Disassembly of simian virus 40 during passage through the endoplasmic reticulum and in the cytoplasm.
ABSTRACT: The nonenveloped polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) is taken up into cells by a caveola-mediated endocytic process that delivers the virus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Within the ER lumen, the capsid undergoes partial disassembly, which exposes its internal capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 to immunostaining with antibodies. We demonstrate here that the SV40 genome does not become accessible to detection while the virus is in the ER. Instead, the genome becomes accessible two distinct detection procedures, one using anti-bromodeoxyuridine antibodies and the other using a 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine-based chemical reaction, only after the emergence of partially disassembled SV40 particles in the cytoplasm. These cytoplasmic particles retain some of the SV40 capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3, in addition to the viral genome. Thus, SV40 particles undergo discrete disassembly steps during entry that are separated temporally and topologically. First, a partial disassembly of the particles occurs in the ER, which exposes internal capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. Then, in the cytoplasm, disassembly progresses further to also make the genomic DNA accessible to immune detection.
Project description:Interaction of simian virus 40 (SV40) major capsid protein Vp1 with the minor capsid proteins Vp2 and Vp3 is an integral aspect of the SV40 architecture. Two Vp3 sequence elements mediate Vp1 pentamer binding in vitro, Vp3 residues 155 to 190, or D1, and Vp3 residues 222 to 234, or D2. Of the two, D1 but not D2 was necessary and sufficient to direct the interaction with Vp1 in vivo. Rational mutagenesis of Vp3 residues (Phe157, Ile158, Pro164, Gly165, Gly166, Leu177, and Leu181) or Vp1 residues (Val243 and Leu245), based on a structural model of the SV40 Vp1 pentamer complexed with Vp3 D1, was carried out to disrupt the interaction between Vp1 and Vp3 and to study the consequences of these mutations for viral viability. Altering these residues to bulky, charged residues blocked the interaction in vitro. When these alterations were introduced into the viral genome, they reduced viral viability. Mutants with alterations in Vp1 Val243, Leu245, or both to glutamate were nearly nonviable, whereas those with Vp3 alterations reduced, but did not eliminate, viability. Our results defined the residues of Vp1 and the minor capsid proteins that are essential for both the interaction of the capsid proteins and viral viability in permissive cells.
Project description:The surface of polyomavirus virions is composed of pentameric knobs of the major capsid protein, VP1. In previously studied polyomavirus species, such as SV40, two interior capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, emerge from the virion to play important roles during the infectious entry process. Translation of the VP3 protein initiates at a highly conserved Met-Ala-Leu motif within the VP2 open reading frame. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) is a member of a divergent clade of polyomaviruses that lack the conserved VP3 N-terminal motif. Consistent with this observation, we show that VP3 is not detectable in MCV-infected cells, VP3 is not found in native MCV virions, and mutation of possible alternative VP3-initiating methionine codons did not significantly affect MCV infectivity in culture. In contrast, VP2 knockout resulted in a >100-fold decrease in native MCV infectivity, despite normal virion assembly, viral DNA packaging, and cell attachment. Although pseudovirus-based experiments confirmed that VP2 plays an essential role for infection of some cell lines, other cell lines were readily transduced by pseudovirions lacking VP2. In cell lines where VP2 was needed for efficient infectious entry, the presence of a conserved myristoyl modification on the N-terminus of VP2 was important for its function. The results show that a single minor capsid protein, VP2, facilitates a post-attachment stage of MCV infectious entry into some, but not all, cell types.
Project description:Simian virus 40 (SV40) capsid assembly occurs in the nucleus. All three capsid proteins bind DNA nonspecifically, raising the dilemma of how they attain specificity to the SV40 minichromosome in the presence of a large excess of genomic DNA. The SV40 packaging signal, ses, which is required for assembly, is composed of multiple DNA elements that bind transcription factor Sp1. Our previous studies showed that Sp1 participates in SV40 assembly and that it cooperates in DNA binding with VP2/3. We hypothesized that Sp1 recruits the capsid proteins to the viral minichromosome, conferring upon them specific DNA recognition. Here, we have tested the hypothesis. Computer analysis showed that the combination of six tandem GC boxes at ses is not found at cellular promoters and therefore is unique to SV40. Cooperativity in DNA binding between Sp1 and VP2/3 was not abolished at even a 1,000-fold excess of cellular DNA, providing strong support for the recruitment hypothesis. Sp1 also binds VP1 and cooperates with VP1 in DNA binding. VP1 pentamers (VP1(5)) avidly interact with VP2/3, utilizing the same VP2/3 domain as described for polyomavirus. We conclude that VP1(5)-VP2/3 building blocks are recruited by Sp1 to ses, where they form the nucleation center for capsid assembly. By this mechanism the virus ensures that capsid formation is initiated at a single site around its minichromosome. Sp1 enhances the formation of SV40 pseudovirions in vitro, providing additional support for the model. Analyses of Sp1 and VP3 deletion mutants showed that Sp1 and VP2/3 bind one another and cooperate in DNA binding through their DNA-binding domains, with additional contacts outside these domains. VP1 contacts Sp1 at residues outside the Sp1 DNA-binding domain. These and additional data allowed us to propose a molecular model for the VP1(5)-VP2/3-DNA-Sp1 complex.
