subunits in the open heptamer ring but far apart in the closed heptamer ring. The open ring-specific inter-subunit cross-linking between these Cys indicated that the number of rings in open conformation in GroEL was two in ATP (GroEL(OO)), one in ADP (GroEL(O)), and none in the absence of nucleotide. ADP showed an inhibitory effect on ATP-induced generation of GroEL(OO). The isolated GroEL(O) and GroEL(OO), which lost any bound nucleotide, could bind GroES to form a bullet-shaped 1:1 GroEL-GroES complex and a football-shaped 1:2 GroEL-GroES complex, respectively, even without the addition of any nucleotide. Substrate protein was unable to form a stable complex with GroEL(OO) and did not stimulate ATPase activity of GroEL. These results favor a model of the GroEL reaction cycle that includes a football complex as a critical intermediate.
Project description:The GroE chaperonins assist substrate protein (SP) folding by cycling through several conformational states. With each cycle the SP is, in turn, captured, unfolded, briefly encapsulated (t1/2 ∼ 1 s), and released by the chaperonin complex. The protein-folding functional form is the US-football-shaped GroEL:GroES2 complex. We report structures of two such "football" complexes to ∼ 3.7-Å resolution; one is empty whereas the other contains encapsulated SP in both chambers. Although encapsulated SP is not visible on the electron density map, using calibrated FRET and order-of-addition experiments we show that owing to SP-catalyzed ADP/ATP exchange both chambers of the football complex encapsulate SP efficiently only if the binding of SP precedes that of ATP. The two rings of GroEL thus behave as a parallel processing machine, rather than functioning alternately. Compared with the bullet-shaped GroEL:GroES1 complex, the GroEL:GroES2 football complex differs conformationally at the GroEL-GroES interface and also at the interface between the two GroEL rings. We propose that the electrostatic interactions between the ε-NH(3+) of K105 of helix D in one ring with the negatively charged carboxyl oxygen of A109 at the carboxyl end of helix D of the other ring provide the structural basis for negative inter-ring cooperativity.
Project description:It has been widely believed that an asymmetric GroEL-GroES complex (termed the bullet-shaped complex) is formed solely throughout the chaperonin reaction cycle, whereas we have recently revealed that a symmetric GroEL-(GroES)(2) complex (the football-shaped complex) can form in the presence of denatured proteins. However, the dynamics of the GroEL-GroES interaction, including the football-shaped complex, is unclear. We investigated the decay process of the football-shaped complex at a single-molecule level. Because submicromolar concentrations of fluorescent GroES are required in solution to form saturated amounts of the football-shaped complex, single-molecule fluorescence imaging was carried out using zero-mode waveguides. The single-molecule study revealed two insights into the GroEL-GroES reaction. First, the first GroES to interact with GroEL does not always dissociate from the football-shaped complex prior to the dissociation of a second GroES. Second, there are two cycles, the "football cycle " and the "bullet cycle," in the chaperonin reaction, and the lifetimes of the football-shaped and the bullet-shaped complexes were determined to be 3-5 s and about 6 s, respectively. These findings shed new light on the molecular mechanism of protein folding mediated by the GroEL-GroES chaperonin system.
Project description:The complex kinetics of Pi and ADP release by the chaperonin GroEL/GroES is influenced by the presence of unfolded substrate protein (SP). Without SP, the kinetics of Pi release are described by four phases: a "lag," a "burst" of ATP hydrolysis by the nascent cis ring, a "delay" caused by ADP release from the nascent trans ring, and steady-state ATP hydrolysis. The release of Pi precedes the release of ADP. The rate-determining step of the asymmetric cycle is the release of ADP from the trans ring of the GroEL-GroES1 "bullet" complex that is, consequently, the predominant species. In the asymmetric cycle, the two rings of GroEL function alternately, 180° out of phase. In the presence of SP, a change in the kinetic mechanism occurs. With SP present, the kinetics of ADP release are also described by four phases: a lag, a "surge" of ADP release attributable to SP-induced ADP/ATP exchange, and a "pause" during which symmetrical "football" particles are formed, followed by steady-state ATP hydrolysis. SP catalyzes ADP/ATP exchange on the trans ring. Now ADP release precedes the release of Pi, and the rate-determining step of the symmetric cycle becomes the hydrolysis of ATP by the symmetric GroEL-GroES2 football complex that is, consequently, the predominant species. A FRET-based analysis confirms that asymmetric GroEL-GroES1 bullets predominate in the absence of SP, whereas symmetric GroEL-GroES2 footballs predominate in the presence of SP. This evidence suggests that symmetrical football particles are the folding functional form of the chaperonin machine in vivo.
