High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high-saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state.Subjects (n = 54) were given a high-fat meal (75 g fat, 5 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein) after an overnight fast (nonobese control [NOC]: age 39.9 ± 11.8 years [mean ± SD], BMI 24.9 ± 3.2 kg/m(2), n = 9; obese: age 43.8 ± 9.5 years, BMI 33.3 ± 2.5 kg/m(2), n = 15; impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]: age 41.7 ± 11.3 years, BMI 32.0 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 12; type 2 diabetic: age 45.4 ± 10.1 years, BMI 30.3 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 18). Blood was collected before (0 h) and after the meal (1-4 h) for analysis.Baseline endotoxin was significantly higher in the type 2 diabetic and IGT subjects than in NOC subjects, with baseline circulating endotoxin levels 60.6% higher in type 2 diabetic subjects than in NOC subjects (P < 0.05). Ingestion of a high-fat meal led to a significant rise in endotoxin levels in type 2 diabetic, IGT, and obese subjects over the 4-h time period (P < 0.05). These findings also showed that, at 4 h after a meal, type 2 diabetic subjects had higher circulating endotoxin levels (125.4%?) than NOC subjects (P < 0.05).These studies have highlighted that exposure to a high-fat meal elevates circulating endotoxin irrespective of metabolic state, as early as 1 h after a meal. However, this increase is substantial in IGT and type 2 diabetic subjects, suggesting that metabolic endotoxinemia is exacerbated after high fat intake. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in a compromised metabolic state such as type 2 diabetes, a continual snacking routine will cumulatively promote their condition more rapidly than in other individuals because of the greater exposure to endotoxin.
Project description:Postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia are determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk which are amplified by high fat meals. We aimed to examine the determinants of postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia in older and younger adults following a high fat mixed meal. In a randomised cross-over trial, healthy participants aged 20-25 and 60-75 years (n = 15/group) consumed a high-fat breakfast and a low-fat breakfast. Plasma taken at baseline and post-meal for 5 h was analysed for circulating endotoxin, cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Older subjects had lower baseline PBMC expression of Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1) but greater insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and circulating MCP-1 compared to younger subjects. After either meal, there were no age differences in plasma, chylomicron endotoxin, or plasma LBP concentrations, nor in inflammatory cytokine gene and protein expression (MCP-1, IL-1?, and TNF-?). Unlike younger participants, the older group had decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD)-2 expression after the meals. After a high-fat meal, older adults have no increased inflammatory or endotoxin response, but an altered oxidative stress gene response compared with younger adults. Healthy older adults, without apparent metabolic dysfunction, have a comparable postprandial inflammatory and endotoxaemia response to younger adults.
Project description:Circadian clock genes are critical regulators of energy homeostasis and metabolism. However, whether variation in the circadian genes is associated with metabolic phenotypes in humans remains to be explored. In this study, we systemically genotyped 20 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 candidate genes involved in circadian clock, including CLOCK, BMAL1(ARNTL), PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1E,, and NOC(CCRN4L) in 1,510 non-diabetic Chinese subjects in Taipei and Yunlin populations in Taiwan. Their associations with metabolic phenotypes were analyzed. We found that genetic variation in the NOC gene, rs9684900 was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0016, Bonferroni corrected P = 0.032). Another variant, rs135764 in the CSNK1E gene was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.0023, Bonferroni corrected P = 0.046). These associations were consistent in both Taipei and Yunlin populations. Significant epistatic and joint effects between SNPs on BMI and related phenotypes were observed. Furthermore, NOC mRNA levels in human abdominal adipose tissue were significantly increased in obese subjects compared to non-obese controls.Genetic variation in the NOC gene is associated with BMI in Chinese subjects.