Project description:Non-enveloped viruses penetrate host membranes to infect cells. A cell-based assay was used to probe the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-cytosol membrane transport of the non-enveloped SV40. We found that, upon ER arrival, SV40 is released into the lumen and undergoes sequential disulfide bond disruptions to reach the cytosol. However, despite these ER-dependent conformational changes, SV40 crosses the ER membrane as a large and intact particle consisting of the VP1 coat, the internal components VP2, VP3, and the genome. This large particle subsequently disassembles in the cytosol. Mutant virus and inhibitor studies demonstrate VP3 and likely the viral genome, as well as cellular proteasome, control ER-to-cytosol transport. Our results identify the sequence of events, as well as virus and host components, that regulate ER membrane penetration. They also suggest that the ER membrane supports passage of a large particle, potentially through either a sizeable protein-conducting channel or the lipid bilayer.
Project description:Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a nonenveloped DNA virus that traffics through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) en route to the nucleus, but the mechanisms of capsid disassembly and ER exit are poorly understood. We conducted an unbiased RNA interference screen to identify cellular genes required for SV40 infection. SV40 infection was specifically inhibited by up to 50-fold by knockdown of four different DNAJ molecular cochaperones or by inhibition of BiP, the Hsp70 partner of DNAJB11. These proteins were not required for the initiation of capsid disassembly, but knockdown markedly inhibited SV40 exit from the ER. In addition, BiP formed a complex with SV40 capsids in the ER in a DNAJB11-dependent fashion. These experiments identify five new cellular proteins required for SV40 infection and suggest that the binding of BiP to the capsid is required for ER exit. Further studies of these proteins will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of polyomavirus infection and ER function.
Project description:The human polyomavirus JC (JCV) replicates in the nuclei of infected cells. Here we report that JCV virions are efficiently assembled at nuclear domain 10 (ND10), which is also known as promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies. The major capsid protein VP1, the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3, and a regulatory protein called agnoprotein were coexpressed from a polycistronic expression vector in COS-7 cells. We found that VP1 accumulated to distinct subnuclear domains in the presence of VP2/VP3 and agnoprotein, while VP1 expressed alone was distributed both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Mutation analysis revealed that discrete intranuclear accumulation of VP1 requires the presence of either VP2 or VP3. However, VP2 or VP3 expressed in the absence of VP1 showed diffuse, not discrete, nuclear localization. The C-terminal sequence of VP2/VP3 contains two basic regions, GPNKKKRRK (cluster 1) and KRRSRSSRS (cluster 2). The deletion of cluster 2 abolished the accumulation of VP1 to distinct subnuclear domains. Deletion of the C-terminal 34 residues of VP2/VP3, including both cluster 1 and cluster 2, caused VP1 to localize both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Using immunoelectron microscopy of cells that coexpressed VP1, VP2/VP3, and agnoprotein, we detected the assembly of virus-like particles in discrete locations along the inner nuclear periphery. Both in oligodendrocytes of the human brain and in transfected cells, discrete nuclear domains for VP1 accumulation were identified as ND10, which contains the PML protein. These results indicate that major and minor capsid proteins cooperatively accumulate in ND10, where they are efficiently assembled into virions.
Project description:Direct insertion of amino acid sequences into the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) capsid open reading frame (cap ORF) is one strategy currently being developed for retargeting this prototypical gene therapy vector. While this approach has successfully resulted in the formation of AAV particles that have expanded or retargeted viral tropism, the inserted sequences have been relatively short, linear receptor binding ligands. Since many receptor-ligand interactions involve nonlinear, conformation-dependent binding domains, we investigated the insertion of full-length peptides into the AAV cap ORF. To minimize disruption of critical VP3 structural domains, we confined the insertions to residue 138 within the VP1-VP2 overlap, which has been shown to be on the surface of the particle following insertion of smaller epitopes. The insertion of coding sequences for the 8-kDa chemokine binding domain of rat fractalkine (CX3CL1), the 18-kDa human hormone leptin, and the 30-kDa green fluorescent protein (GFP) after residue 138 failed to lead to formation of particles due to the loss of VP3 expression. To test the ability to complement these insertions with the missing capsid proteins in trans, we designed a system for producing AAV vectors in which expression of one capsid protein is isolated and combined with the remaining two capsid proteins expressed separately. Such an approach allows for genetic modification of a specific capsid protein across its entire coding sequence leaving the remaining capsid proteins unaffected. An examination of particle formation from the individual components of the system revealed that genome-containing particles formed as long as the VP3 capsid protein was present and demonstrated that the VP2 capsid protein is nonessential for viral infectivity. Viable particles composed of all three capsid proteins were obtained from the capsid complementation groups regardless of which capsid proteins were supplied separately in trans. Significant overexpression of VP2 resulted in the formation of particles with altered capsid protein stoichiometry. The key finding was that by using this system we successfully obtained nearly wild-type levels of recombinant AAV-like particles with large ligands inserted after residue 138 in VP1 and VP2 or in VP2 exclusively. While insertions at residue 138 in VP1 significantly decreased infectivity, insertions at residue 138 that were exclusively in VP2 had a minimal effect on viral assembly or infectivity. Finally, insertion of GFP into VP1 and VP2 resulted in a particle whose trafficking could be temporally monitored by using confocal microscopy. Thus, we have demonstrated a method that can be used to insert large (up to 30-kDa) peptide ligands into the AAV particle. This system allows greater flexibility than current approaches in genetically manipulating the composition of the AAV particle and, in particular, may allow vector retargeting to alternative receptors requiring interaction with full-length conformation-dependent peptide ligands.
