Interaction between long-term potentiation and depression in CA1 synapses: temporal constrains, functional compartmentalization and protein synthesis.
ABSTRACT: Information arriving at a neuron via anatomically defined pathways undergoes spatial and temporal encoding. A proposed mechanism by which temporally and spatially segregated information is encoded at the cellular level is based on the interactive properties of synapses located within and across functional dendritic compartments. We examined cooperative and interfering interactions between long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), two forms of synaptic plasticity thought to be key in the encoding of information in the brain. Two approaches were used in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the mouse hippocampus: (1) induction of LTP and LTD in two separate synaptic pathways within the same apical dendritic compartment and across the basal and apical dendritic compartments; (2) induction of LTP and LTD separated by various time intervals (0-90 min). Expression of LTP/LTD interactions was spatially and temporally regulated. While they were largely restricted within the same dendritic compartment (compartmentalized), the nature of the interaction (cooperation or interference) depended on the time interval between inductions. New protein synthesis was found to regulate the expression of the LTP/LTD interference. We speculate that mechanisms for compartmentalization and protein synthesis confer the spatial and temporal modulation by which neurons encode multiplex information in plastic synapses.
Project description:Synapses and nuclei are connected by bidirectional communication mechanisms that enable information transfer encoded by macromolecules. Here, we identified RNF10 as a novel synaptonuclear protein messenger. RNF10 is activated by calcium signals at the postsynaptic compartment and elicits discrete changes at the transcriptional level. RNF10 is enriched at the excitatory synapse where it associates with the GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Activation of synaptic GluN2A-containing NMDARs and induction of long term potentiation (LTP) lead to the translocation of RNF10 from dendritic segments and dendritic spines to the nucleus. In particular, we provide evidence for importin-dependent long-distance transport from synapto-dendritic compartments to the nucleus. Notably, RNF10 silencing prevents the maintenance of LTP as well as LTP-dependent structural modifications of dendritic spines.
Project description:Historically, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), the best-characterized forms of long-term synaptic plasticity, are viewed as experience-dependent and input-specific processes. However, cumulative experimental and theoretical data have demonstrated that LTP and LTD can promote compensatory alterations in non-stimulated synapses. In this work, we have developed a computational model of a tridimensional spiny dendritic segment to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking during synaptic plasticity at specific synapses and its consequences for the populations of AMPAR at nearby synapses. Our results demonstrated that the mechanisms of AMPAR trafficking involved with LTP and LTD can promote heterosynaptic plasticity at non-stimulated synapses. These alterations are compensatory and arise from molecular competition. Moreover, the heterosynaptic changes observed in our model can modulate further activity-driven inductions of synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Protein synthesis-dependent, late long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) at glutamatergic hippocampal synapses are well characterized examples of long-term synaptic plasticity. Persistent increased activity of protein kinase M ? (PKM?) is thought essential for maintaining LTP. Additional spatial and temporal features that govern LTP and LTD induction are embodied in the synaptic tagging and capture (STC) and cross capture hypotheses. Only synapses that have been "tagged" by a stimulus sufficient for LTP and learning can "capture" PKM?. A model was developed to simulate the dynamics of key molecules required for LTP and LTD. The model concisely represents relationships between tagging, capture, LTD, and LTP maintenance. The model successfully simulated LTP maintained by persistent synaptic PKM?, STC, LTD, and cross capture, and makes testable predictions concerning the dynamics of PKM?. The maintenance of LTP, and consequently of at least some forms of long-term memory, is predicted to require continual positive feedback in which PKM? enhances its own synthesis only at potentiated synapses. This feedback underlies bistability in the activity of PKM?. Second, cross capture requires the induction of LTD to induce dendritic PKM? synthesis, although this may require tagging of a nearby synapse for LTP. The model also simulates the effects of PKM? inhibition, and makes additional predictions for the dynamics of CaM kinases. Experiments testing the above predictions would significantly advance the understanding of memory maintenance.
Project description:As more genes conferring risks to neurodevelopmental disorders are identified, translating these genetic risk factors into biological mechanisms that impact the trajectory of the developing brain is a critical next step. Here, we report that disrupted signaling mediated MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), an established risk factor for autism spectrum disorders, in the developing hippocampus glutamatergic circuit leads to profound deficits in neural development, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In cultured hippocampus slices prepared from neonatal mice, pharmacological inhibition of MET kinase activity suppresses dendritic arborization and disrupts normal dendritic spine development. In addition, single-neuron knockdown (RNAi) or overexpression of Met in the developing hippocampal CA1 neurons leads to alterations, opposite in nature, in basal synaptic transmission and long-term plasticity. In forebrain-specific Met conditional knockout mice (Metfx/fx ;emx1cre ), an enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were observed at early developmental stages (P12-14) at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 synapses compared with wild-type littermates. In contrast, LTP and LTD were markedly reduced at young adult stage (P56-70) during which wild-type mice show robust LTP and LTD. The altered trajectory of synaptic plasticity revealed by this study indicate that temporally regulated MET signaling as an intrinsic, cell autonomous, and pleiotropic mechanism not only critical for neuronal growth and functional maturation, but also for the timing of synaptic plasticity during forebrain glutamatergic circuits development.
