Complete genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strain J18, isolated from kimchi.
ABSTRACT: Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides is one of the most predominant lactic acid bacterial groups during kimchi fermentation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides J18, which was isolated from kimchi. The genome of the strain consists of a 1,896,561-bp chromosome and five plasmids.
Project description:Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis using primer 239 (5' CTGAAGCGGA 3') was performed to characterize Leuconostoc sp. strains. All the strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (with the exception of two strains), two strains formerly identified as L. gelidum, and one strain of Leuconostoc showed a common band at about 1.1 kb. This DNA fragment was cloned and sequenced in order to verify its suitability for identifying L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strains.
Project description:The genomic and metabolic features of Leuconostoc (Leu) mesenteroides were investigated through pan-genomic and transcriptomic analyses. Relatedness analysis of 17 Leu. mesenteroides strains available in GenBank based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, average nucleotide identity, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization, molecular phenotype, and core-genome indicated that Leu. mesenteroides has been separated into different phylogenetic lineages. Pan-genome of Leu. mesenteroides strains, consisting of 999 genes in core-genome, 1,432 genes in accessory-genome, and 754 genes in unique genome, and their COG and KEGG analyses showed that Leu. mesenteroides harbors strain-specifically diverse metabolisms, probably representing high evolutionary genome changes. The reconstruction of fermentative metabolic pathways for Leu. mesenteroides strains showed that Leu. mesenteroides produces various metabolites such as lactate, ethanol, acetate, CO2, mannitol, diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol through an obligate heterolactic fermentation from various carbohydrates. Fermentative metabolic features of Leu. mesenteroides during kimchi fermentation were investigated through transcriptional analyses for the KEGG pathways and reconstructed metabolic pathways of Leu. mesenteroides using kimchi metatranscriptomic data. This was the first study to investigate the genomic and metabolic features of Leu. mesenteroides through pan-genomic and metatranscriptomic analyses, and may provide insights into its genomic and metabolic features and a better understanding of kimchi fermentations by Leu. mesenteroides.
Project description:Kimchi, a traditional food in the Korean culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, metagenomic approaches were used to monitor changes in bacterial populations, metabolic potential, and overall genetic features of the microbial community during the 29-day fermentation process. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from kimchi samples obtained periodically and was sequenced using a 454 GS FLX Titanium system, which yielded a total of 701,556 reads, with an average read length of 438 bp. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes from the metagenome indicated that the kimchi microbiome was dominated by members of three genera: Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella. Assignment of metagenomic sequences to SEED categories of the Metagenome Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (MG-RAST) server revealed a genetic profile characteristic of heterotrophic lactic acid fermentation of carbohydrates, which was supported by the detection of mannitol, lactate, acetate, and ethanol as fermentation products. When the metagenomic reads were mapped onto the database of completed genomes, the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 and Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 23K genomes were highly represented. These same two genera were confirmed to be important in kimchi fermentation when the majority of kimchi metagenomic sequences showed very high identity to Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus genes. Besides microbial genome sequences, a surprisingly large number of phage DNA sequences were identified from the cellular fractions, possibly indicating that a high proportion of cells were infected by bacteriophages during fermentation. Overall, these results provide insights into the kimchi microbial community and also shed light on fermentation processes carried out broadly by complex microbial communities.