Project description:A major unmet medical need to better manage Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is the accurate disease prediction in subjects who show glucose dysmetabolism, but are not yet diagnosed as diabetic. We investigated the possibility to predict/monitor the progression to T2D in these subjects by retrospectively quantifying blood circulating microRNAs in plasma of subjects with i) normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 9); ii) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 9), divided into non-progressors (NP, n = 5) and progressors (P, n = 4) based on subsequent diabetes occurrence, and iii) newly diagnosed T2D (n = 9). We found that impaired glucose tolerance associated with a global increase of plasma circulating microRNAs. While miR-148 and miR-222 were specifically modulated in diabetic subjects and correlated with parameters of glucose tolerance, the most accentuated microRNA dysregulation was found in NP IGT subjects, with increased level of miR-122, miR-99 and decreased level of let-7d, miR-18a, miR-18b, miR-23a, miR-27a, miR-28 and miR-30d in comparison with either NGT or T2D. Interestingly, several of these microRNAs significantly correlated with parameters of cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, we observed the major perturbation of plasma circulating microRNA in NP pre-diabetic subjects and identified a unique microRNA profile that may become helpful in predicting diabetic development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Type 2 diabetes patients and individuals at risk of developing diabetes are characterized by metabolic inflexibility and disturbed glucose homeostasis. Low carnitine availability may contribute to metabolic inflexibility and impaired glucose tolerance. Here, we investigated whether carnitine supplementation improves metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity in impaired glucose tolerant (IGT) volunteers. METHODS:Eleven IGT- volunteers followed a 36-day placebo- and L-carnitine treatment (2?g/day) in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind crossover design. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m2/min), combined with indirect calorimetry (ventilated hood) was performed to determine insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility. Furthermore, metabolic flexibility was assessed in response to a high-energy meal. Skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine concentrations were measured in vivo using long echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS, TE=500?ms) in the resting state (7:00AM and 5:00PM) and after a 30-min cycling exercise. Twelve normal glucose tolerant (NGT) volunteers were included without any intervention as control group. RESULTS:Metabolic flexibility of IGT-subjects completely restored towards NGT control values upon carnitine supplementation, measured during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and meal test. In muscle, carnitine supplementation enhanced the increase in resting acetylcarnitine concentrations over the day (delta 7:00 AM versus 5:00 PM) in IGT-subjects. Furthermore, carnitine supplementation increased post-exercise acetylcarnitine concentrations and reduced long-chain acylcarnitine species in IGT-subjects, suggesting the stimulation of a more complete fat oxidation in muscle. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was not affected. CONCLUSION:Carnitine supplementation improves acetylcarnitine formation and rescues metabolic flexibility in IGT-subjects. Future research should investigate the potential of carnitine in prevention/treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males)) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males)) by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [²H?]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acids (FFA), whereas [U-(13)C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018) and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064) in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043), higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025), higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004), lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017) and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073) and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059) versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Progranulin is an important molecule in inflammatory response. Chronic inflammation is frequently associated with central obesity and associated disturbances; however, the role of circulating progranulin in human obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: For the measurement of progranulin serum concentrations, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using this ELISA, we assessed circulating progranulin in a cross-sectional study of 209 subjects with a wide range of obesity, body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance and in 60 individuals with normal (NGT) or impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes before and after a 4-week physical training program. Progranulin mRNA and protein expression was measured in paired samples of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue (adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction) from 55 lean or obese individuals. Measurement of Erk activation and chemotactic activity induced by progranulin in vitro was performed using THP-1-based cell migration assays. RESULTS: Progranulin serum concentrations were significantly higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with NGT and in obese subjects with predominant visceral fat accumulation. Circulating progranulin significantly correlates with BMI, macrophage infiltration in omental adipose tissue, C-reactive protein (CRP) serum concentrations, A1C values, and total cholesterol. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed CRP levels as the strongest independent predictor of circulating progranulin. The extent of in vitro progranulin-mediated chemotaxis is similar to that of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 but independent of Galpha. Moreover, in type 2 diabetes, but not in IGT and NGT individuals, physical training for 4 weeks resulted in significantly decreased circulating progranulin levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated progranulin serum concentrations are associated with visceral obesity, elevated plasma glucose, and dyslipidemia. We identified progranulin as a novel marker of chronic inflammation in obesity and type 2 diabetes that closely reflects omental adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. Physical training significantly reduces elevated circulating progranulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects.We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay.MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053). MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04).We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression.ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in approximately 40 genes have been associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in genome-wide association studies. It is not known whether a similar genetic impact on the risk of prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glycemia [IFG]) exists. METHODS: In our cohort of 1442 non-diabetic subjects of European origin (normal glucose tolerance [NGT] n?=?1046, isolated IFG n?=?142, isolated IGT n?=?140, IFG+IGT n?=?114), an impact on glucose homeostasis has been shown for 9 SNPs in previous studies in this specific cohort. We analyzed these SNPs (within or in the vicinity of the genes TCF7L2, KCNJ11, HHEX, SLC30A8, WFS1, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, FTO, PPARG) for association with prediabetes. RESULTS: The genetic risk load was significantly associated with the risk for IGT (p?=?0.0006) in a model including gender, age, BMI and insulin sensitivity. To further evaluate potential confounding effects, we stratified the population on gender, BMI and insulin sensitivity. The association of the risk score with IGT was present in female participants (p?=?0.008), but not in male participants. The risk score was significantly associated with IGT (p?=?0.008) in subjects with a body mass index higher than 30 kg/m(2) but not in non-obese individuals. Furthermore, only in insulin resistant subjects a significant association between the genetic load and the risk for IGT (p?=?0.01) was found. DISCUSSION: We found that T2D genetic risk alleles cause an increased risk for IGT. This effect was not present in male, lean and insulin sensitive subjects, suggesting a protective role of beneficial environmental factors on the genetic risk.
