A randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of real-time continuous glucose monitoring in the management of type 1 diabetes in young children aged 4 to <10 years.
ABSTRACT: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes but less so in children. We designed a study to assess CGM benefit in young children aged 4 to 9 years with type 1 diabetes.After a run-in phase, 146 children with type 1 diabetes (mean age 7.5 ± 1.7 years, 64% on pumps, median diabetes duration 3.5 years) were randomly assigned to CGM or to usual care. The primary outcome was reduction in HbA(1c) at 26 weeks by ?0.5% without the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia.The primary outcome was achieved by 19% in the CGM group and 28% in the control group (P = 0.17). Mean change in HbA(1c) was -0.1% in each group (P = 0.79). Severe hypoglycemia rates were similarly low in both groups. CGM wear decreased over time, with only 41% averaging at least 6 days/week at 26 weeks. There was no correlation between CGM use and change in HbA(1c) (r(s) = -0.09, P = 0.44). CGM wear was well tolerated, and parental satisfaction with CGM was high. However, parental fear of hypoglycemia was not reduced.CGM in 4- to 9-year-olds did not improve glycemic control despite a high degree of parental satisfaction with CGM. We postulate that this finding may be related in part to limited use of the CGM glucose data in day-to-day management and to an unremitting fear of hypoglycemia. Overcoming the barriers that prevent integration of these critical glucose data into day-to-day management remains a challenge.
Project description:This study aimed to compare conventional medication management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to medication management in conjunction with a lifestyle intervention using continuous glucose monitoring to minimize glucose excursions. Thirty adults (63% female; mean age, 53.3 years) who were diagnosed with T2D for less than 11 years (mean, 5.6 years), had glycated A<sub>1c</sub> (HbA<sub>1c</sub>)???7.0% (51 mmol/mol) (mean 8.8%, [73 mmol/mol]), and were not using insulin, were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to routine care (RC) or 4 group sessions of glycemic excursion minimization plus real-time CGM (GEM<sup>CGM</sup>). Assessments at baseline and 5 months included a physical exam, metabolic and lipid panels, a review of diabetes medications, and psychological questionnaires. For the week following assessments, participants wore a blinded activity monitor and completed 3 days of 24-hour dietary recall. A subgroup also wore a blinded CGM. GEM<sup>CGM</sup> participants significantly improved HbA<sub>1c</sub> (from 8.9% to 7.6% [74-60 mmol/mol] compared with 8.8% to 8.7% [73-72 mmol/mol] for RC (<i>P</i>?=?.03). Additionally, GEM<sup>CGM</sup> reduced the need for diabetes medication (<i>P</i>?=?.01), reduced carbohydrate consumption (<i>P</i>?=?.009), and improved diabetes knowledge (<i>P</i>?=?.001), quality of life (<i>P</i>?=?.01) and diabetes distress (<i>P</i>?=?.02), and trended to more empowerment (<i>P</i>?=?.05) without increasing dietary fat, lipids, or hypoglycemia. Confirming our prior research, GEM<sup>CGM</sup> appears to be a safe, effective lifestyle intervention option for adults with suboptimally controlled T2D who do not take insulin.
Project description:The benefits of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have been demonstrated in patients with type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to compare the effect of two modes of use of CGM, patient led or physician driven, for 1 year in subjects with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes.Patients with type 1 diabetes aged 8-60 years with HbA(1c) ? 8% were randomly assigned to three groups (1:1:1). Outcomes for glucose control were assessed at 1 year for two modes of CGM (group 1: patient led; group 2: physician driven) versus conventional self-monitoring of blood glucose (group 3: control).A total of 257 subjects with type 1 diabetes underwent screening. Of these, 197 were randomized, with 178 patients completing the study (age: 36 ± 14 years; HbA(1c): 8.9 ± 0.9%). HbA(1c) improved similarly in both CGM groups and was reduced compared with the control group (group 1 vs. group 3: -0.52%, P = 0.0006; group 2 vs. group 3: -0.47%, P = 0.0008; groups 1 + 2 vs. group 3: -0.50%, P < 0.0001). The incidence of hypoglycemia was similar in the three groups. Patient SF-36 questionnaire physical health score improved in both experimental CGM groups (P = 0.004). Sensor consumption was 34% lower in group 2 than in group 1 (median [Q1-Q3] consumption: group 1: 3.42/month [2.20-3.91] vs. group 2: 2.25/month [1.27-2.99], P = 0.001).Both patient-led and physician-driven CGM provide similar long-term improvement in glucose control in patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, but the physician-driven CGM mode used fewer sensors.