Project description:The E. coli GroEL/GroES chaperonin complex acts as a folding cage by producing a bullet-like asymmetric complex, and GroEL exists as double rings regardless of the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Its mammalian chaperonin homolog, heat shock protein, HSP60, and co-chaperonin, HSP10, play an essential role in protein folding by capturing unfolded proteins in the HSP60/HSP10 complex. However, the structural transition in ATPase-dependent reaction cycle has remained unclear. We found nucleotide-dependent association and dissociation of the HSP60/HSP10 complex using various analytical techniques under near physiological conditions. Our results showed that HSP60 exist as a significant number of double-ring complexes (football- and bullet-type complexes) and a small number of single-ring complexes in the presence of ATP and HSP10. HSP10 binds to HSP60 in the presence of ATP, which increased the HSP60 double-ring formation. After ATP is hydrolyzed to Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), HSP60 released the HSP10 and the dissociation of the double-ring to single-rings occurred. These results indicated that HSP60/HSP10 undergoes an ATP-dependent transition between the single- and double-rings in their system that is highly distinctive from the GroEL/GroES system particularly in the manner of complex formation and the roles of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the reaction cycle.
Project description:mHsp60-mHsp10 assists the folding of mitochondrial matrix proteins without the negative ATP binding inter-ring cooperativity of GroEL-GroES. Here we report the crystal structure of an ATP (ADP:BeF3-bound) ground-state mimic double-ring mHsp6014-(mHsp107)2 football complex, and the cryo-EM structures of the ADP-bound successor mHsp6014-(mHsp107)2 complex, and a single-ring mHsp607-mHsp107 half-football. The structures explain the nucleotide dependence of mHsp60 ring formation, and reveal an inter-ring nucleotide symmetry consistent with the absence of negative cooperativity. In the ground-state a two-fold symmetric H-bond and a salt bridge stitch the double-rings together, whereas only the H-bond remains as the equatorial gap increases in an ADP football poised to split into half-footballs. Refolding assays demonstrate obligate single- and double-ring mHsp60 variants are active, and complementation analysis in bacteria shows the single-ring variant is as efficient as wild-type mHsp60. Our work provides a structural basis for active single- and double-ring complexes coexisting in the mHsp60-mHsp10 chaperonin reaction cycle.
Project description:Kinetic analyses of GroE-assisted folding provide a dynamic sequence of molecular events that underlie chaperonin function. We used stopped-flow analysis of various fluorescent GroEL mutants to obtain details regarding the sequence of events that transpire immediately after ATP binding to GroEL and GroEL with prebound unfolded proteins. Characterization of GroEL CP86, a circularly permuted GroEL with the polypeptide ends relocated to the vicinity of the ATP binding site, showed that GroES binding and protection of unfolded protein from solution is achieved surprisingly early in the functional cycle, and in spite of greatly reduced apical domain movement. Analysis of fluorescent GroEL SR-1 and GroEL D398A variants suggested that among other factors, the presence of two GroEL rings and a specific conformational rearrangement of Helix M in GroEL contribute significantly to the rapid release of unfolded protein from the GroEL apical domain.
Project description:Chaperonins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones found in all domains of life. They form ring-shaped complexes that assist in the folding of substrate proteins in an ATP-dependent reaction cycle. Key to the folding cycle is the transient encapsulation of substrate proteins by the chaperonin. Here we present a structural and functional characterization of the chaperonin gp146 (?EL) from the phage EL of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ?EL, an evolutionarily distant homolog of bacterial GroEL, is active in ATP hydrolysis and prevents the aggregation of denatured protein in a nucleotide-dependent manner. However, ?EL failed to refold the encapsulation-dependent model substrate rhodanese and did not interact with E. coli GroES, the lid-shaped co-chaperone of GroEL. ?EL forms tetradecameric double-ring complexes, which dissociate into single rings in the presence of ATP. Crystal structures of ?EL (at 3.54 and 4.03 Å) in presence of ATP•BeFx revealed two distinct single-ring conformational states, both with open access to the ring cavity. One state showed uniform ATP-bound subunit conformations (symmetric state), whereas the second combined distinct ATP- and ADP-bound subunit conformations (asymmetric state). Cryo-electron microscopy of apo-?EL revealed a double-ring structure composed of rings in the asymmetric state (3.45 Å resolution). We propose that the phage chaperonin undergoes nucleotide-dependent conformational switching between double- and single rings and functions in aggregation prevention without substrate protein encapsulation. Thus, ?EL may represent an evolutionarily more ancient chaperonin prior to acquisition of the encapsulation mechanism.