Project description:Neuroadrenergic function in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients without neuropathy is poorly characterized. We therefore compared sympathetic nervous system activity at rest and during an oral glucose tolerance test in obese metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects classified as glucose intolerant (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]; n = 17) or treatment-naive T2D (n = 17). Untreated subjects, matched for age (mean 59 ± 1 year), sex, BMI (32.4 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)), and family history of diabetes were studied. We measured resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) by microneurography, whole-body norepinephrine kinetics by isotope dilution, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (steady-state glucose utilization adjusted for fat-free mass and steady-state insulin concentration [M/I]), and MetS components. T2D subjects had higher resting MSNA burst incidence (67 ± 4 versus 55 ± 3 bursts per 100 heartbeats; P = 0.05) and arterial norepinephrine levels (264 ± 33 versus 167 ± 16 pg/mL; P = 0.02), lower plasma norepinephrine clearance (by 17%; P = 0.03), and reduced neuronal reuptake compared with IGT subjects (by 46%; P = 0.04). Moreover, norepinephrine spillover responses to glucose ingestion were blunted in T2D subjects. The M/I value independently predicted whole-body norepinephrine spillover (r = -0.47; P = 0.008), whereas fasting insulin level related to neuronal norepinephrine reuptake (r = -0.35, P = 0.047). These findings demonstrate that progression to T2D is associated with increased central sympathetic drive, blunted sympathetic responsiveness, and altered norepinephrine disposition.
Project description:The liver plays a central role in the glucose and lipid metabolism. Studies performed on animal models have shown an important role of lipid accumulation in the induction of insulin resistance. We sought to explain whether in obese humans, the insulin resistance is associated with hepatic ceramide accumulation. The experiments were conducted on obese men and women. Each gender was divided into three groups: Normal glucose tolerance group (NGT), Impaired glucose tolerance group (IGT), and Type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D). Ceramide (Cer) content was analyzed with the use of LC/MS/MS. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), percentage body fat (FAT%), and body mass index (BMI) was also measured. Total hepatic ceramide was significantly higher in T2D females as compared to NGT females (p < 0.05), whereas in males, total ceramide was significantly higher in IGT and T2D as compared to NGT (p < 0.05). In both, men and women, the highest increase in T2D subjects, was observed in C16:0-Cer, C18:0:-Cer, C22:0-Cer, and C24:0-Cer (p < 0.05) as compared to NGT group. Interestingly, glucose (at 0' and at 120' in OGTT) and HbA1c positively correlated with the ceramide species that most increased in T2D patients (C16:0-Cer, C18:0-Cer, C22:0-Cer, and C24:0-Cer). In men glucose and HbA1c significantly correlated with only C22:0-Cer. This is one of the few studies comparing hepatic ceramide content in severely obese patients. We found that, ceramide content increased in diabetic patients, both in men and women, and the content of ceramide correlated with glycemic parameters. These data indicate ceramide contribution to the induction of hepatic insulin resistance.