Project description:To test the effect of an automated system providing real-time estimates of HbA(1c), glucose variability, and risk for hypoglycemia.For 1 year, 120 adults with type 1 diabetes (69 female/51 male, age = 39.1 [14.3] years, duration of diabetes 20.3 [12.9] years, HbA(1c) = 8.0 [1.5]), performed self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and received feedback at three increasingly complex levels, each continuing for 3 months: level 1--routine SMBG; level 2--adding estimated HbA(1c), hypoglycemia risk, and glucose variability; and level 3--adding estimates of symptoms potentially related to hypoglycemia. The subjects were randomized to feedback sequences of either levels 1-2-3 or levels 2-3-1. HbA(1c), symptomatic hypoglycemia, and blood glucose awareness were evaluated at baseline and at the end of each level.For all subjects, HbA(1c) was reduced from 8.0 to 7.6 from baseline to the end of study (P = 0.001). This effect was confined to subjects with baseline HbA(1c) >8.0 (from 9.3 to 8.5, P < 0.001). Incidence of symptomatic moderate/severe hypoglycemia was reduced from 5.72 to 3.74 episodes/person/month (P = 0.019), more prominently for subjects with a history of severe hypoglycemia (from 7.20 to 4.00 episodes, P = 0.008) and for those who were hypoglycemia unaware (from 6.44 to 3.71 episodes, P = 0.045). The subjects' ratings of the feedback were positive, with up to 89% approval of the provided features.Feedback of SMBG data and summary SMBG-based measures resulted in improvement in average glycemic control and reduction in moderate/severe hypoglycemia. These effects were most prominent in subjects who were at highest risk at the baseline.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Frequent use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems is associated with improved glycemic outcomes in persons with diabetes, but the need for calibrations and sensor insertions are often barriers to adoption. In this study, we evaluated the performance of G6, a sixth-generation, factory-calibrated CGM system specified for 10-day wear. METHODS:The study enrolled participants of ages 6 years and up with type 1 diabetes or insulin-treated type 2 diabetes at 11 sites in the United States. Participation involved one sensor wear period of up to 10 days. Adults wore the system on the abdomen; youth of ages 6-17 years could choose to wear it on the abdomen or upper buttocks. Clinic sessions for frequent comparison with reference blood glucose measurements took place on days 1, 4-5, 7, and/or 10. Participants of ages 13 years and up underwent purposeful supervised glucose manipulation during in-clinic sessions. During the study, participants calibrated the systems once daily. However, analysis was performed on glucose values that were derived from reprocessed raw sensor data, independently of self-monitored blood glucose values used for calibration. Reprocessing used assigned sensor codes and a factory-calibration algorithm. Performance evaluation included the proportion of CGM values that were within ±20% of reference glucose values >100?mg/dL or within ±20?mg/dL of reference glucose values ?100?mg/dL (%20/20), the analogous %15/15, and the mean absolute relative difference (MARD, expressed as a percentage) between temporally matched CGM and reference values. RESULTS:Data from 262 study participants (21,569 matched CGM reference pairs) were analyzed. The overall %15/15, %20/20, and MARD were 82.4%, 92.3%, and 10.0%, respectively. Matched pairs from 134 adults and 128 youth of ages 6-17 years were similar with respect to %20/20 (92.4% and 91.9%) and MARD (9.9% and 10.1%). Overall %20/20 values on days 1 and 10 of sensor wear were 88.6% and 90.6%, respectively. The system's "Urgent Low Soon" (predictive of hypoglycemia within 20?min) hypoglycemia alert was correctly provided 84% of the time within 30?min before impending biochemical hypoglycemia (<70?mg/dL). The 10-day sensor survival rate was 87%. CONCLUSION:The new factory-calibrated G6 real-time CGM system provides accurate readings for 10 days and removes several clinical barriers to broader CGM adoption.
Project description:Although initially effective, sulfonylureas are associated with poor glycemic durability, weight gain, and hypoglycemia. Dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), reduces hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion independent of insulin and may cause fewer of these adverse effects. We compared the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dapagliflozin with the sulfonylurea glipizide in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy.This 52-week, double-blind, multicenter, active-controlled, noninferiority trial randomized patients with type 2 diabetes (baseline mean HbA(1c), 7.7%), who were receiving metformin monotherapy, to add-on dapagliflozin (n = 406) or glipizide (n = 408) up-titrated over 18 weeks, based on glycemic response and tolerability, to ?10 or ?20 mg/day, respectively.The primary end point, adjusted mean HbA(1c) reduction with dapagliflozin (-0.52%) compared with glipizide (-0.52%), was statistically noninferior at 52 weeks. Key secondary end points: dapagliflozin produced significant adjusted mean weight loss (-3.2 kg) versus weight gain (1.2 kg; P < 0.0001) with glipizide, significantly increased the proportion of patients achieving ?5% body weight reduction (33.3%) versus glipizide (2.5%; P < 0.0001), and significantly decreased the proportion experiencing hypoglycemia (3.5%) versus glipizide (40.8%; P < 0.0001). Events suggestive of genital infections and lower urinary tract infections were reported more frequently with dapagliflozin compared with glipizide but responded to standard treatment and rarely led to study discontinuation.Despite similar 52-week glycemic efficacy, dapagliflozin reduced weight and produced less hypoglycemia than glipizide in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. Long-term studies are required to further evaluate genital and urinary tract infections with SGLT2 inhibitors.
