Iron depletion and repletion with ferrous sulfate or electrolytic iron modifies the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota in rats.
ABSTRACT: Iron (Fe) deficiency anemia is a global health concern and Fe fortification and supplementation are common corrective strategies. Fe is essential not only for the human host but also for nearly all gut bacteria. We studied the impact of Fe deficiency and Fe repletion on the gut microbiota in rats. Weanling rats were fed an Fe-deficient diet for 24 d and then repleted for 13 d with FeSO? (n = 15) or electrolytic Fe (n = 14) at 10 and 20 mg Fe · kg diet?¹. In addition, one group of rats (n = 8) received the Fe-deficient diet and one group (n = 3) received a Fe-sufficient control diet for all 37 d. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after the depletion and repletion periods, and colonic tissues were examined histologically. Microbial metabolite composition in cecal water was measured and fecal samples were analyzed for microbial composition with temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and qPCR. Compared to Fe-sufficient rats, Fe-deficient rats had significantly lower concentrations of cecal butyrate (-87%) and propionate (-72%) and the abundance of dominant species was strongly modified, including greater numbers of lactobacilli and Enterobacteriaceae and a large significant decrease of the Roseburia spp./E. rectale group, a major butyrate producer. Repletion with 20 mg FeSO? · kg diet?¹ significantly increased cecal butyrate concentrations and partially restored bacterial populations compared to Fe-deficient rats at endpoint. The effects on the gut microbiota were stronger in rats repleted with FeSO? than in rats repleted with electrolytic Fe, suggesting ferrous Fe may be more available for utilization by the gut microbiota than elemental Fe. Repletion with FeSO? significantly increased neutrophilic infiltration of the colonic mucosa compared to Fe-deficient rats. In conclusion, Fe depletion and repletion strongly affect the composition and metabolic activity of rat gut microbiota.
Project description:<h4>Background/aims</h4>The gut microbiota regulates intestinal immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Multiple factors affect the gut microbiota, including age, sex, diet, and use of drugs. In addition, information on gut microbiota differs depending on the samples. The aim of this study is to investigate whether changes in cecal microbiota depend on aging.<h4>Methods</h4>Gut microbiota in cecal contents of 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old and 2-year-old male Fischer-344 rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans in terms of age) were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA metagenome sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology. Moreover, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level in cecum and inflammation related factors were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.<h4>Results</h4>Alpha and beta diversity did not change significantly with age. At the family level, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, which produce SCFAs, showed significant change in 31-week-old rats: Lachnospiraceae significantly increased at 31 weeks of age, compared to other age groups, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. Butyrate levels in cecum were significantly increased in 31-week-old rats, and the expression of inflammation related genes was increased followed aging. Especially, EU622775_s and EU622773_s, which were highly abundance species in 31-week-old rats, showed significant relationship with butyrate concentration. Enzymes required for producing butyrate-acetyl-CoA transferase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and butyrate kinase-were not predicted by PICRUSt.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Major bacterial taxa in the cecal lumen, such as Lachnospiraceae, well-known SCFAs-producing family, changed in 31-week-old rats. Moreover, unknown species EU622775_s and EU622773_s showed strong association with cecal butyrate level at 31 weeks of age.
Project description:The fructooligosaccharide 1-kestose cannot be hydrolyzed by gastrointestinal enzymes, and is instead fermented by the gut microbiota. Previous studies suggest that 1-kestose promotes increases in butyrate concentrations in vitro and in the ceca of rats. Low levels of butyrate-producing microbiota are frequently observed in the gut of patients and experimental animals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, little is known about the role of 1-kestose in increasing the butyrate-producing microbiota and improving the metabolic conditions in type 2 diabetic animals. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation with 1-kestose suppressed the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, possibly through improved glucose tolerance. We showed that the cecal contents of rats fed 1-kestose were high in butyrate and harbored a higher proportion of the butyrate-producing genus Anaerostipes compared to rats fed a control diet. These findings illustrate how 1-kestose modifications to the gut microbiota impact glucose metabolism of T2D, and provide a potential preventative strategy to control glucose metabolism associated with dysregulated insulin secretion.