Project description:Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides play a prominent role as functional starters and predominant isolates in the production of various types of antimicrobial compound-containing fermented foods, especially including kimchi. In the case of the bioactive cyclic dipeptides, their racemic diastereomers inhibitory to bacteria and fungi have been suggested to come solely from Lactobacillus spp. of these strains. We previously demonstrated the antifungal and antiviral activities of proline-based cyclic dipeptides, which were fractionated from culture filtrates of Lb. plantarum LBP-K10 originated from kimchi. However, cyclic dipeptides have not been identified in the filtrates, either from cultures or fermented subject matter, driven by Ln. mesenteroides, which have been widely used as starter cultures for kimchi fermentation. Most importantly, the experimental verification of cyclic dipeptide-content changes during kimchi fermentation have also not been elucidated. Herein, the antibacterial fractions, including cyclo(Leu-Pro) and cyclo(Phe-Pro), from Ln. mesenteroides LBP-K06 culture filtrates, which exhibited a typical chromatographic retention behavior (tR), were identified by using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on this finding, the proline-based cyclic dipeptides, including cyclo(Ser-Pro), cyclo(Tyr-Pro), and cyclo(Leu-Pro), were additionally identified in the filtrates only when fermenting Chinese cabbage produced with Ln. mesenteroides LBP-K06 starter cultures. The detection and isolation of cyclic dipeptides solely in controlled fermented cabbage were conducted under the control of fermentation-process parameters concomitantly with strong CDP selectivity by using a two-consecutive-purification strategy. Interestingly, cyclic dipeptides in the filtrates, when using this strain as a starter, increased with fermentation time. However, no cyclic dipeptides were observed in the filtrates of other fermented products, including other types of kimchi and fermented materials of plant and animal origin. This is the first report to conclusively demonstrate evidence for the existence of antimicrobial cyclic dipeptides produced by Ln. mesenteroides in kimchi. Through filtrates from lactic acid bacterial cultures and from fermented foods, we have also proved a method of combining chromatographic fractionation and mass spectrometry-based analysis for screening cyclic dipeptide profiling, which may allow evaluation of the fermented dairy foods from a new perspective.
Project description:Here, the genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis FM03 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides FM06, both isolated from cheese, are presented. FM03 and FM06 contain 7 and 3 plasmids, respectively, that carry genes encoding functions important for growth and survival in dairy fermentations.
Project description:A 2,665-bp cryptic plasmid, pTXL1, isolated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides Y110 was identified. This plasmid harbors a replicon localized on a 1,300-bp fragment. Two observations suggested that pTXL1 does not belong to rolling-circle replication (RCR)-type plasmids and most likely replicates via a theta mechanism. These hypotheses are supported by the observation that no detectable single-stranded intermediate was found for the replicon and that, unlike in RCR-type plasmids, the pTXL1 replicon sequence lacks an open reading frame encoding a replicase. The small-sized pTXL1 plasmid is stable and, according to its origin, can be considered in the "generally recognized as safe" category. Its ability to replicate in several lactic acid bacteria was exploited to develop a vector producing mesentericin Y105, a class II anti-Listeria bacteriocin. With this new vector, a recombinant industrial Leuconostoc cremoris strain able to produce mesentericin Y105 was constructed.
Project description:Leuconostoc kimchii strain C2 was isolated from fermented kimchi in Korea. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of Leuconostoc kimchii strain C2, consisting of a 1,877,174-bp chromosome with a G+C content of 37.9% and no plasmid and describe major findings from its annotation.
Project description:Leuconostoc mesenteroides DRP105 isolated from Chinese sauerkraut juice is an intensive producer of dextran. We report the complete genome sequence of Leu. mesenteroides DRP105. This strain contains a dextransucrase gene (dsr) involved in the production of dextran, possibly composed of glucose monomers. To explore the dextran synthesis mechanism of Leu. mesenteroides DRP105, we constructed a dsr-deficient strain derived from Leu. mesenteroides DRP105 using the Cre-loxP recombination system. The secondary structure prediction results showed that Leu. mesenteroides DRP105 dextransucrase (Dsr) was coded by dsr and contained 17.07% ?-helices, 29.55% ?-sheets, 10.18% ?-turns, and 43.20% random coils. We also analyzed the dextran yield, monosaccharide change, organic acid, and amino-acid content of Leu. mesenteroides DRP105 and Leu. mesenteroides DRP105-?dsr. The result showed that the lack of dsr changed the Leu. mesenteroides DRP105 sugar metabolism pathway, which in turn affected the production of metabolites.