Project description:To assess the impact of continuous glucose monitoring on hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes.In this randomized, controlled, multicenter study, 120 children and adults on intensive therapy for type 1 diabetes and a screening level of glycated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) <7.5% were randomly assigned to a control group performing conventional home monitoring with a blood glucose meter and wearing a masked continuous glucose monitor every second week for five days or to a group with real-time continuous glucose monitoring. The primary outcome was the time spent in hypoglycemia (interstitial glucose concentration <63 mg/dL) over a period of 26 weeks. Analysis was by intention to treat for all randomized patients.The time per day spent in hypoglycemia was significantly shorter in the continuous monitoring group than in the control group (mean ± SD 0.48 ± 0.57 and 0.97 ± 1.55 h/day, respectively; ratio of means 0.49; 95% CI 0.26-0.76; P = 0.03). HbA(1c) at 26 weeks was lower in the continuous monitoring group than in the control group (difference -0.27%; 95% CI -0.47 to -0.07; P = 0.008). Time spent in 70 to 180 mg/dL normoglycemia was significantly longer in the continuous glucose monitoring group compared with the control group (mean hours per day, 17.6 vs. 16.0, P = 0.009).Continuous glucose monitoring was associated with reduced time spent in hypoglycemia and a concomitant decrease in HbA(1c) in children and adults with type 1 diabetes.
Project description:The requirement to inject current basal insulin analogs at a fixed time each day may complicate adherence and compromise glycemic control. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of varying the daily injection time of insulin degludec (IDeg), an ultra-long-acting basal insulin.This 26-week, open-label, treat-to-target trial enrolled adults (?18 years) with type 2 diabetes who were either insulin naïve and receiving oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (HbA(1c) = 7-11%) or previously on basal insulin ± OAD(s) (HbA(1c) = 7-10%). Participants were randomized to 1) once-daily (OD) IDeg in a prespecified dosing schedule, creating 8-40-h intervals between injections (IDeg OD Flex; n = 229); 2) once-daily IDeg at the main evening meal (IDeg OD; n = 228); or 3) once-daily insulin glargine at the same time each day (IGlar OD; n = 230). The primary outcome was noninferiority of IDeg OD Flex to IGlar OD in HbA(1c) reduction after 26 weeks.After 26 weeks, IDeg OD Flex, IDeg OD, and IGlar OD improved HbA(1c) by 1.28, 1.07, and 1.26% points, respectively (estimated treatment difference [IDeg OD Flex - IGlar OD]: 0.04% points [-0.12 to 0.20], confirming noninferiority). No statistically significant differences in overall or nocturnal hypoglycemia were found between IDeg OD Flex and IGlar OD. Comparable glycemic control and rates of hypoglycemia were seen with IDeg OD Flex and IDeg OD. Adverse event profiles were similar across groups.The use of extreme dosing intervals of 8-40 h demonstrates that the daily injection time of IDeg can be varied without compromising glycemic control or safety.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes affects up to half of cystic fibrosis patients and is associated with increased mortality and more frequent pulmonary exacerbations. However, it is unclear to what degree good glycemic control might mitigate these risks and clinical outcomes have not previously been studied in relation to glucose from the lower airways, the site of infection and CF disease progression. We initially hypothesized that diabetic cystic fibrosis patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) > 6.5% have worse pulmonary function, longer and more frequent exacerbations and also higher sputum glucose levels than patients with HbA(1c) ? 6.5% or cystic fibrosis patients without diabetes. To test this, we analyzed spontaneously expectorated sputum samples from 88 cystic fibrosis patients. The median sputum glucose concentration was 0.70 mM (mean, 4.75 mM; range, 0-64.6 mM). Sputum glucose was not correlated with age, sex, body mass index, diabetes diagnosis, glycemic control, exacerbation frequency or length, or pulmonary function. Surprisingly, sputum glucose was highest in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, suggesting the dynamics of glycemic control, sputum glucose and pulmonary infections are more complex than previously thought. Two-year mean HbA(1c) was positively correlated with the length of exacerbation admission (p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with measures of pulmonary function (p < 0.01). While total number of hospitalizations for exacerbations were not significantly different, subjects with an HbA(1c) > 6.5% were hospitalized on average 6 days longer than those with HbA(1c) ? 6.5% (p < 0.01). Current clinical care guidelines for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes target HbA(1c) ? 7% to limit long-term microvascular damage, but more stringent glycemic control (HbA(1c) ? 6.5%) may further reduce the short-term pulmonary complications.