Project description:Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a nonenveloped virus with an icosahedral capsid composed of two proteins, VP2 and VP3, that derive from the processing of the polyprotein NH(2)-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH. The virion contains VP1, the viral polymerase, which is both free and covalently linked to the two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomic segments. In this study, the virus assembly process was studied further with the baculovirus expression system. While expression of the wild-type polyprotein was not found to be self-sufficient to give rise to virus-like particles (VLPs), deletion or replacement of the five C-terminal residues of VP3 was observed to promote capsid assembly. Indeed, the single deletion of the C-terminal glutamic acid was sufficient to induce VLP formation. Moreover, fusion of various peptides or small proteins (a green fluorescent protein or a truncated form of ovalbumin) at the C terminus of VP3 also promoted capsid assembly, suggesting that assembly required screening of the negative charges at the C terminus of VP3. The fused polypeptides mimicked the effect of VP1, which interacts with VP3 to promote VLP assembly. The C-terminal segment of VP3 was found to contain two functional domains. While the very last five residues of VP3 mainly controlled both assembly and capsid architecture, the five preceding residues constituted the VP1 (and possibly the pVP2/VP2) binding domain. Finally, we showed that capsid formation is associated with VP2 maturation, demonstrating that the protease VP4 is involved in the virus assembly process.
Project description:Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) can encode the three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3, downstream of the agnoprotein in the late region. JCV virions are identified in the nucleus of infected cells. In this study, we have elucidated unique features of JCV capsid formation by using a eukaryotic expression system. Structures of JCV polycistronic late RNAs (M1 to M4 and possibly M5 and M6) generated by alternative splicing were determined. VP1 would be synthesized from M2 RNA, and VP2 and VP3 would be synthesized from M1 RNA. The presence of the open reading frame of the agnoprotein or the leader sequence (nucleotides 275 to 409) can decrease the expression level of VP1. VP1 was efficiently transported to the nucleus in the presence of VP2 and VP3 but distributed both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus in their absence. Mutation analysis indicated that inefficiency in nuclear transport of VP1 is due to the unique structure in the N-terminal sequence, KRKGERK. Within the nucleus, VP1 was localized discretely and identified as speckles in the presence of VP2 and VP3 but distributed diffusely in their absence. These results suggest that VP1 was efficiently transported to the nucleus and localized in the discrete subnuclear regions, possibly with VP2 and VP3. By electron microscopy, recombinant virus particles were identified in the nucleus, and their intranuclear distribution was consistent with distribution of speckles. This system provides a useful model with which to understand JCV capsid formation and the structures and functions of the JCV capsid proteins.
Project description:The calcium bridge between the pentamers of polyoma viruses maintains capsid metastability. It has been shown that viral infection is profoundly inhibited by the substitution of lysine for glutamate in one calcium-binding residue of the SV40 capsid protein, VP1. However, it is unclear how the calcium bridge affects SV40 infectivity. In this in vitro study, we analyzed the influence of host cell components on SV40 capsid stability. We used an SV40 mutant capsid (E330K) in which lysine had been substituted for glutamate 330 in protein VP1. The mutant capsid retained the ability to interact with the SV40 cellular receptor GM1, and the internalized mutant capsid accumulated in caveolin-1-mediated endocytic vesicles and was then translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) region. However, when placed in ER-rich microsome, the mutant capsid retained its spherical structure in contrast to the wild type, which disassembled. Structural analysis of the mutant capsid with cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction revealed altered pentamer coordination, possibly as a result of electrostatic interaction, although its overall structure resembled that of the wild type. These results indicate that the calcium ion serves as a trigger at the pentamer interface, which switches on capsid disassembly, and that the failure of the E330K mutant capsid to disassemble is attributable to an inadequate triggering system. Our data also indicate that calcium depletion-induced SV40 capsid disassembly may occur in the ER region and that this is essential for successful SV40 infection.