Project description:Vitamin B6 plays a crucial role as a cofactor in various enzymatic reactions but bacteria-produced vitamin B6 is not sufficient to meet host requirements. Our objective was to assess the impact of diet-derived vitamin B6 on gut microbiota and host serum metabolomics. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 47) were fed a control, low B6 (LB6) or high B6 (HB6) diet for six weeks. Serum and cecal samples were collected for biochemical, metabolomics and gut microbiota profiling. There was a significant sex effect for gut microbiota and several metabolic markers. Bodyweight and percent body fat were significantly reduced in LB6 compared to control and HB6 rats. Microbial beta-diversity differed significantly between LB6 and the control and HB6 rats in both sexes. Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group and Bacteroides were the primary taxa driving the difference between LB6 and control. There was a significant separation of cecal and serum metabolites of LB6 compared to control and HB6 rats. In the cecum, arginine biosynthesis was impaired, while vitamin B6 metabolism, lysine degradation and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism were impaired in serum metabolite profiles. Cecal propionate and butyrate were significantly reduced in LB6 rats irrespective of sex. Host vitamin B6 deficiency but not excess significantly alters gut microbial composition and its metabolites.
Project description:Moringa oleifera is an affordable and rich source of dietary folate. Quantification of folate by HPLC showed that 5-formyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid (502.1 ?g/100 g DW) and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid (223.9 ?g/100 g DW) as the most dominant forms of folate in M. oleifera leaves. The bioavailability of folate and the effects of folate depletion and repletion on biochemical and molecular markers of folate status were investigated in Wistar rats. Folate deficiency was induced by keeping the animals on a folate deficient diet with 1 % succinyl sulfathiazole (w/w). After the depletion period, animals were repleted with different levels of folic acid and M. oleifera leaves as a source of folate. Feeding the animals on a folate deficient diet for 7 weeks caused a significant (3.4-fold) decrease in serum folate content, compared to non-depleted control animals. Relative bioavailability of folate from dehydrated leaves of M. oleifera was 81.9 %. During folate depletion and repletion, no significant changes in liver glycine N-methyl transferase and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase expression were recorded. In RDA calculations, only 50 % of natural folate is assumed to be bioavailable. Therefore, the bioavailability of folate from Moringa is much higher, suggesting that M. oleifera based food can be used as a significant source of folate.
Project description:Dietary fibers (DF) can prevent obesity in rodents fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Their mode of action is not fully elucidated, but the gut microbiota have been implicated. This study aimed to identify the effects of seven dietary fibers (barley beta-glucan, apple pectin, inulin, inulin acetate ester, inulin propionate ester, inulin butyrate ester or a combination of inulin propionate ester and inulin butyrate ester) effective in preventing diet-induced obesity and links to differences in cecal bacteria and host gene expression. Mice (n?=?12) were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD), HFD or a HFD supplemented with the DFs, barley beta-glucan, apple pectin, inulin, inulin acetate ester, inulin propionate ester, inulin butyrate ester or a combination of inulin propionate ester and inulin butyrate ester for 8 weeks. Cecal bacteria were determined by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Host responses, body composition, metabolic markers and gene transcription (cecum and liver) were assessed post intervention. HFD mice showed increased adiposity, while all of the DFs prevented weight gain. DF specific differences in cecal bacteria were observed. Results indicate that diverse DFs prevent weight gain on a HFD, despite giving rise to different cecal bacteria profiles. Conversely, common host responses to dietary fiber observed are predicted to be important in improving barrier function and genome stability in the gut, maintaining energy homeostasis and reducing HFD induced inflammatory responses in the liver.
Project description:Individuals suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for systemic hypertension. The importance of a healthy gut microbiota, and detriment of a dysbiotic microbiota, on host physiology is becoming increasingly evident. We tested the hypothesis that gut dysbiosis contributes to hypertension observed with OSA. OSA was modeled in rats by inflating a tracheal balloon during the sleep cycle (10-s inflations, 60 per hour). On normal chow diet, OSA had no effect on blood pressure; however, in rats fed a high-fat diet, blood pressure increased 24 and 29 mm Hg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively (P<0.05 each). Bacterial community characterization was performed on fecal pellets isolated before and after 14 days of OSA in chow and high-fat fed rats. High-fat diet and OSA led to significant alterations of the gut microbiota, including decreases in bacterial taxa known to produce the short chain fatty acid butyrate (P<0.05). Finally, transplant of dysbiotic cecal contents from hypertensive OSA rats on high-fat diet into OSA recipient rats on normal chow diet (shown to be normotensive) resulted in hypertension similar to that of the donor (increased 14 and 32 mm Hg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively; P<0.05). These studies demonstrate a causal relationship between gut dysbiosis and hypertension, and suggest that manipulation of the microbiota may be a viable treatment for OSA-induced, and possibly other forms of, hypertension.