Project description:To test the safety and efficacy of exenatide once weekly (EQW) compared with metformin (MET), pioglitazone (PIO), and sitagliptin (SITA) over 26 weeks, in suboptimally treated (diet and exercise) drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes.Patients were randomized to subcutaneous (SC) EQW 2.0 mg + oral placebo (n = 248), MET 2,000 mg/day + SC placebo (n = 246), PIO 45 mg/day + SC placebo (n = 163), or SITA 100 mg/day + SC placebo (n = 163) for 26 weeks. MET and PIO therapies were increased to maximum-tolerated dosages. Injections with EQW or placebo were administered weekly, while oral medication or placebo was administered daily.Baseline characteristics were as follows: 59% men, 67% Caucasian, mean age 54 years, HbA(1c) 8.5%, fasting serum glucose 9.9 mmol/L, body weight 87.0 kg, and diabetes duration 2.7 years. HbA(1c) reductions (%) at 26 weeks (least-squares means) with EQW versus MET, PIO, and SITA were -1.53 vs. -1.48 (P = 0.620), -1.63 (P = 0.328), and -1.15 (P < 0.001), respectively. Weight changes (kg) were -2.0 vs. -2.0 (P = 0.892), +1.5 (P < 0.001), and -0.8 (P < 0.001), respectively. Common adverse events were as follows: EQW, nausea (11.3%) and diarrhea (10.9%); MET, diarrhea (12.6%) and headache (12.2%); PIO, nasopharyngitis (8.6%) and headache (8.0%); and SIT, nasopharyngitis (9.8%) and headache (9.2%). Minor (confirmed) hypoglycemia was rarely reported. No major hypoglycemia occurred.EQW was noninferior to MET but not PIO and superior to SITA with regard to HbA(1c) reduction at 26 weeks. Of the agents studied, EQW and MET provided similar improvements in glycemic control along with the benefit of weight reduction and no increased risk of hypoglycemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D), hypoglycemia is the major limiting factor in achieving optimal glycemic control. All persons with T1D are at risk for hypoglycemia (blood glucose level?<?70?mg/dl), which is life-threatening and accompanied by serious physical and psychological symptoms, resulting in profound fear of hypoglycemia (FOH) and reduced quality of life. Young adults with T1D are at risk for FOH and have worse glycemic control and self-management behavior than other age groups with T1D. FOH also results in increased glycemic variability (GV). A major gap exists in how to manage FOH. Our overall objective is to reduce FOH and improve diabetes self-management, glycemic control, and GV in young adults with T1D to reduce or delay diabetes complications and improve quality of life. We aim to (1) determine the feasibility and acceptability of an eight-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based Fear Reduction Efficacy Evaluation (FREE) intervention in young adults with T1D who experience FOH; and (2) determine the impact of the FREE intervention, compared to an attention control group, on the outcomes FOH, self-management, glycemic control (A1C), and glycemic variability (continuous glucose monitoring recordings). METHODS/DESIGN:A randomized controlled trial in 50 young adults aged 18 to 35?years with T1D will be used. Eligible subjects will be randomized to the intervention program (Fear Reduction Efficacy Evaluation [FREE]) or attention control group. A one-week run-in phase is planned, with baseline measures of FOH, self-management behavior, A1C, and real-time continuous glucose monitoring recordings (RT-CGM) to calculate GV for both groups. The intervention group will participate in eight weekly individual one-hour sessions using CBT and exposure treatment for specific fears. RT-CGM and a daily FOH diary will be used as feedback cues as part of the FREE program. The attention control group will participate in eight weekly individual one-hour diabetes self-management education (DSME) sessions and wear a RT-CGM device (to measure GV only) over 8 weeks. At completion, FOH will be measured, and RT-CGM recordings will be analyzed to determine differences between the FREE and control groups. DISCUSSION:Findings from this proposed pilot study will serve as the foundation for a larger trial to reduce FOH and improve self-management, glycemic control, and GV. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: A cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention to reduce fear of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, NCT03549104. Registered June 7, 2018.