Project description:Adult neurogenesis is a process by which the brain produces new neurons once development has ceased. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been linked to the relational processing of spatial information, a role attributed to the contribution of newborn neurons to long-term potentiation (LTP). However, whether newborn neurons also influence long-term depression (LTD), and how synaptic transmission and plasticity are affected as they incorporate their network, remain to be determined. To address these issues, we took advantage of a genetic model in which a majority of adult-born neurons can be selectively ablated in the dentate gyrus (DG) and, most importantly, in which neurogenesis can be restored on demand. Using electrophysiological recordings, we show that selective reduction of adult-born neurons impairs synaptic transmission at medial perforant pathway synapses onto DG granule cells. Furthermore, LTP and LTD are largely compromised at these synapses, probably as a result of an increased induction threshold. Whereas the deficits in synaptic transmission and plasticity are completely rescued by restoring neurogenesis, these synapses regain their ability to express LTP much faster than their ability to express LTD. These results demonstrate that both LTP and LTD are influenced by adult neurogenesis. They also indicate that as newborn neurons integrate their network, the ability to express bidirectional synaptic plasticity is largely improved at these synapses. These findings establish that adult neurogenesis is an important process for synaptic transmission and bidirectional plasticity in the DG, accounting for its role in efficiently integrating novel incoming information and in forming new memories.
Project description:Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell synapses, thus resembling CX546 effects described at hippocampal synapses. Using the fluorescent calcium indicator dye Oregon Green BAPTA-2 and an ultra-high-speed CCD camera, we also monitored calcium transients in Purkinje cell dendrites. In the presence of CX546 in the bath, PF-evoked calcium transients were enhanced and prolonged, suggesting that CX546 not only enhances synaptic transmission, but also boosts dendritic calcium signaling at cerebellar synapses. In contrast to previous observations in the hippocampus, however, CX546 applied during cerebellar recordings facilitates long-term depression (LTD) rather than LTP at PF synapses. These findings show that ampakines selectively modify the LTP-LTD balance depending on the brain area and type of synapse, and may provide tools for the targeted regulation of synaptic memories.
Project description:Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca(2+) induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca(2+) signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca(2+) thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses.
Project description:In reward-based learning, synaptic modifications depend on a brief stimulus and a temporally delayed reward, which poses the question of how synaptic activity patterns associate with a delayed reward. A theoretical solution to this so-called distal reward problem has been the notion of activity-generated "synaptic eligibility traces," silent and transient synaptic tags that can be converted into long-term changes in synaptic strength by reward-linked neuromodulators. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of eligibility traces in cortical synapses. We demonstrate the Hebbian induction of distinct traces for LTP and LTD and their subsequent timing-dependent transformation into lasting changes by specific monoaminergic receptors anchored to postsynaptic proteins. Notably, the temporal properties of these transient traces allow stable learning in a recurrent neural network that accurately predicts the timing of the reward, further validating the induction and transformation of eligibility traces for LTP and LTD as a plausible synaptic substrate for reward-based learning.
Project description:Synapses change their strength in response to specific activity patterns. This functional plasticity is assumed to be the brain's primary mechanism for information storage. We used optogenetic stimulation of rat hippocampal slice cultures to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), or both forms of plasticity in sequence. Two-photon imaging of spine calcium signals allowed us to identify stimulated synapses and to follow their fate for the next 7 days. We found that plasticity-inducing protocols affected the synapse's chance for survival: LTP increased synaptic stability, LTD destabilized synapses, and the effect of the last stimulation protocol was dominant over earlier stimulations. Interestingly, most potentiated synapses were resistant to depression-inducing protocols delivered 24 hr later. Our findings suggest that activity-dependent changes in the transmission strength of individual synapses are transient, but have long-lasting consequences for synaptic lifetime.
Project description:Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is a fundamental feature of neural networks involved in the encoding of information, and the capability of synapses to express plasticity is itself activity-dependent. Here, we introduce a "low-frequency burst stimulation" protocol, which can readily induce both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at in vivo medial perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses. By varying stimulation parameters, we were able to build a stimulus-response map of synaptic plasticity as a LTP-LTD continuum. The response curve displayed a bidirectional shift toward LTP and LTD, depending on the degree and timing of neural activity of the basolateral amygdala. The range of this plastic modulation was also modified by past activity of the basolateral amygdala, suggesting that the amygdala can arrange its ability to regulate the dentate plastic responses. The effects of the BLA activation were replicated by stimulation of the lateral perforant path and, hence, BLA stimulation may recruit the lateral entorhinal cortex. These results represent a high-order dimension of heterosynaptic modulations of hippocampal synaptic plasticity.