Project description:Approximately 12% of Americans do not consume the Estimated Average Requirement for zinc and could be at risk for marginal zinc deficiency. Zinc is an essential component of numerous proteins involved in the defense against oxidative stress and DNA damage repair. Studies in vitro have shown that zinc depletion causes DNA damage. We hypothesized that zinc deficiency in vivo causes DNA damage through increases in oxidative stress and impairments in DNA repair. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed zinc-adequate (ZA; 30 mg Zn/kg) or severely zinc-deficient (ZD; <1 mg Zn/kg) diets or were pair-fed zinc-adequate diet to match the mean feed intake of ZD rats for 3 wk. After zinc depletion, rats were repleted with a ZA diet for 10 d. In addition, zinc-adequate (MZA 30 mg Zn/kg) or marginally zinc-deficient (MZD; 6 mg Zn/kg) diets were given to different groups of rats for 6 wk. Severe zinc depletion caused more DNA damage in peripheral blood cells than in the ZA group and this was normalized by zinc repletion. We also detected impairments in DNA repair, such as compromised p53 DNA binding and differential activation of the base excision repair proteins 8-oxoguanine glycosylase and poly ADP ribose polymerase. Importantly, MZD rats also had more DNA damage and higher plasma F(2)-isoprostane concentrations than MZA rats and had impairments in DNA repair functions. However, plasma antioxidant concentrations and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were not affected by zinc depletion. These results suggest interactions among zinc deficiency, DNA integrity, oxidative stress, and DNA repair and suggested a role for zinc in maintaining DNA integrity.
Project description:Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota.Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P < 0.01). Additionally, the level of butyrate measured in these pectin-fed animal was more than double of the corresponding level in control animals (P < 0.01). Sequencing revealed that DGGE bands, which were suppressed in pectin-fed rats, represented Gram-negative anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa.Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P < 0.05). Additionally, a more than four-fold increase in the amount of Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa), as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals.Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and beta-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.
Project description:Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops (e.g., legumes, cereal grains), and has shown success in alleviating insufficient Fe intake in various human populations. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification have not yet been reported, although the consumption of Fe biofortified staple food crops has increased significantly over time. Hence, in this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 14), aimed to investigate the alterations in the gut microbiome following administration of an Fe biofortified bean-based diet (biofortified, BFe) versus a bean based diet with poorly-bioavailable Fe (standard, SFe). Cream seeded carioca bean based diets were designed in an identical fashion to those used in a recent human clinical trial of Fe biofortified beans in Rwanda. We hypothesized that the different dietary Fe contents in the beans based diets will alter the composition and function of the intestinal microbiome. The primary outcomes were changes in the gut microbiome composition and function analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We observed no significant changes in phylogenetic diversity between groups. There were significant differences in the composition of the microbiota between groups, with the BFe group harboring fewer taxa participating in bacterial Fe uptake, increased abundance of bacteria involved in phenolic catabolism, and increased abundance of beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Additionally, depletion of key bacterial pathways responsible for bacterial viability and Fe uptake suggest that improvements in Fe bioavailability, in addition to increases in Fe-polyphenol and Fe-phytate complexes due to biofortification, led to decreased concentrations of cecal Fe available for bacterial utilization. Our findings demonstrate that Fe biofortification may improve Fe status without negatively altering the structure and function of the gut microbiota, as is observed with other nutritional methods of Fe supplementation. These results may be used to further improve the efficacy and safety of future biofortification efforts in eradicating global Fe deficiency.
Project description:PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) improves energy utilization and reproductive performance when added to rodent diets devoid of PQQ. In the present paper we describe changes in gene expression patterns and transcriptional networks that respond to dietary PQQ restriction or pharmacological administration. Rats were fed diets either deficient in PQQ (PQQ-) or supplemented with PQQ (approx. 6 nmol of PQQ/g of food; PQQ+). In addition, groups of rats were either repleted by administering PQQ to PQQ- rats (1.5 mg of PQQ intraperitoneal/kg of body weight at 12 h intervals for 36 h; PQQ-/+) or partially depleted by feeding the PQQ- diet to PQQ+ rats for 48 h (PQQ+/-). RNA extracted from liver and a Codelink(R) UniSet Rat I Bioarray system were used to assess gene transcript expression. Of the approx. 10000 rat sequences and control probes analysed, 238 were altered at the P<0.01 level by feeding on the PQQ- diet for 10 weeks. Short-term PQQ depletion resulted in changes in 438 transcripts (P<0.01). PQQ repletion reversed the changes in transcript expression caused by PQQ deficiency and resulted in an alteration of 847 of the total transcripts examined (P<0.01). Genes important for cellular stress (e.g. thioredoxin), mitochondriogenesis, cell signalling [JAK (Janus kinase)/STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways] and transport were most affected. qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR) and functional assays aided in validating such processes as principal targets. Collectively, the results provide a mechanistic basis for previous functional observations associated with PQQ deficiency or PQQ administered in pharmacological amounts.